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About This Book 

The lyrically beautiful rituals of the Old Religion, known as Witchcraft or "Wicca", affect us 
in many ways. They speak to our present needs, help us to transform the future, and enable us to 
experience a special link with the Pagan past. Consider this: 

"We Wiccans give thanks to the Mighty Ones 

For the richness and goodness of life. 

As there must be rain with the sun, 

To make all things good, 

So must we suffer pain with our joy, 

To know all things. 

Our love is ever with the Gods, 

For though we know not their thoughts, 

Yet do we know their hearts — 

That all is for our good." 

The above is taken from Ray Buckland's Summer Solstice rite . . . just one of the very 
meaningful offerings in his newest volume. 

Ray's workbook takes a wholistic approach to the vast body of knowledge that Witches work 
with, so that information on religion and ritual practices is interwoven with instructions on such 
diverse topics as healing, herbal lore, dream interpretation, sex magick, the power of colors, runic 
alphabets, magickal tools, meditation, divination, amulets and talismans, magickal properties of 
gemstones, candle magick, and so on. 

Raymond Buckland is, to my mind, the one person most responsible for getting the Craft so 
widely spread throughout this country. As long as I've known him, Ray has taken the "long view" 
towards the Old Religion; it has always been his dream to build a legacy of Wiccan lore for 
the future. 

Buckland has long been an acknowledged master teacher, as well as a superb researcher of 
rituals and spells. He has been training students for over twenty years, ever since he came to this 
country to pass on the arcane teachings into which he was initiated before leaving England. His 
students (myself among them) have always enjoyed and respected his easy, personal, but 
straightforward and to-the-point style. 

True to his usual excellent form, Ray's workbook is arranged by "lessons" rather than by 
chapters. The lessons here are designed so that the reader can acquire knowledge and experience 
equal to what Witches in many covens are taught as their Priests and Priestesses bring them up 
through the traditional three degrees of initiation. Buckland says, "By the time you have finished 
this training . . . you will be the equivalent of the Third Degree . . ." 

I feel that his book of lessons may well become the recognized standard by which those of 
the Wicca may judge each other and be judged themselves. Many of us have long commented 
that in various covens and different branches of the Craft the level of background training 
required for advanced initiations has varied radically . . . from very good (rarely) to satisfactory 
(sometimes) to atrocious (all too often) . Ray's comprehensive training volume should provide 
the long-awaited basic curriculum that all Witches should be expected to know and be able 
to practice. 

In sharing this material, the author reflects a new era of openness. In the past, Craft secrets of 
this nature have been highly guarded, and publication of them would have been unthinkable just 
a few years ago. 

The lessons in this workbook are positive and ethical. Ray emphasizes that Witchcraft 
entails "acceptance of personal and social responsibility," and that "it is acknowledgement of a 
wholistic universe and a means towards a raising of consciousness". 

Of course, an ideal workbook should also be a sturdy handbook that provides good, practical 
information that is easily readable. For anyone looking for a solid education in Witchcraft, 
Paganism, and magick, this book will prove to be a true treasure. In fact, this book is so jam- 
packed with information that it may well become the definitive work on this subject! This is just 
the volume from which to build a basis of solid, valid, most important knowledge, and to use as a 
foundation from any Craft library. I'd recommend that all who are interested in the Old Religion 
get this book, study it . . . and treasure it! 

—Ed Fitch 
Magical Rites from the Crystal Well 

About the Author 

Raymond Buckland came to the United States from England in 1962. He has been actively involved in 
the study of the occult for over thirty-five years, and an initiate of the Old Religion for twenty-five. In the 
past fifteen years he has had more than a dozen books published and has written numerous newspaper 
and magazine articles. 

Considered an authority on witchcraft and the occult, Ray served as technical advisor for the Orson 
Welles movie Necromancy and also worked as an advisor for a stage production of Macbeth with William 
Friedkin (director of The Exorcist). He has lectured at universities across the country including Perm State 
University, University of Western Illinois, University of North Dakota, New York State University and 
City College San Diego. He has been written about in such newspapers and magazines as The New York 
Times, New York Daily (and Sunday) News, National Observer, Look Magazine, Cosmopolitan, True, and many 

Ray has appeared on numerous radio and television talk programs including The Dick Cavett Show, Tom 
Snyder's Tomorrow Show , Not for Women Only (with Barbara Walters) and the Virginia Graham Show. He 
has been seen on BBC-TV England, RAI-TV Italy, and CBC-TV Canada. He has taught courses at New 
York State University, Hofstra University and New Hampshire Technical College. He is listed in a num- 
ber of reference works including Contemporary Authors, Who's Who in America, Men of Achievement and 
International Authors and Writers' Who's Who. 

Ray Buckland comes from a family of English Gypsies and is actively involved in researching Romany 
roots. Today he lives with his wife Tara in Millersburg, Ohio. 

To Write to the Author 

If you wish to contact the author or would like more information about this book, please write to the 
author in care of Llewellyn Worldwide, and we will forward your request. Both the author and publisher 
appreciate hearing from you and learning of your enjoyment of this book and how it has helped you. 
Llewellyn Worldwide cannot guarantee that every letter written to the author can be answered, but all 
will be forwarded. Please write to: 

Ray Buckland 

c/o Llewellyn Worldwide 

P.O. Box 64383, Dept. L050-8, St. Paul, MN 55164-0383, U.S.A. 

Please enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope for reply, or $1.00 to cover costs. 
If outside the U.S.A., enclose international postal reply coupon. 

Free Catalog from Llewellyn 

For more than 90 years Llewellyn has brought its readers knowledge in the fields of metaphysics and 
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About Llewellyn's Practical Magick Series 

To some people, the idea that "Magick" is practical comes as a suprise. 

It shouldn't. The entire basis for Magick is to exercise influence over one's environment. 
While Magick is also, and properly so, concerned with spiritual growth and psychological 
transformation, even the spiritual life must rest firmly on material foundations. 

The material world and the psychic are intertwined, and it is this very fact that establishes 
the Magickal Link: that the psychic can as easily influence the material as vice versa. 

Magick can, and should, be used in one's daily life for better living! Each of us has been 
given Mind and Body, and surely we are under Spiritual obligation to make full usage of 
these wonderful gifts. Mind and Body work together, and Magick is simply the extension of 
this interaction into dimensions beyond the limits normally conceived. That's why we 
commonly talk of the "supernormal" in connection with domain of Magick. 

The Body is alive, and all Life is an expression of the Divine. There is God-power in the 
Body and in the Earth, just as there is in Mind and Spirit. With Love and Will, we use 
Mind to link these aspects of Divinity together to bring about change. 

With Magick we increase the flow of Divinity in our lives and in the world around us. We 
add to the beauty of it all — for to work Magick we must work in harmony with the Laws 
of Nature and of the Psyche. Magick is the flowering of the Human Potential. 

Practical Magick is concerned with the Craft of Living well and in harmony with Nature, 
and with the Magick of the Earth, in the things of the Earth, in the seasons and cycles and 
in the things we make with hand and Mind. 

Also by Raymond Buckland 

Witchcraft .. .the Religion 

A Pocket Guide to the Supernatural 

Witchcraft Ancient and Modern 

Practical Candleburning Rituals 

Witchcraft from the Inside 

Here Is the Occult 

The Tree: Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft 

Anatomy of the Occult 

The Magic of Chant-o-Matics 

Practical Color Magick 

Secrets of Gypsy Fortunetelling 

Buckland' s Gypsy Fortunetelling Deck 

Secrets of Gypsy Dream Reading 

Secrets of Gypsy Love Magic 

Scottish Witchcraft 

Doors to Other Worlds 

Ray Buckland's Magic Cauldron 

Truth About Spirit Communication 

Advanced Candle Magic 


The Committee 
Cardinal's Sin 

New Worlds Kit 

Buckland's Complete Gypsy Fortune Teller 


Witchcraft: Yesterday and Today 

With Hereward Carrington 

Amazing Secrets of the Psychic World 

With Kathleen Binger 

The Book of African Divination 

Under the pseudonym "Tony Earll" 

Mu Revealed 

Llewellyn's Practical Magick Series 



Raymond Buckland 


Llewellyn Publications 

St. Paul, Minnesota 55164-0383, U.S.A. 

Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft. Copyright © 1986 by Raymond Buckland. All rights re; 
Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any i 
whatsoever without written permission from Llewellyn Publications, except in the case of brief 
tions embodied in critical articles and reviews. 

Twenty-third Printing, 1997 

Book design by Terry Buske 
Cover design by Terry Buske 
Typesetting by Jack Adair 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
Buckland, Raymond. 

Buckland's complete book of witchcraft. 

(Llewellyn's practical magick series) 

1. Witchcraft. I. Title. II. Title: Complete book of witchcraft. 
III. Series. 

BF1566.B76 1986 299 85-45280 

ISBN 0-87542-050-8 

Llewellyn Publications 

A Division of Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd. 

P.O. Box 64383, St. Paul, MN 55164-0383 

For . . . 


and in memory of Scire and Olwen 


My thanks to 

My wonderful wife, for her support, 
Ed Fitch, for his cheiromantic assistance, 
"Mike" F. Shoemaker, for material on Dreams and the Intui- 
tive Process, 

Carl L. Weschcke, for his continued encouragement, 
Aidan Breac, for all Pecti-Wita details.* 

* Aidan Breac is a Scottish Highlander who was born and raised in a 
hereditary Craft family on Priest Island, off the west coast of Scotland. He is 
descended from the Carnonacae tribe of Picts who lived in the northwest of 
what is now Ross and Cromarty County. Aidan Breac is believed to be in his 
nineties, (there are no official records of his birth) and for the past thirty 
years has devoted his time to teaching the Pecti-Wita tradition (a Solitary 
one) to students hardy enough to make the journey to the rugged northwest 
of Scotland and share the rigors of his retreat at Castle Carnonacae. 





The History and Philosophy of Witchcraft 

History and Development. Persecutions. Re- 
emergence. The Philosophy of Witchcraft. Prin- 
ciples of Wiccan Belief. The Power Within. Spells 
and Charms. 


Marriage, Birth, Death and Channeling 

Handfasting Rite; Handparting Rite; Birth Rite; 
Crossing the Bridge. The Intuitive Process-Categories 
of Channeling; Clearing the Channel; External 
Focal Points; Interpreting Channeled Information. 
The Aura. Sensory Deprivation. The Witches' 



Deities; The God and Goddess of Witchcraft; Rein- 
carnation; Retribution; Between Lives. Your Tem- 
ple. Your Altar and its Furniture. Magick — an 


Tools, Clothing and Names 

Working Tools; Knife; Marking in Metal; Sword; 
Other Tools; Dress; Jewelry; Horned Helmet. In- 
scriptions. Your Witch Name. 


Getting Started 

Rites of Passage. Circles. Self-Dedication. Coven 


Covens and Rituals 

Covens and Degrees. Hierarchy and Priesthood. 
Covensteads and Covendoms. The Book of Rituals. 
Consecration of Tools. RITUALS — Erecting the 
Temple; Clearing the Temple; Esbat Rite; Full Moon 
Rite; New/Dark Moon Rite; Cakes and Ale. 


Samhain; Beltane; Imboic; Lughnasadh. 




Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats 

Meditation — How Meditation Works; Technique; 
Posture; Area; Time of Day: Method. Dreams — The 
Source; Dream Interpretation and Symbology; 
Remembering Dreams; Personal Symbols; The 
Repetitive Dream; Group Dreams; Dreams vs 
Out-of-Body Experiences. Rituals — Spring Equinox; 
Summer Solstice; Autumnal Equinox; Winter 



Tarot; Scrying; Saxon Wands; Cheiromancy; Tea- 
leaf Reading; Numerology; Astrology; Fire Scrying. 



Herbal Lore; Getting the Most Out of Herbs; Sim- 
ples, Syrups, Salves, Poultices and Powders; Herb 
Simples; Definition of Medical Actions; Herbs in 
Materia Medica. Botanicals — Alteratives, Anthel- 
mintics, Astringents, Bitter Tonics, Calmatives, 
Carminatives and Aromatics, Cathartics, Demul- 
cents, Diaphoretics, Diuretics, Emollients, Expec- 
torants, Nervines, Nerve Stimulants, Refrigerants, 
Sedatives, Stimulants. Vitamins in Herbs. The Art 
of Prescribing Medicine. Some Simple Treatments — 
Medicinal Drinks, Syrups, Decoctions, Teas, Mix- 
tures, Ointments. Witches' Pharmacopoeia. 



Physical Body. Circle. Cone of Power. Dancing 
and Chanting. Feeling. Drawing Down Power. 
Releasing the Power. Timing. Cord Magick. Candle 
Magick. Love Magick. Sex Magick. Binding Spell. 
Protection. Form of Ritual. 


The Power of the Written Word 

Runes. Ogham Bethluisnion. Egyptian Hierogly- 
phics. Theban. Passing the River. Angelic. Malachim. 
Pictish. Talismans and Amulets. Power Raising 
Dance. General Dancing. Music and Song. Sabbat 
Games. Wine and Ale. Bread and Cakes. 



The Aura, Auric Healing; Pranic Healing; Absent 
Healing; Color Healing. Gem Therapy. Poppets. 
Meditation and Biofeedback. Animals and Plants. 
Positive Thinking. 


Getting Set Up 

Rituals. The Construction of Ritual. Guardians of 
the Watchtowers. Forming a Coven. Your Coven. 
Establishing a Church. Craft Greetings. Clothing 
Accessories — Cloak; Sandals. Young Wiccans. Break- 
ing the News. 


Solitary Witches 

Rituals — Erecting the Temple; Esbat; Cakes and 
Ale; Clearing the Temple. Meditation to the Ele- 


Traditions and Denominations of Witchcraft 

Alexandrian Wicca; American Celtic Wicca; 
Australian Wicca; Church of Y Tylwyth Teg; Church 
of the Crescent Moon; Circle Wicca; Coven of the 
Forest, Far and Forever; Deboran Wicca; Dianic 
Feminist Wicce; Frosts' Wicca; Gardnerian Wica; 
Georgian Wicca; Maidenhill Wicca; Norther Way; 
Nova Wicca; Pecti-Wita; Seax-Wica. 

Examination Questions 


Answers to Examination Questions 

Music and Chants 

Recommended Reading List 








Witchcraft is not merely legendary; it was, and is, real. It is not extinct; it is alive and 
prospering. Since the last laws against Witchcraft were repealed (as recently as the 
1950s), Witches have been able to come out into the open and show themselves for what 
they are. 

And what are they? They are intelligent, community-conscious, thoughtful men 
and women of TODAY. Witchcraft is not a step backwards; a retreat into a more 
superstition-filled time. Far from it. It is a step forward. Witchcraft is a religion far more 
relevant to the times than the vast majority of the established churches. It is the acceptance 
of personal and social responsibility. It is acknowledgement of a holistic universe and a 
means towards a raising of consciousness. Equal rights; feminism; ecology; attunement; 
brotherly/sisterly love; planetary care — these are all part and parcel of Witchcraft, the 
old yet new religion. 

The above is certainly not what the average person thinks of in relation to "Witch- 
craft". No; the misconceptions are deeply ingrained, from centuries of propaganda. 
How and why these misconceptions came about will be examined later. 

With the spreading news of Witchcraft — what it is; its relevance in the world 
today — comes "The Seeker". If there is this alternative to the conventional religions, this 
modern, forward-looking approach to life known as "Witchcraft", then how does one 
become a part of it? There, for many, is the snag. General information on the Old 
Religion— valid information, from the Witches themselves— is available, but entry into 
the order is not. The vast majority of covens (groups of Witches) are still wary enough 
that they do not throw open their doors and welcome all and sundry. They are happy to 
straighten the misconceptions, but they do not proselytize. This leads many would-be 
Witches, out of sheer frustration, to simply declare themselves "Witches" and start their 
own practices. In doing so they draw on any, and oftimes all, available sources. The danger 
here is that they do not know what is valid and relevant and what is not. Unfortunately 
there are now many such covens, operating with large chunks of Ceremonial Magick 
happily mixed-in with smatterings of Satanism and odds and ends of Voodoo together 
with Amerindian lore. Witchcraft is a very "loose" religion, in terms of ritual practices, 
but it does have certain basic tenets and there are established ritual patterns to be 
adhered to. 

The purpose of this book is to give this necessary information. With it, you — as an 
individual or (with like-minded friends) as a group— can then either do your own thing, 
happy in the knowledge that it is at least as valid as any of the more established 
traditions, or you can, on locating a coven, become an initiated participant with training 
and knowledge as good as (if not better than) any of the other coven members. 

In Christianity there are many denominations (e.g. Episcopalian, Roman Catholic, 
Baptist, Methodist). So it is in Witchcraft. Just as there is no one religion that is right for 
all people, there is no one denomination of Witchcraft that is right for all Witches. And 
that is as it should be. We are all different. Our backgrounds— both ethnic and social— vary 
greatly. It has often been said that there are many paths, but they all lead to the same center. 
With so many paths, then, you are able to find the right one for YOU; the one path you 
can travel comfortably and securely. 

To be of the most use to you, the information I give in this book— the training you 
will get— is non-denominational. I take examples from different traditions (e.g. Gardnerian, 
Saxon, Alexandrian, Scottish), giving you both general information and specifics. This is 

drawn from my more than twenty years active participation in the Craft, and nearly 
twice that in the occult generally. By the time you have finished this training (presuming 
that you take it seriously), you will be the equivalent of the Third Degree, in Gardnerian 
or similar. From there you can then, as I have said, go on to other perhaps more specific 
training if you wish, in the sense of being tailored to a particular tradition. But from this 
present work you can get all of the basics and build from an excellent foundation. 

This is a workbook ... it is something you must work through. Consequently, 
rather than Chapters, I have divided it into Lessons. At the end of each lesson you will find 
workbook exercises. At the end of the book in Appendix B you will find examination 
questions for each lesson. Read through each lesson. Read and absorb. Read through 
two or three times if necessary. Go back and pay special attention to anything you find 
was not easily absorbed. When you are finally happy with what you have learned, 
answer the examination questions. Answer in your own words, without referring back 
to the text. In this way you can see what has sunk in and what has not. Do not go on to the 
next lesson until you are completely happy with the previous one. Answers to the 
questions are to be found in Appendix C. 

The book has been carefully put together in specific order. Don't try to jump ahead 
to "more exciting" lessons . . . you may well find that you don't have the necessary 
basics for them! When you have carefully worked through the entire book, then will be 
the time to go back and dip into it as a refresher. 

This book is based on the very successful Seax-Wica Seminary course that was 
enjoyed by over a thousand students worldwide. From that experience I know that the 
formula works, and works well. I would hasten to add that while based on that course, this 
present work is not the same course. The Seax-Wica course was designed specifically for 
the Saxon tradition; this is not. There is some duplication of the more general Craft 
material, yes, but not enough that a prior student of the Seminary course could not also 
enjoy this book. 

So, if you are a serious student of Witchcraft, or Wicca, either as a would-be practitioner 
or as one purely academically interested, then I welcome you. I hope you get as much 
out of this material as did my previous students. 

Bright Blessings 

Raymond Buckland 
San Diego, California 


Before really getting into what Witchcraft is, perhaps we should take a 
look back at what it was — the history of it. Witches should be aware of 
their roots; aware of how and why the persecutions came about, for 
instance, and where and when the re-emergence took place. There is a 
great deal to be learned from the past. It's true that much of history can 
seem dry and boring to many of us, but that is far from so with the history 
of Witchcraft. It is very much alive and filled with excitement. 

There have been many books written on the history of Witchcraft. 
The vast majority have suffered from bias — as will be explained shortly — 
but a few of the more recently published ones have told the story 
accurately ... or as accurately as we can determine. The late Dr. Margaret 
Murray traced back and saw Witchcraft's origins in Palaeolithic times; 
25,000 years ago. She saw it as a more or less unbroken line through to the 
present, and as a fully organized religion throughout western Europe for 
centuries before Christianity. Recently scholars have disputed much of 
what Murray said. She did, however, present some tangible evidence 
and much thought-provoking material. As a probable development of 
religio-magick (rather than Witchcraft, per se), her theories are still 

Twenty-five thousand years ago Palaeolithic Wo/Man depended upon 
hunting to survive. Only by success in the hunt could there be food to 
eat, skins for warmth and shelter, bones to fashion into tools and weapons. 
In those days Wo/Man believed in a multitude of gods. Nature was 
overwhelming. Out of awe and respect for the gusting wind, the violent 
lightning, the rushing stream, Wo/Man ascribed to each a spirit; made 
each a deity ... a God. This is what we call Animism. A god controlled 
that wind. A god controlled the sky. A god controlled the waters. But 
most of all, a god controlled the all-important hunt ... a God of Hunting. 
Most of the animals hunted were horned so Wo/Man pictured the 
God of Hunting also as being horned. It was at this time that magick 
became mixed in with these first faltering steps of religion. The 
earliest form of magick was probably of the sympathetic variety. Similar 
things, it was thought, have similar effects: like attracts like. If a life-size, 
clay model of a bison was made, then attacked and "killed" . . . then a 
hunt of the real bison should also end in a kill. Religio-magickal ritual 


2 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

was born when one of the cavemen threw on a skin and antlered mask 
and played the part of the Hunting God, directing the attack. There are, 
still in existence, cave paintings of such rituals, together with the spear- 
stabbed clay models of bison and bear. 

It is interesting to see how this form of sympathetic magick survived 
right through to relatively modern times. The Penobscot Indians, for 
example, less than a hundred years ago, wore deer masks and horns 
when performing rituals for the same purpose. The Mandan Indians' Buf- 
falo Dance is another example. 

Along with this God of Hunting there was a Goddess, though which 
came first (or whether they evolved together) we do not know, and it is 
immaterial. If there were to be animals to hunt, there had to be fertility of 
those animals. If the tribe was to continue (and there was a high mor- 
tality rate in those days) then there had to be fertility of Wo/Man. Again 
sympathetic magick played a part. Clay models were made of the animals 
mating, and in an accompanying ritual the members of the tribe would 

There are many carved and modeled representations of the Fertility 
Goddess extant. Generally known as "Venus" figurines, the Venus of 
Willendorf is one of the best known. Other examples include the Venus 
of Laussel and the Venuses of Sireuil and of Lespugne. All are similar in 
that the feminine attributes of these figures are greatly over-emphasized. 
They have heavy, pendulous breasts, large buttocks, an oftimes swollen 
belly — as though pregnant — and exaggerated genitalia. There is invari- 
ably complete lack of identity with the rest of the body. The face is not 
defined and the arms and legs, if there at all, are barely suggested. The 
reason is that Wo/Man was solely concerned with the fertility aspect. 
Woman was the bearer and nurser of the young. The Goddess was her 
representative as the Great Provider and Comforter; Mother Nature or 
Mother Earth. 

With the development of agriculture there was a further elevating 
of the Goddess. She now watched over the fertility of the crops as well as 
of tribe and of animal. The year, then, fell naturally into two halves. In the 
summer food could be grown, and so the Goddess predominated; in the 
winter Wo/Man had to revert to hunting, and so the God predominated. 
The other deities (of wind, thunder, lightning, etc.) gradually fell into the 
background, as of secondary importance. 

As Wo/Man developed, so did the religion — for that is what it had 
become, slowly and naturally. Wo/Man spread across Europe, taking 
the gods along. As different countries developed, so the God and God- 
dess acquired different names (though not always totally different; 
sometimes simply variations on the same name), yet they were essen- 
tially the same deities. This is well illustrated in Britain where, in the 
south of England, is found Cernunnos (literally "The Horned One"). 
To the north the same god is known as Cerne; a shortened form. And in 
still another area the name has become Heme. 

By now Wo/Man had learned not only to grow food but also to store 
it for the winter. So hunting became less important. The Horned God 
came now to be looked upon more as a God of Nature generally, and a 
God of Death and what lies after. The Goddess was still of Fertility and 

Lesson One: The History and Philosophy of Witchcraft I 3 

also of Rebirth, for Wo/Man had developed a belief in a life after death. 
This is evidenced from the burial customs of the period. The Gravettians 
(22,000-18,000 BCE) were innovators here. They would bury their 
deceased with full clothing and ornaments and would sprinkle them 
with red ochre (haematite, or iron peroxide), to give back the appearance 
of life. Frequently family members would be buried beneath the hearth 
so that they might remain close to the family. A man would be buried 
with his weapons; perhaps even his dog — all that he might need in 
the afterlife. 

It is not difficult to see how a belief in a life after death came about. 
At the root of it were dreams. To quote from Witchcraft From the Inside 
(Buckland, Llewellyn Publications, 1975): 

"When Man slept he was, to his family and friends, like one of the dead. 
True, in sleep he occasionally moved and he breathed, but otherwise he was 
lifeless. Yet when he awoke he could tell of having been out hunting in the 
forest. He could tell of having met and talked with friends who really were dead. 
The others, to whom he spoke, could believe him for they too had experienced 
such dreams. They knew he had not actually set foot outside the cave but at the 
same time they knew he was not lying. It seemed that the world of sleep was as 
the material world. There were trees and mountains, animals and people. Even 
the dead were there, seemingly unchanged many years after death. In this other 
world, then, Man must need the same things he needed in this world." 

With the development of different rituals— for fertility, for success 
in the hunt, for seasonal needs— there necessarily developed a priest- 
hood: a select few more able to bring results when directing the rituals. 
In some areas of Europe (though probably not as generally widespread 
as Murray indicated) these ritual leaders, or priests and priestesses, 
became known as the Wicca*— the "Wise Ones". In fact by the time of the 
Anglo-Saxon kings in England, the king would never think of acting on 
any important matter without consulting the Witan; the Council of Wise 
Ones. And indeed the Wicca did have to be wise. They not only led the 
religious rites but also had to have knowledge of herbal lore, magick and 
divination; they had to be doctor, lawyer, magician, priest. To the people 
the Wicca were plenipotentiaries between them and the gods. But, at the 
great festivals, they almost became like gods themselves. 

With the coming of Christianity there was not the immediate mass- 
conversion that is often suggested. Christianity was a man-made religion. 
It had not evolved gradually and naturally over thousands of years, as we 
have seen that the Old Religion did. Whole countries were classed as 
Christian when in actuality it was only the rulers who had adopted the 
new religion, and often only superficially at that. Throughout Europe 
generally the Old Religion, in its many and varied forms, was still promi- 
nent for the first thousand years of Christianity. 

An attempt at mass conversion was made by Pope Gregory the 
Great. He thought that one way to get the people to attend the new 
Christian churches was to have them built on the sites of the older 
temples, where the people were accustomed to gathering together to 
worship. He instructed his bishops to smash any "idols" and to sprinkle 
the temples with holy water and rededicate them. To a large extent 

*Wicca (m); Wicce (f). Also sometimes spelled Viica or Wito. 

4 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Gregory was successful. Yet the people were not quite as gullible as he 
thought. When the first Christian churches were being constructed, the 
only artisans available to build them were from among the pagans them- 
selves. In decorating the churches these stonemasons and woodcarvers 
very cleverly incorporated figures of their own deities. In this way, even 
if they were forced to attend the churches the people could still worship 
their own gods there. 

There are many of these figures still in existence today. The God- 
dess is usually depicted as very much a fertility deity, with legs spread 
wide and with greatly enlarged genitalia. Such figures are usually referred 
to as Shiela-na-gigs. The God is shown as a horned head surrounded by 
foliage; known as a "foliate mask", and also sometimes referred to as 
"Jack of the Green" or "Robin o' the Woods". Incidentally, these carvings 
of the old God should not be confused with gargoyles. The latter are the 
hideous faces and figures carved on the four corners of church towers to 
frighten away demons. 

In those early days, when Christianity was slowly growing in 
strength, the Old Religion — the Wiccans and other pagans — was one of 
its rivals. It is only natural to want to get rid of a rival and the Church 
pulled no punches to do just that. It has frequently been said that the 
gods of an old religion become the devils of a new. This was certainly the 
case here. The God of the Old Religion was a horned god. So, apparently, 
was the Christian's Devil. Obviously then, reasoned the Church, the 
pagans were Devil worshippers! This type of reasoning is used by the 
Church even today. Missionaries were particularly prone to label all 
primitive tribes upon whom they stumbled as devil-worshippers, just 
because the tribe worshipped a god or gods other than the Christian one. 
It would not matter that the people were good, happy, often morally and 
ethically better living than the vast majority of Christians . . . they had to 
be converted! 

The charge of Devil-worship, so often leveled at Witches, is ridiculous. 
The Devil is a purely Christian invention; there being no mention of 
him, as such, before the New Testament. In fact it is interesting to note 
that the whole concept of evil associated with the Devil is due to an error 
in translation. The original Old Testament Hebrew Ha-sa tan and the New 
Testament Greek diabolos simply mean "opponent" or "adversary". It 
should be remembered that the idea of dividing the Supreme Power into 
two — good and evil — is the idea of an advanced and complex civiliza- 
tion. The Old Gods, through their gradual development, were very 
much "human" in that they would have their good side and their bad 
side. It was the idea of an all-good, all-loving deity which necessitated an 
antagonist. In simple language, you can only have the color white if there 
is an opposite color, black, to which you can compare it. This view of an 
all-good god was developed by Zoroaster (Zarathustra), in Persia in the 
seventh century BCE. The idea later spread westward and was picked up 
in Mithraism and, later, in Christianity. 

As Christianity gradually grew in strength, so the Old Religion was 
slowly pushed back. Back until, about the time of the Reformation, it only 
existed in the outlying country districts. Non-Christians at that time 
became known as Pagans and Heathens. "Pagan" comes from the Latin 

There were other more definite adoptions from 
the old religions, especially in the early forma- 
tive years of Christianity. The idea of the 
Trinity, for instance, was taken from the old 
Egyptian triad. Osiris, Isis andHorus became 
God, Mary and Jesus. December 25th, as the 
birthdate of Jesus, was borrowed from Mithra- 
ism — which also believed in a second coming 
and indulged in the 'Eating of God'. In many 
religions of the ancient world were found 
immaculate conceptions and sacrifice of the 
god for the salvation of the people. 

Witchcraft Ancient and Modern 
Raymond Buckland, HC Publications, NY 


Some of the instruments of torture used in -the 
Bamberg witch trials 

Lesson One: The History and Philosophy of Witchcraft / 5 

Pagani and simply means "people who live in the country". The word 
"Heathen" means "one who dwells on the heath". So the terms were 
appropriate for non-Christians at that time, but they bore no con- 
notations of evil and their use today in a derogatory sense is quite 

As the centuries passed, the smear campaign against non-Christians 
continued. What the Wiccans did was reversed and used against them. 
They did magick to promote fertility and increase the crops; the Church 
claimed that they made women and cattle barren and blighted the crops! 
No one apparently stopped to think that if the Witches really did what 
they were accused of, they would suffer equally themselves. After all, 
they too had to eat to live. An old ritual act for fertility was for the 
villagers to go to the fields in the light of the full moon and to dance 
around the field astride pitchforks, poles and broomsticks; riding them 
like hobby-horses. They would leap high in the air as they danced, to 
show the crops how high to grow. A harmless enough form of sym- 
pathetic magick. But the Church claimed not only that they were work- 
ing against the crops, but that they actually flew through the air on their 
poles . . . surely the work of the Devil! 

In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII produced his Bull against Witches. Two 
years later two infamous German monks, Heinrich Institoris Kramer 
and Jakob Sprenger, produced their incredible concoction of anti- 
Witchery, the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witch Hammer). In this book 
definite instructions were given for the prosecution of Witches. However, 
when the book was submitted to the Theological Faculty of the Univer- 
sity of Cologne — the appointed censor at that time — the majority of the 
professors refused to have anything to do with it. Kramer and Sprenger, 
nothing daunted, forged the approbation of the whole faculty; a forgery 
that was not discovered until 1898. 

Gradually the hysteria kindled by Kramer and Sprenger began to 
spread. It spread like a fire — flashing up suddenly in unexpected places; 
spreading quickly across the whole of Europe. For nearly three hundred 
years the fires of the persecutions raged. Humankind had gone mad. The 
inhabitants of entire villages where one or two Witches were suspected 
of living, were put to death with the cry: "Destroy them all . . . the Lord 
will know his own!" In 1586 the Archbishop of Treves decided that the 
local Witches had caused the recent severe winter. By dint of frequent 
torture a "confession" was obtained and one hundred twenty men and 
women were burned to death on his charge that they had interfered with 
the elements. 

Since fertility was of great importance — fertility of crops and beasts — 
there were certain sexual rites enacted by the Wicca, as followers of the 
nature religion. These sexual rites seem to have been given unnecessary 
prominence by the Christian judges, who seemed to delight in prying 
into the most minute of details concerning them. The rites of the Craft 
were joyous in essence. It was an extremely happy religion and so was, 
in many ways, totally incomprehensible to the gloomy Inquisitors and 
Reformers who sought to suppress it. 

A rough estimate of the total number of people burned, hung or tor- 
tured to death on the charge of Witchcraft, is nine million. Obviously not 

The Malleus Malleficarum is in three parts, the 
first of which treats 'the three necessary con- 
comitants of Witchcraft are the Devil, a Witch, 
and the permission of Almighty God'. Here the 
reader is first admonished that to not believe in 
Witchcraft is heresy. Points are then covered on 
whether children can be generated by Incubi and 
Succubi; Witches' copulation with the Devil; 
whether Witches can sway the minds of men to 
love or hatred; whether Witches can hebetate the 
powers of generation or obstruct the venereal 
act; whether Witches may work some presti- 
digitatory illusion so that the male organ appears 
to be entirely removed and separate from the 
body; various ways that the Witches may kill the 
child conceived in the womb, etc., etc.. 

The second part, Treating of the methods by 
which works of Witchcraft are wrought and 
directed, and how they may be successfully an- 
nulled and dissolved;' deals with 'the several 
methods by which devils through Witches entice 
and allure the innocent to the increase of that 
horrid craft and company; the way whereby a 
formal pact with evil is made; how they transport 
from place to place; how Witches impede and 
prevent the power of procreation; how as it were 
they deprive man of his virile member; how 
Witch midwives commit horrid crimes when 
they either kill children or offer them to devils in 
most accursed wise; how Witches — injure cat- 
tle, raise and stir up hailstorms and tempests and 
cause lightning to blast both men and beasts'. 
Then follow remedies for the above. 

The third part of the book 'Relating to the judi- 
cial proceedings in both the ecclesiastical and 
civil courts against Witches and indeed all heretics ', 
is perhaps the most important. It is here that the 
order of the trial is dealt with. 'Who are the fit and 
proper judges for the trial of Witches ? ' is the first 
question. It goes on to The method of initiating a 
process; the solemn adjuration and re-examination 
of witnesses; the quality and condition of wit- 
nesses; whether mortal enemies may be admitted 
as witnesses'. Here we are told that 'the testi- 
mony of men of low repute and criminals, and of 
servants against their masters, is admitted . . . it 
is to be noted that a witness is not to be dis- 
qualified because of every sort of enmity'. We 
learn that, in the case of Witchcraft, virtually 
anybody may give evidence, though in any other 
case they would not be admitted. Even the evidence 
of young children was admissable. 

It is obvious from the above that the authors of 
the Malleus Maleficarum had certain obses- 
sions. A large number of the chapters are, for 
example, concerned with sexual aspects of Witch- 
craft . . . who were the authors of this infamous 
work? They were two Dominicans named Jakob 
Sprenger and Heinrich (Institor) Kramer. 

Witchcraft Ancient and Modern 

Raymond Buckland, 

HC Publications, NY 1970 

6 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

all of these were followers of the Old Religion. This 
had been a wonderful opportunity for some to get rid 
of anyone against whom they bore a grudge!' An 
excellent example of the way in which the hysteria 
developed and spread is found in the case of the so- 
called Witches of Salem, Massachusetts. It is doubtful 
if any of the victims hung* there were really followers 
of the Old Religion. Just possibly Bridget Bishop and 
Sarah Good were, but the others were nearly all pillars 
of the local church up until the time the hysterical 
children "cried out" on them. 

But what about Satanism? The Witches were called 
worshippers of the Devil. Was there any truth to this? 
No. Yet as with so many of the charges, there was 
reason for the belief. The early Church was extremely 
harsh on its people. It not only governed the peasants' 
way of worship but also their ways of life and love. 
Even between married couples, sexual intercourse 
was frowned upon. It was felt that there should be no 
joy from the act, it being permitted solely for procrea- 
tion. Intercourse was illegal on Wednesdays, Fridays 
and Sundays; for forty days before Christmas and a 
similar time before Easter; for three days prior to 
receiving communion, and from the time of concep- 
tion to forty days after paturition. In other words, there 
was a grand total of approximately two months in the 
year only when it was possible to have sexual relations 
with your spouse . . . but without deriving pleasure 
from it, of course! 

It was no wonder that this, together with other 
such harshness, led to a rebellion— albeit a clandes- 
tine one. The people — this time the Christians — finding 
that their lot was not bettered by praying to the so- 
called God of Love, decided to pray to his opposite 
instead. If God wouldn't help them, perhaps the Devil 
would. So Satanism came into being. A parody of 
Christianity; a mockery of it. It was a revolt against the 
harshness of the Church. As it turned out the "Devil" 
did not help the poor peasant either. But at least he 
was showing his disdain for the authorities; he was 
going against the establishment. 

It did not take Mother Church long to find out 
about this rebellion. Satanism was anti-Christian. Witch- 
craft was also — in their eyes — anti-Christian. Ergo, 
Witchcraft and Satanism were one and the same. 

In 1604 King James I passed his Witchcraft Act, 
but this was repealed in 1736. It was replaced by an 

Act that stated that there was no such thing as Witch- 
craft and to pretend to have occult powers was to face 
being charged with fraud. By the late seventeenth 
century the surviving members of the Craft had gone 
underground; into hiding. For the next three hundred 
years, to all appearances Witchcraft was dead. But a 
religion which had lasted twenty thousand years, in 
effect, did not die so easily. In small groups — surviving 
covens, oftimes only of family members — the Craft 

In the literary field Christianity had a heyday. 
Printing had been invented and developed during the 
persecutions, therefore anything published on the 
subject of Witchcraft was written from the Church's 
point of view. Later books had only these early works 
to which to refer so, not unnaturally, they were heavily 
biased against the Old Religion. In fact it was not until 
1921, when Dr. Margaret Alice Murray produced The 
Witch Cult In Western Europe, that anyone looked at 
Witchcraft with anything like an unbiased light. From 
studying the records of the trials of the Middle Ages, 
Murray (an eminent anthropologist and then Pro- 
fessor of Egyptology at London University) picked up 
the clues that seemed to her to indicate that there was a 
definite, organized, pre-Christian religion behind all 
the "hogwash" of the Christian allegations. Although 
her theories finally proved a little far-fetched in some 
areas, she did indeed strike some chords. Wicca was 
by no means as far-reaching and widespread as Murray 
suggested (nor was there proof of a direct, unbroken 
line of descent from the cavepeople), but there can be 
no doubt that it did exist as an indubitable religious 
cult, if sporadic as to time and place. She enlarged on 
her views in a second book, The God of the Witches, 
in 1931. 

In England, in 1951, the last laws against Witch- 
craft were finally repealed. This cleared the way for the 
Witches themselves to speak up. In 1954 Dr. Gerald 
Brousseau Gardner, in his book Witchcraft Today, said, 
in effect, 'What Margaret Murray has theorized is 
quite true. Witchcraft was a religion and in fact it still is. 
I know, because I am a Witch myself." He went on to 
tell how the Craft was still very much alive, albeit 
underground. He was the first to give the Witches' 
side of the story. At the time of his writing it seemed, to 
him, that the Craft was rapidly declining and perhaps 
only hanging on by a thread. He was greatly surprised 
when, as a result of the circulation of his books, he 
began to hear from many covens throughout Europe, 

*In New England the law was as in England: Witches were hung. It was in Scotland and Continental Europe that they were burned at the stake. 

Lesson One: The History and Philosophy of Witchcraft I 7 

all still happily practicing their beliefs. Yet these survi- 
ving covens had learned their lesson. They did not wish 
to take the chance of coming out into the open. Who was 
to say the persecutions could not start again? 

For a while Gerald Gardner's was the single voice 
speaking for the Craft. He claimed to have been initiated 
into an English coven, near Christchurch, just before 
the start of the Second World War. He was excited by 
what he found. He had spent a lifetime in the study of 
religio-magick and now was a part of it. He wanted to 
rush out and tell everyone. But he was not allowed to. 
Finally though, after much pleading, he was allowed 
to present some of the true Witch beliefs and practices 
by weaving them into a novel: High Magic's Aid, 
published in 1949. It took five more years for him to 
persuade the coven to let him do the factual treatment. 
Complementing Witchcraft Today, his third book was 
published in 1959, titled The Meaning of Witchcraft. 

From his lifetime study of religion and magick, 
Gardner felt that what he found as the remains of 
Witchcraft was incomplete and, in places, inaccurate. 
For millenia the Old Religion had been a purely oral 
tradition. It was not until the persecutions, with the 
separating of covens and the resultant loss of inter- 
communication, that anything was put into writing. At 

that time, when the Witches were having to meet in 
the shadows, the rituals were finally written down in 
what became known as The Book of Shadows. The Book 
was then copied and recopied as it passed, over the 
years, from coven leader to coven leader. It was only 
natural that errors would creep in. Gardner took the 
rituals of the coven to which he belonged — a basically 
English/Celtic group — and rewrote them as he felt 
they should have been. This form then became known 
as "Gardnerian Witchcraft". In recent years there have 
been many wild and wonderful theories and accusations 
advanced, from "Gardner made up the whole thing" 
to "He commissioned Aleister Crowley to write The 
Book of Shadows for him". Such charges scarcely bear 
the dignity of a response, but details of Gardner's pre- 
paratory work can be found in Stewart Farrar's books: 
What Witches Do and Eight Sabbats for Witches. 

However, whatever one's feelings about Gardner, 
whatever one's belief in the Wicca's origins, all present- 
day Witches and would-be Witches owe him a tre- 
mendous debt of gratitude for having had the courage 
to stand up and speak out for Witchcraft. It is because 
of him that we can enjoy the Craft, in its many forms, 

In America the first Witch to "stand up and be 

Dr. Gerald Gardner 

8 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

recognized" was myself, Raymond Buckland. At that 
time there were no covens visible in this country. 
Initiated in Scotland (Perth) by Gardner's High Pries- 
tess, I set out to emulate Gardner insofar as to try to 
straighten the long-held misconceptions and to show 
the Craft for what it truly is. Soon Sybil Leek arrived 
on the scene, followed by Gavin and Yvonne Frost 
and other individuals. It was an exciting time as more 
and more covens, and many different traditions, came 
into the open or at least made themselves known. 
Today the would-be Witch has a wide selection from 
which to choose: Gardnerian, Celtic (in many vari- 
ations), Saxon, Alexandrian, Druidic, Algard, Norse, 
Irish, Scottish, Sicilian, Huna, etc. Details of some of 
these different traditions are given in the Appendix. 

That there are so many, and such varied, branches 
("denominations" or "traditions") of Witchcraft is 
admirable. As I said in the Introduction to this work, 
we are all different. It is not surprising that there is no 
one religion that suits all people. In the same way, 
then, there can be no one type of Witchcraft to suit all 
Witches. Some like lots of ritual, while some are for 
simplicity. Some are from Celtic backgrounds, others 
from Saxon, Scots, Irish, Italian, or any of a number of 
others. Some favor a matriarchy; others a patriarchy 
and still others seek a balance. Some prefer to worship 
in a group (coven), while others are for solitary worship. 
With the large number of different denominations, 
then, there is now more likelihood of everyone find- 
ing a path they can travel in comfort. 

Religion has come a long way from its humble 
beginnings in the caves of pre-history. Witchcraft, as 
one small facet of religion, has also come a long way. It 
has grown to become a world wide religion, legally 

Today, across America, it is not at all unusual to find 
open Wiccan festivals and seminars taking place in such 
unlikely places as family campgrounds and motels such 
as the Holiday Inn. Witches appear on television and 
radio talk shows; they are written up in local and national 
newspapers and magazines. Witchcraft courses are 
given in colleges. Even in the Armed Forces is Wicca 
recognized as a valid religion — Department of the 
Army Pamphlet No. 165-13 "Religious Requirements 
and Practices of Certain Selected Groups— A Hand- 
book for Chaplains" includes instructions as to the 
religious rights of Witches right alongside those of 
Islamic groups, Sikh groups, Christian Heritage, Indian 
Heritage, Japanese and Jewish groups. 

Yes, Witchcraft has a place in past history and will 

have a definite place in the future. 


The Craft is a religion of love and joy. It is not full 
of the gloom of Christianity, with its ideas of "original 
sin", with salvation and happiness possible only in the 
afterlife. The music of Witchcraft is joyful and lively, 
again contrasting with the dirge-like hymns of Chris- 
tianity. Why is this? Why are Wiccans more contend- 
more warm and happy? Much of it has to do with their 
empathy with nature. Early people lived hand-in- 
hand with nature through necessity. They were a part 
of nature, not separate from it. An animal was a brother 
or a sister, as was a tree. Wo/Man tended the fields and 
in return received food for the table. Sure, s/he killed 
animals for food. But then many animals kill other 
animals in order to eat. In other words, Woman and 
Man were a part of the natural order of things, not 
separate from it. Not "above" it. 

Modern Wo/Man has lost much, if not all, of that 
closeness. Civilization has cut them off. But not so the 
Witch! Even today, in this mechanized, super-sophis- 
ticated world that this branch of nature (Woman and 
Man) has created, the Wicca retain their ties with 
Mother Nature. In books such as Brett Bolton's The 
Secret Power of Plants we are told of the "incredible", 
"extraordinary" healthy reaction of plants to kind- 
ness; of how they feel and react to both good and evil; 
how they express love, fear, hate (something that 
might be borne in mind by vegetarians when they 
become over-critical of meat-eaters, perhaps?). This is 
no new discovery. Witches have always known it. 
They have always spoken kindly to plants. It is not 
unusual to see a Witch, walking through the woods, 
stop and hug a tree. It is not peculiar to see a Witch 
throw off her shoes and walk barefoot across a ploughed 
field. This is all part of keeping in touch with nature; of 
not losing our heritage. 

If ever you feel completely drained, if ever you 
are angry or tense, go out and sit against a tree. Choose 
a good, solid tree (oak or pine are good) and sit down 
on the ground with your back straight, pressed up 
against the trunk. Close your eyes and relax. You will 
feel a gradual change come over you. Your tension, 
your anger, your tiredness will disappear. It will seem 
to drain out of you. Then, in its place, you will feel a 
growing warmth; a feeling of love and comfort. It 
comes from the tree. Accept it and be glad. Sit there 
until you feel completely whole again. Then, before 

Lesson One: The History and Philosophy of Witchcraft I 9 

leaving, stand with your arms about the tree and thank 

Take time to stop and appreciate all that is about 
you. Smell the earth, the trees, the leaves. Absorb their 
energies and send them yours. One of the contribu- 
ting factors to our isolation from the rest of nature is 
the insulation of our shoes. Whenever you can, go 
barefoot. Make contact with the earth. Feel it; absorb it. 
Show your respect and love for nature and live with 

In the same way, live with other people. There are 
many whom you meet, in the course of your life, who 
could benefit from their encounter with you. Always 
be ready to help another in any way you can. Don't 
ignore anyone, or look the other way when you know 
they need help. If you can give assistance, give it 
gladly. At the same time do not seek to take charge of 
another's life. We all have to live our own lives. But if 
you are able to give help, to advise, to point the way, 
then do so. It will then be up to the other to decide how 
to proceed from there. 

The main tenet of Witchcraft, the Wiccan Rede, 

"An' it harm none, do what thou wilt." 

Do what you will . . . but don't do anything that 
will harm another. It's as simple as that. 

In April, 1974, the Council of American Witches 
adopted a set of Principles of Wiccan Belief. I, per- 
sonally, subscribe to those principles and list them 
here. Read them carefully. 

1. We practice rites to attune ourselves with the 
natural rhythm of life forces marked by the phases 
of the Moon and the seasonal Quarters and Cross 

2 . We recognize that our intelligence gives us a unique 
responsibility toward our environment. We seek 
to live in harmony with Nature, in ecological 
balance offering fulfillment to life and conscious- 
ness within an evolutionary concept. 

3. We acknowledge a depth of power far greater 
than that apparent to the average person. Because 
it is far greater than ordinary it is sometimes 
called "supernatural", but we see it as lying within 
that which is naturally potential to all. 

4. We conceive of the Creative Power in the universe 

as manifesting through polarity — as masculine 
and feminine — and that this same Creative Power 
lies in all people, and functions through the inter- 
action of the masculine and feminine. We value 
neither above the other, knowing each to be sup- 
portive to the other. We value sex as pleasure, as 
the symbol and embodiment of life, and as one of 
the sources of energies used in magickal practice 
and religious worship. 

5. We recognize both outer worlds and inner, or 
psychological, worlds sometimes known as the 
Spiritual World, the Collective Unconscious, Inner 
Planes, etc. — and we see in the inter-action of 
these two dimensions the basis for paranormal 
phenomena and magickal exercises. We neglect 
neither dimension for the other, seeing both as 
necessary for our fulfillment. 

6. We do not recognize any authoritarian hierarchy, 
but do honor those who teach, respect those who 
share their greater knowledge and wisdom, and 
acknowledge those who have courageously given 
of themselves in leadership. 

7. We see religion, magick and wisdom in living as 
being united in the way one views the world and 
lives within it — a world view and philosophy of 
life which we identify as Witchcraft — the Wiccan 

8. Calling oneself "Witch" does not make a Witch — 
but neither does heredity itself, nor the collecting 
of titles, degrees and initiations. A Witch seeks to 
control the forces within her/himself that make 
life possible in order to live wisely and well without 
harm to others and in harmony with Nature. 

9. We believe in the affirmation and fulfillment of 
life in a continuation of evolution and develop- 
ment of consciousness giving meaning to the 
Universe we know and our personal role within 

10. Our only animosity towards Christianity, or to- 
wards any other religion or philosophy of life, is 
to the extent that its institutions have claimed to 
be "the only way" and have sought to deny 
freedom to others and to suppress other ways of 
religious practice and belief. 

10 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

11. As American Witches, we are not threatened by debates on the his- 
tory of the Craft, the origins of various terms, the legitimacy of 
various aspects of different traditions. We are concerned with our 
present and our future. 

12. We do not accept the concept of absolute evil, nor do we worship 
any entity known as "Satan" or "the Devil", as defined by the Chris- 
tian tradition. We do not seek power through the suffering of 
others, nor accept that personal benefit can be derived only by 
denial to another. 

13. We believe that we should seek within Nature that which is con- 
tributory to our health and well-being. 


There are many people who seem, very obviously, to have some 
sort of "psychic power" (for want of a better term) . They are the sort who 
know that the telephone is going to ring before it actually does, and who 
is on the other end of the line before they pick up the receiver. People 
like Uri Geller are able to demonstrate this power in more dramatic 
ways, by bending keys and teaspoons without physical contact. Others 
have "visions" or seem to be able to make things happen. Often these 
people have a peculiar affinity with animals. 

You may not be like this. You may. well feel somewhat envious of 
such people. Yet you shouldn't feel that way, for the power that these 
people have — and it is a very real power — is inherent in all of us. To be 
sure, that power comes out quite naturally in some, but that doesn't 
mean that it can't be brought out in others. The aura (which will be dealt 
with extensively in a later lesson) is a visible manifestation of this power. 
Those able to see the aura — and you will become one of these — can see it 
around everyone; again demonstrating that the power is within every- 
one. Witches have always had the power and used it. Most of them seem 
to have it naturally, but not all by any means. For that reason the Witches 
have their own ways of drawing it out; ways that are especially effective. 

In the magazine Everyday Science and Mechanics, for September 
1932, appeared the following report: 

Human Tissues Produce Deadly Radiations 

"Rays emitted from human blood, fingertips, noses and eyes, kill yeast and 
other micro-organisms, according to Professor Otto Rahn, working at Cornell 
University. Yeast, such as used in making bread, was killed in five minutes 
merely by the radiation from the fingertips of one person. When a quartz plate, 
Vz inch thick, was interposed it took fifteen minutes for the yeast to die. In tests of 
fingers it was found that the right hand was stronger than the left, even in left- 
handed persons." 

Professor Rahn continued his experiments and published 
results in Invisible Radiations Of Organisms (Berlin, 1936). Speaking at a 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, he explained how the "rays" seemed to come out most strongly 

Lesson One: The History and Philosophy of Witchcraft 1 11 

from the fingertips, the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, the armpits, 
the sex organs and — in women only — the breasts. Dr. Harold S. Burr, of 
Yale University, spoke of similar experiments and conclusions when 
addressing the Third International Cancer Congress. 

Witches have always believed in this power coming from the body 
and have developed ways to increase it, collect it and use it to do what we 
term magick. Professors Rahn and Burr showed the destructive use of 
this power, but it can be used equally effectively constructively. 

Here is a simple experiment you can try with a friend. Have the 
friend strip to the waist and sit with his back to you. Now, extend your 
hand, with the palm down and fingers together, straight out to point at 
his (or her) back. Keep the tips of the fingers an inch or so away from the 
surface of the skin. Now slowly move your hand up and down along the 
line of his spine (see illustration) . Try to keep your arm straight and con- 
centrate your thoughts on sending all your energies out along your arm 
and into your hand and fingers. You will probably get quite a reaction 
from your friend as your power makes contact. He might feel a strong 
tingling sensation, heat, or even what seems like a cool breeze . . . but he 
will feel something. 

Experiment. Try with the left hand; with the fingers together; at dif- 
ferent distances from his back. See if he knows where your hand is. Does 
he feel it moving up when it is moving up; down when moving down? 
You will find that the intensity of the power varies dependant upon your 
physical health and also upon the time of the day and the day of the 
month. Keep records and note when it is the best time for you to 


Spells and charms are the part of Witchcraft most commonly used 
by the solitary Witch. Spells are done by full covens, certainly, but there 
are very effective ones that can be done by the individual. The most 
important ingredient in a spell is emotion. You must want something to 
happen. You must want it with all your being, and through that desire 
you will drive all your power into the magick. This is the reason that it is 
far better to do magick for yourself than to ask someone else to do it for 
you. If you are doing a spell for another person there is no way that you 
are going to put the same amount of emotional drive into it that they 

Spells and charms are not necessarily tied in with the religious side 
of Witchcraft. To work a spell within the Circle, immediately following 
an Esbat rite would, almost certainly, be extraordinarily effective. Yet 
you can cast a simple Circle and work your spell at any other time and 
still get results. 

The actual mechanics of casting a spell; of working magick? Well, 
let's leave that until you are somewhat better versed in the religious side; 
after all, Witchcraft is a religion. 


1 . It is often helpful to examine our feelings/attitudes toward a philosophy or topic we are interested in. What is 
your understanding, feeling of Witchcraft? Examine your impressions, preconceptions, biases, etc. How have 
your reactions changed regarding Witchcraft throughout your life? 

2. There are many different denominations of Witchcraft. (Information is found on these in Appendix A). 
Based on what you know at this point, which denomination do you think you'd like to practice, and 

The earliest conceptions of primitive magic dealt with sympathetic magic. 

How can sympathetic magic help you today? In what ways can you foresee using it? List some possibil- 

Make a tape recording outlining the principles of Witchcraft which you intend to adhere to. Keep the tape for 
future use for recording favorite rituals on. Speaking out loud helps to consolidate beliefs, and make them 
clearer to you. 



As different as are the many religions of the world, 
in essence they are all the same. It has frequently been 
said that they are simply different paths all leading to a 
common center, and this is true. The basic teachings 
are all the same; all that differs is the method of teach- 
ing. There are different rituals, different festivals and 
even different names for the gods . . . notice that I say 
"different names for the gods" rather than, simply, 
"different gods". 

Friedrich Max Muller traced religion back to "an 
ineradicable feeling of dependence" upon some higher 
power that was innate in the human mind. And Sir 
James George Frazer (in The Golden Bough) defines 
religion as being "a propitiation or conciliation of 
powers superior to Man, which are believed to direct 
and control the course of nature and of human life". 

This higher power — the "Ultimate Deity" — is 
some genderless force which is so far beyond our 
comprehension that we can have only the vaguest 
understanding of its being. Yet we know that it is there 
and, frequently, we wish to communicate with it. As 
individuals, we wish to thank it for what we have and 
to ask it for what we need. How do we do this with 
such an incomprehensible power? 

In the sixth century BCE the philosopher Xeno- 
phones remarked on the fact that deities are deter- 
mined by ethnic factors. He pointed out that the black 
Ethiopians naturally saw their gods as negroid, whereas 
the Thracians' gods were white, with red hair and gray 
eyes. He cynically commented that if horses and oxen 
could carve they would probably represent their gods 
in animal form! About seven hundred fifty years later 
Maximus of Tyre said much the same thing: that men 
worship their gods under whatever form seems 

intelligible to them. 

In Lesson One you saw how, in their early develop- 
ment, people came to worship two principle deities: the 
Horned God of Hunting and the Goddess of Fertility. 
These, then, were our representations — our under- 
standable forms — of the Supreme Power which actually 
rules life. In the various areas of Wo/Man's development 
we see that these representations became, for the 
ancient Egyptians, Isis and Osiris; for the Hindus, 
Shiva and Parvati; for the Christians, Jesus and Mary. 
In virtually all instances (there were exceptions) the 
Ultimate Deity was equated with both masculine and 
feminine . . . broken down into a God and a Goddess. 
This would seem most natural since everywhere in 
nature is found this duality. With the development of 
the Craft, as we know it, there was also, as we have 
seen, this duality of a God and a Goddess. 


As mentioned in Lesson One, the names for the 
deities would vary depending upon locality. And not 
only locality. With the Goddess, especially, the ques- 
tion of names could become quite involved. For example, 
a young man with problems in his love life might 
worship the Goddess in her aspect of a beautiful young 
woman. Yet a woman in childbirth might feel more at 
ease relating to the Goddess as a more mature "middle- 
aged" female. Then again an elderly person would 
tend to think of the Goddess as herself being elderly. 
So there we have three separate and very distinct 
aspects of the same Goddess, each having been given 
a different name yet all being the same deity. As if that 
weren't enough, the deities would have names known 
to the general worshippers but also other, secret, 
names (often two or three) known only to the priest- 


14 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

hood. This was a protective measure. 

In Witchcraft today there are many traditions that continue this 
multiplicity of names. Traditions with degree systems, for example, fre- 
quently use different deity names in their higher degrees than in their 
lower. Gardnerian is one example of this. 

So we have this idea of an Ultimate Deity, an incomprehensible 
power, and in trying to relate to it we have split it into two main entities, a 
male and a female. To these we have given names. It would seem that by 
so doing we are limiting what is, by definition, limitless. But so long as you 
know, and keep always in the back of your mind, that "It" IS limitless you will 
find that this is the easiest path to follow. After all, it is pretty difficult to 
pray to a "Thing", a Supreme Power, without being able to picture some- 
one in your mind. 

IN JUDAISM there is this problem to an extent (though Judaism is a 
theocentric faith); the Supreme Power there has a name which may not 
be uttered and may not be written. Yahweh is the vocalized form often 
used, but it is derived from the four letters YHWH (the "divine Tetra- 
grammaton"), signifying "that name too sacred to be pronounced". 

IN CHRISTIANITY there was developed the use of a human male, 
Jesus, to play the part of the "Son of God", the Christ, thus giving a 
recognizable form to deity; a form to which the followers could relate. 
With the addition of Mary, the mother figure, the duality was complete. 
So it was much more comfortable to pray to Jesus, as the extension of 
God/Supreme Being, yet all the time knowing that there was the indefin- 
able, the incomprehensible, beyond him. Jesus and Mary were the 

So IN WITCHCRAFT; those we know as the God and the Goddess 
are our intermediaries. Different traditions use different names, as 
already mentioned. These are the names used for the "understandable 
forms" of the Supreme Power; the Ultimate Deity. They are the deities 
honored and worshipped in the Witchcraft rites. 


A general complaint about Christianity by Witches is that there is 
the worship of the male deity to the exclusion of the female. In fact this is 
one of the main reasons for people (women especially) leaving Chris- 
tianity and returning to the Old Religion. And yet it's a strange paradox 
that many — if not the majority — of Witchcraft traditions are guilty of this 
same crime of Christianity, if in reverse . . . they laud the Goddess to the 
near, or even total, exclusion of the God! 

Witchcraft is a religion of nature, as any Witch will tell you. Every- 
where in nature there is male and female, and both are necessary (I have 
yet to meet anyone who does not have both a mother and a father). It 
follows, then, that both the God and the Goddess are important and 
should be equally revered. There should be balance. But balance is as 
woefully missing in most traditions of the Craft as it is in Christianity. 

We are all — every single one of us — made up of both masculine and 
feminine attributes. The toughest, most macho man has feminine aspects 
just as the most traditionally-feminine woman has male aspects. So it is 

"PAN — A Greek nature and fertility deity, 
originally native to Arcadia. As such he is god of 
goatherds and flocks and is usually represented 
as a very sensual creature; a shaggy human to 
the loins with pointed ears, goat's horns and 
legs. He wanders among the mountains and 
valleys, pursuing nymphs or leading them in 
their dances. He is quite musical and is the 
inventor of the Syrinx, or 'Pipes of Pan '. He is 
considered to be a son of Hermes. " 
Putnam's Concise Mythological Dictionary 
Joseph Kaster, Putnam, NY 1963 

Lesson Two: Beliefs 1 15 

with the deities. The God has feminine aspects as well as masculine, and 
the Goddess has masculine as well as feminine. I will examine this in 
more detail in a later lesson. 

What names you use for your deities is a matter of personal prefer- 
ence. In Saxon Witchcraft the name Woden is given to the God; in 
Gardnerian the Latin term Cernunnos is used; in Scottish, Devla. Each 
tradition has its own name. But names are only labels; they are only a 
means of identifying. You should identify, then, using a name with which 
you can feel completely comfortable. For, after all, religion is a most per- 
sonal thing, at the core, and — to be of real purpose — should therefore be 
related to on the most personal level possible. Even if you join an 
established tradition this is still valid — find a tradition that seems right 
for you (as I spoke about in Lesson One) but . . . don't be afraid to modify 
where necessary to make it totally right for you. If the name used to iden- 
tify the God, in the tradition you have chosen, happens to be Cernunnos 
(for example) and you have difficulty relating to that name, then choose 
another for your own use. In other words, respect the name Cernunnos in 
group worship and all matters pertaining to the coven but, in your own 
mind — and in personal rites — don't hesitate to substitute Pan or Mananna or 
Lief or whatever. A name, as I have said, is a label. The God himself 
knows you are "talking" to him; he's not going to be confused! (This all 
applies equally to the Goddess of course). 

It may well be for the above reason that the name Cernunnos is found 
in so many branches of the Craft. As I've mentioned, it is simply the Latin 
word for "the Horned One". To add your own personal identification, 
then, in no way conflicts. 

Traditionally the "dark half" of the year (see Figure 2.1) is associated 
with the God. But this does not (or should not) mean that he is "dead", or 
incommunicado, in the "light half" of the year (and vice versa with the God- 
dess). During the light half he is fully active in his feminine aspect; just as 
the Goddess is active in the dark half in her masculine aspect. So, both 
deities are active throughout the year, even though deference may be 
given to one over the other at certain times. 

There is a common theme of death and resurrection found in myths 
throughout the world. The symbolism is frequently furthered in a de- 
scent to the underworld with a later return. We find it with Ishtar's de- 
scent and search for Tannaz; with Sif's loss of her golden tresses; with 
Idunn's loss of her golden apples; with Jesus' death and resurrection; 
with Siva's death and resurrection, and many more. Basically all repre- 
sent the coming of fall and winter followed by the return of spring and 
summer; the lead figure represnting the spirit of vegetation. From 
Witchcraft here are "The Myth Of the Goddess" as found in (a) Gard- 
nerian Wicca and (b) Saxon Wicca. 

"Now G* had never loved, but she would solve all the Mys- 
teries, even the Mystery of Death; and so she journeyed to the 
Nether Lands. 
The Guardians of the Portals challenged her, 'Strip off thy 

There can be surprises in discovering names 
used for the deities in different traditions. One 
very-strongly Welsh tradition uses the name 
"Diana" for the Goddess and "Pan" for the 
God . . . Diana, of course, was a ROMAN 
Goddess and Pan was a GREEK God! Their 
connection with the Welsh must be one of 
the mysteries! 

ptiL ****1 ^ 



Figure 2.1 

"Goddess: Arada/Arawhon 

16 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

garments, lay aside thy jewels; for naught may ye bring with 

ye into this our land.' 

So she laid down her garments and her j ewels and was bound, 

as are all who enter the Realms of Death the Mighty One. Such 

was her beauty that Death himself knelt and kissed her feet, 

saying, "Blessed be thy feet that have brought thee in these ways. 

Abide with me, let me place my cold hand on thy heart.' 

She replied, 'I love thee not. Why dost thou cause all things 

that I love and take delight in to fade and die?' 

'Lady/ replied Death, 'it is Age and Fate, against which I am 

helpless. Age causes all things to wither; but when men die at 

the end of time I give them rest and peace, and strength so that 

they may return. But thou, thou art lovely. Return not; abide 

with me.' 

But she answered, 'I love thee not'. 

Then said Death, 'An' thou receive not my hand on thy heart, 

thou must receive Death's scourge'. 

'It is Fate; better so', she said and she knelt; and Death scourged 

her and she cried, T feel the pangs of love'. 

And Death said, 'Blessed be' and gave her the Fivefold Kiss, 

saying, 'Thus only may ye attain to joy and knowledge'. 

And he taught her all the mysteries. And they loved and were 

one, and he taught her all the Magicks. 

For there are three great events in the life of Man: Love, Death 

and Resurrection in a new body; and Magick controls them all. 

For to fulfill love you must return again at the same time and 

place as the loved one, and you must remember and love them 

again. But to be reborn you must die, and be ready for a new 

body; and to die you must be born; and without love you may 

not be born. And these be all the Magicks." 

The Meaning of Witchcraft 

Gerald B. Gardner, Aquarian Press, London 1959 

"All day had Freya, most lovely of the goddesses, played and 

romped in the fields. Then did she lay down to rest. 

And while she slept deft Loki, the Prankster, the Mischief- 

Maker of the Gods, did espy the glimmering of Brosingamene, 

formed of Galdra, her constant companion. Silent as night did 

Loki move to the Goddess' side and, with fingers formed over 

the ages in lightness, did remove the silver circlet from about 

her snow-white neck. 

Straightway did Freya arouse, on sensing its loss. Though he 

moved with the speed of the winds yet Loki she glimpsed as 

he passed swiftly from sight into the Barrow that leads to 


Then was Freya in despair. Darkness descended all about her 

to hide her tears. Great was her anguish. All light, all life, all 

creatures joined in her doom. 

To all corners were sent the Searchers, in quest of Loki; yet 

On the subject of deity names, let me explain 
the ones chosen for the Seax-Wica. From time 
to time I hear comments from people who 
haven't troubled to check beyond the ends of 
their noses, to the effect that Woden and Freya 
were not the original "pair" of Saxon deities. 
Of course they were not and nobody — least of 
all myself — has claimed they were. Here is 
how the founding of the tradition was first 
explained, back in 1973: — 
"It seems that most people who are Wicca- 
oriented are also tradition-oriented (perhaps 
this explains the battle for the 'Oldest Tradi- 
tion' title?) . For this reason I have given my 
tradition an historical background on which 
to lean. Namely, a Saxon background. By this 1 
most emphatically do not mean that there is 
any claim to its liturgy being of direct descent 
from Saxon origins! . . . But, for example, names 
were needed for the deities . . . the main male 
and female deities of the Saxons were Woden 
and Frig. Unfortunately 'frig' has certain con- 
notations today which would be misplaced! 1 
therefore adopted the Norse variant, Freya. So 
WODEN and FREYA are the labels' used for 
the Cod and Goddess worshipped by the 
Seax-Wica." (Earth Religion News, Yule 

The Seax-Wica does not claim to be a recon- 
struction of the original Saxon Craft — such a 
task would be impossible. It is merely a work- 
able tradition built on a Saxon framework, and 
the deity names were chosen specifically and 
for the reasons given. Any comment regard- 
ing their being "incorrect" is, then totally 

M«k<VR|V^ I4X+ 

Lesson Two: Beliefs I '17 

knew they, they would find him not. For 
who is there may descend into Dreun and 
return again from thence? 
Excepting the Gods themselves and, alack, 
mischievous Loki. 

So it was that, still weak from grief, Freya her- 
self elected to descend in search oiBrosinga- 
mene. At the portals of the Barrow was she 
challenged yet recognized and passed. 
The multitude of souls within cried joyfully 
to see her yet could she not tarry as she 
sought her stolen light. 
The infamous Loki left no trail to follow, yet 
was he everywhere past seen. Those to whom 
she spake held to Freya (that) Loki carried 
no jewel as he went by. 
Where, then, was it hid? 
In despair she searched an age. 
Hearhden, the mighty smith of the Gods, 
did arise from his rest to sense the bewail- 
ment of the souls to Freya's sorrow. Striding 
from his smithy, to find the cause of the 
sorrow, did he espy the Silver Circlet where 
Loki Mischief-Maker had laid it: upon the 
rock before his door. 

Then was all clear. As Hearhden took hold 
oiBrosingamene, (then did) Loki appear before 
him, his face wild with rage. 
Yet would Loki not attack Hearhden, this 
Mighty Smith whose strength was known 
even beyond Dreun. 

By wiles and tricks did he strive to get his 
hands upon the silver circlet. He shape- 
shifted; he darted here and there; he was 
visible then invisible. Yet could he not sway 
the smith. 

Tiring of the fight, Hearhden raised his 
mighty club. Then sped Loki away. 
Great was the joy of Freya when Hearhden 
placed Brosingamene once more about her 
snow-white neck. 

Great were the cries of joy from Dreun and 

Great were the thanks that Freya, and all 
Men, gave to the Gods for the return of 
Brosingamene. " 

The Tree: The Complete Book of 
Saxon Witchcraft 

Raymond Buckland, Samuel Weiser, NY 1974 


Reincarnation is an ancient belief. It is part of 
many religions (Hinduism and Buddhism, for example) 
and was even one of the original Christian tenets, until 
condemned by the Second Council of Constantinople 
in 553. It is believed that the human spirit, or soul, is a 
fragment of the divine and eventually it will return to 
its divine source. But, for its own evolution, it is 
necessary that the soul experience all things in life. 

It seems the most sensible, most logical, explanation 
of much that is found in life. Why should one person 
be born into a rich family and another into poverty? 
Why should one be born crippled, another fit and 
strong? ... if not because we must all eventually 
experience all things. Reincarnation seems the most 
logical explanation of child prodigies. A musical genius, 
composing concertos at the age of five (as did Mozart), 
is obviously carrying-over knowledge from one lifetime 
into the next. This does not usually happen, but it can. 
In the same way, homosexuality might well be explained 
through reincarnation: a person male in one lifetime 
and then female in the next (or vice versa) might have 
carried over feelings and preferences from one life to 
the next. 

For someone who does not believe in reincarna- 
tion, it is difficult to understand the death of a child. 
What was the point of the child living at all, if only for a 
few short years? For the reincarnationist it is obvious 
that the child had learned all that had been set to be 
learned in that particular lifetime and so was moving 
on. A very good simile for this is the grades of a school. 
You enter school in a low grade and learn the basics. 
When you have mastered these you graduate, take a 
short vacation, then come back into a higher grade to 
learn and experience more things. So it is in life. In 
each life you have a certain amount to learn and to 
experience. When you have done that, you graduate 
(i.e. you die) . To come back into a higher grade you are 
reborn in a new body. Occasionally remembrance of 
previous lives, or parts of them, is experienced but 
more generally you do not remember (it is possible, of 
course, through such procedures as hypno-regression, 
to go back to previous lives and bring them once more 
to the surface). Perhaps one of the most common of 
occult experiences is that of deja-vu — the feeling that 
something has happened before — so often attributed 
to reincarnation (though by no means is reincarnation 
the only possible explanation of all cases of deja-vu); 
the feeling being a brief flash of memory of something 

18 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

that happened in a previous life. 

In what form do we return to the earth? Some 
believe (the Hindus, for example) that it is not neces- 
sarily in human form each time. Certain Hindu sects 
teach that the soul may be reborn as a plant or an 
animal. However, such beliefs are not generally held 
in Western civilization. Some say there is a progres- 
sion from the lowest life-forms to the highest — put- 
ting humans at the top. But then who is to say the 
order? Is a dog higher than a cat, or a cat higher than a 
dog? Is a centipede higher or lower than an earwig? 
Does this mean, when every soul has finally passed up 
the scale and graduated, that in the afterlife there will 
be no plant, animal or insect life? It seems unlikely. In 
Witchcraft the belief is that all things have souls. In 
Saxon Witchcraft, for example, it is believed that a dog 
will go through many incarnations, but always as a 
dog; a cat always as a cat; a human always as a human. 
There is reason for all things to be here . . . what we 
term the "balance of Nature". It seems we certainly 
have a choice, within our species, of being either male 
or female, in order to experience and appreciate the 
different aspects. 

One argument often put forward by non-rein- 
carnationists is "If what you say is true, how do you 
explain the fact that the world population is continu- 
ously growing?" Of course it is! So is the population 
of souls/spirits. There are not simply x number of 
souls who all started their development together. 
New souls are being introduced all the times. So we 
have so-called "new souls" — those on their first 
incarnations — and "old souls" — those who have been 
through a large number of lives. It is possible that 
eventually, when the gods decide enough souls have 
been introduced, there will be a stabilizing of the 
population followed later by a decline, as old souls in 
their final incarnations make their graduations. 

There is yet another thought that might be 
considered here . . . where do these souls originally 
come from and where do they go after that final 
graduation? One possibility, of course, is that we not 
only experience lives here on Earth, but also on other 
planets and in other reality systems. Who knows? 
. . . perhaps we go through the cycle here having 
already been through it a dozen times or more on 
other worlds. There is obviously much food for thought, 
very little (if any) proofofpreferences and great scope 
for new tenets. 


Along with reincarnation go thoughts of Karma. 
Karma is usually thought of as a reward-and-punish- 
ment system stretching throughout all lifetimes: if you 
do evil in one life you will have to pay for it in the next. 
However, it seems that there is always talk of "karmic 
debts" and "karmic punishments" but seldom of "kar- 
mic rewards". The Witchcraft view seems to make 
more sense. 

First of all there is a Wiccan belief in retribution 
within each life. In other words, rather than being 
rewarded and punished after death, for what you have 
done in life (the traditional Christian view), Witches 
believe that you get your rewards and punishments 
during this lifetime, according to how you live it. Do 
good and you will get back good. But do evil and evil 
will return. More than that, though, it is a three-fold 
retribution. Do good and you will get back three times 
the good; do evil and you will receive three times the 
evil. Obviously there is here no inducement for you to 
ever harm anyone. Of course it is not a literal three- 
fold return. If you were to punch someone in the eye, it 
does not mean that you will get punched in the eye 
yourself three times. No. But, sometime in the future, 
you may "just happen" to break a leg . . . something 
which might be considered three times as bad as being 
punched in the eye. 

In the Witchcraft belief, then, one lifetime's 
experiences are not dependent on the previous one's. 
For example, if you suffer physical abuse in this life, it 
does not necessarily mean that you were an abuser in 
your previous life. It is possible you were, yes. But it is 
just as possible that you were not but are going to be in 
the next life. In other words, it is a case of experiencing 
all things — being both the abuser and the abusee, but 
one is not necessarily dependent on the other. Several 
lifetimes could even take place between the one 
experience and its apparent correlative. 

Just because you have chosen a particular lifetime 
and are to undergo the set experiences does not mean 
that you can just sit back and say "Everything is pre- 
ordained. I'm just along for the ride." The God and the 
Goddess will make sure that you do get all the par- 
ticular experiences but your job is to progress; to 
strive your hardest towards perfection. YOU CREATE 
YOUR OWN REALITY. Whatever you want, you can 
achieve. But always remember the Wiccan Rede: "An' 
it harm none, do what thou wilt." 

Whenever possible, help those less fortunate than yourself. By "help" I 
do not mean "interfere". Help can be given by simply offering advice; by 
showing compassion; even, sometimes, by actually refusing direct assis- 
tance. For, in this latter case, it is sometimes of the greatest help and to the 
other's benefit to make them give a little more effort: to make them think 
for themselves. 


Lesson Two: Beliefs 1 19 

The length of time spent between lives may vary, depending on 
your study of the lessons learned and their integration with previous 
lessons; also on the necessary preparation for the next "semester". 

While between lives you might also become involved in helping 
some other spirit here on earth. Just as there is development and advance- 
ment in this life, so there is in "the between times". You may have heard 
of such things as "Guardian Angels" and "Spirit Guides" and wondered 
if they really exist. In a sense they do. It means that a spirit is always 
watching over a less developed spirit here on earth. Since time does not 
exist in the between-times (it is a human-made concept, for the sake of 
reference only) then to watch over an earth-bound spirit for its whole 
earthly lifetime would not actually hinder the watcher's progress. In fact, 
it would add to it in the sense of gaining "student-teacher" experience. 

Witches always hope that they will be reborn in the next life with 
those they have known and loved in this one. From psychic experiences, 
etc., it seems that this is often the case. Many times a couple will stay 
together throughout a number of lifetimes, in different relationship 
roles (e.g. lovers; husband- wife; brother-sister; mother-daughter). 


Although many Witches meet, and work, outdoors - perhaps in the 
corner of a field or in a clearing in the woods - it is not always possible for 
everyone to do that. Many live in cities and towns and are unable to get 
out into direct contact with the earth. This does not mean they cannot 
function. Your temple can be an outdoor one or an indoor one. Let's look 
at indoor possibilities. 

The area you need, in which to perform your rituals and work your 
magick, could be a whole building, a single room, or a small section of a 
room. Whatever its shape or size, this is your Temple. A complete 
room — perhaps in the basement or attic of a house — is the ideal. If you 
have such a room that can be turned into your temple and kept solely as 
that, you are very fortunate. Let's look at such a possibility first and then 
work along to those who can only use a small part of their regular 
living quarters. 

First of all, take a compass and establish the alignment of the room. 
Mark the north, east, south and west. Your altar is going to be placed in 
the center of the room and it is preferable that it be set up so that when 
standing before it you are facing EAST. You can keep an altar candle and 
your representations of the deities on the altar at all times, but more on 
that below. On the floor around the altar you will be marking a circle, the 



Figure 2.2 

20 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

exact dimensions and construction of which you will 
be taught in the next lesson. 

When entering and leaving the Circle, before and 
after a ritual, you will do so from the EAST, so if your 
room is rectangular rather than square you might wish 
to leave extra room on that side (see Figure 2.2 for 
example). Closets, for the storing of your Craft sup- 
plies, might also be placed in this larger area. 

Unless you live alone, or share your beliefs with 
everyone in your home, you will need closets that can 
be locked. You will be storing candles, incense, char- 
coal, wine and, most importantly, your Working Tools 
and Book. Of course, if you can lock the room itself 
then it is possible to leave your altar permanently set- 
up and have your supplies on open shelves. Actually 
this is much the better arrangement. 

Decoration of the temple room is a matter for 
individual taste. It can vary from all walls being done 
in a neutral color, to vivid realistic murals being painted. 
There are temples varying from those that look like 
prehistoric caves — complete with reproductions of 
the early cave paintings — to those that look like a 
clearing in a forest, with trees all around and stars on 
the ceiling above. Others (usually those oriented 
exactly north-south, east-west) follow the magickal 
symbolic colors, with the north wall painted green, the 
east yellow, the south red and the west blue.* 

Obviously before any decoration or use of the 
room, it should be thoroughly cleaned. The floor, 
walls and ceiling should be scrubbed, with sea salt 
added to the water and cleaning agent. It is not necessary 
to do any elaborate cleansing ceremony at this point, 
since the Circle will be consecrated before each and 
every ritual you perform in it. However, once any 
decoration of your room is finished (other than the 
actual marking of the Circle itself) you should do an 
initial purification, as follows:- 

This should be done on the night of the New 

Fill a dish (a saucer will do) with water and, kneel- 
ing, place it on the floor in front of you. Place your right 
forefinger (left, if you are left-handed) into the water. 
Imagine a bright white light streaming down from 
above, into the crown of your head. Feel it surge 
through your entire body and then direct it down your 
arm. Concentrate all your energies to send it down 
your arm, down the finger and into the water. It may 
help to close your eyes. When you feel you have directed 

all the power you can manage into the water, keep 
your finger there and say: 

"Here do I direct my power, 

Through the agencies of the God and the 

Into this water, that it might be pure and 

As is my love for the Lord and the Lady." 

Now take a teaspoonful of sea salt and pour it into the 
water. Stir it nine times, clockwise, with your finger 
and three times say: 

"Salt is Life. Here is Life, 
Sacred and new; without strife." 

Take the dish of salted water and sprinkle it (use your 
fingers to sprinkle) in each and every corner of the 
temple room. If the room is irregular in shape, with 
alcoves and closets, sprinkle every corner of every 
alcove and closet also. As you sprinkle, say one of the 
below (or make up something of your own, along 
these lines) : 

"Ever as I pass through the ways 

Do I feel the presence of the Gods. 

I know that in aught I do 

They are with me. 

They abide in me 

And I in them, 


No evil shall be entertained, 

For purity is the dweller 

Within me and about me. 

For good do I strive 

And for good do I live. 

Love unto all things. 

So be it, Forever." 

Seax-Wica Psalm 


"Soft is the rain, it gently falls 

Upon the fields beneath. 

It lulls the heart, it stills the wind, 

Gives solitude I seek. 

It patters down, so gentle yet 

It ne'er does bend a leaf, 

•There are some magickal traditions that equate different colors with the four quarters, but these are the generally used ones. 

Lesson Two: Beliefs 1 21 

And yet the water that is there 

Will wash away all grief. 

For smoothness follows in the wake, 

And quiet and peace and love 

Are all around in freshness new, 

Come down from clouds above. 

All evil go, flow out from here 

And leave all fresh and plain. 

Let negativity not come 

Into this room again. 

For love I now find all around, 

So soft, so still so sure; 

I can perform my rituals 

As peace and quiet endure." 

Now light some incense. Stick incense or cones will do 
but you will find that, for ritual and magickal work, it is 
better to burn powdered incense on a charcoal bric- 
quet, in a hanging censer (More on this below). Go 
again about the room, this time swinging the censer in 
each and every corner. Again say the lines you said 
when you sprinkled the water. 

But what if you do not have a whole room to dedi- 
cate as a temple? That is all right. You can take the corner 
of any room — living room, bedroom or kitchen and 
make that your temple. Again, let's look at the ideal 

An area at least five feet square is needed. You 
might like to arrange rails and curtains so that the area 
can be curtained off from the rest of the room, though 
this is not a necessity. You may paint this section of the 
wall differently from the rest of the room, to suit your 
desires. If you can choose an area in the east it is 
preferable. Keep your working tools and supplies 
locked away in any convenient place but, here in your 
temple area, keep your altar. You may keep it pushed 
up against the wall when not in use, if you wish. On the 
altar always keep an altar candle (generally white but, 
as we progress, you will learn of other colors and their 
times for use) and your representations of the deities. 
These can be either statuettes or pictures, as outlined 
below. This temple area should be cleaned, sprinkled 
and censed in the same way as the full room temple 
detailed above. 

The last consideration is for the person who, 
perhaps, has a very small apartment or who shares a 
room with someone not necessarily sympathetic to 
the Craft. Again there should be no real problem. The 
main thing is to have somewhere to lock away your 

Working Tools. If you can have an altar and leave it set 
up with candle and deity figures, you can put it any- 
where convenient in the room. Again the east is pre- 
ferable. Try to keep your roommate (s) from using it as 
a coffee-table/catch-all, if you can! If it is not possible to 
have a regular altar — specially made or adapted and 
kept for ritual use — then you can get by using a coffee- 
table or similar. In this case keep your deity figures 
wherever convenient ... on a table, shelf or sideboard. 
They should be respected by your roommate (s) in the 
same way that you would respect their, or anyone 
else's, crucifix or Virgin Mary figure, or whatever, 
should they have such. When you are able to do your 
rituals (presumably alone) all you need do is clear 
enough floor space anywhere convenient and set up 
your Circle, altar, etc.. Afterwards you will have to 
clear everything away again. 

There are many full covens who meet regularly in 
one-room apartments. A little light furniture moving 
and a Circle can be cast and a ritual enjoyed. So, you 
see, there is nothing to prevent you from having a temple. 
One final word: as mentioned earlier, some Witches/ 
covens hold their rituals outdoors. In fact the majority 
certainly prefer this, though it isn't always possible 
due to (a) lack of a site, or (b) unsuitable weather. If 
you are lucky enough to have access to a small clearing 
in the woods, or any piece of ground where you can be 
private, then don't hesitate to use it. There will be no 
need for the cleansing ritual detailed above; you will 
proceed as will be shown in Lesson Three — Circles of 
Power and Protection. 


You can use virtually anything as an altar. If you 
are holding your Circle outside, then a large rock or a 
tree stump is ideal. If you are indoors, then you can 
utilize a small coffee-table, a wooden box or even 
some boards resting on bricks. 

It is better to have an altar that does not contain 
any steel, so a ready-made table is not really the best 
(unless glued or pegged together). If there has to be 
metal in the table, brass is acceptable. Why is this? It 
has to do with conductivity. The Witch's Knife and 
Sword (and Wand, if used) are the only tools that are 
used for storing and directing energies. They, then, can 
be of a conductive metal — iron or steel. All other items 
should be non-conductive — silver, gold, brass, stone, 
wood — since they are not used in that fashion. 

But why not have a little aesfheticism with your altar? 

22 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Why not do things properly? You are working in a circle, so why not a 
circular altar? To me, a rectangular altar in a circle always looks some- 
what incongruous. This is one of the reasons a tree stump is so ideal. In 
fact a beautiful altar can be made by putting legs on a section of tree- 
trunk. The legs should be glued on. One such altar I have seen was made 
truly beautiful by the maker — a Craftsman in both senses — carving 
figures of the God and the Goddess into the legs. 

The "Altar Furniture" consists of a candle, or candles; incense 
burner (known variously as a "censer" or "thurible"); two dishes, one 
for salt and one for water; libation dish; goblet (s); and figures to 
represent the deities. Of course this is not a hard-and-fast list. Feel free to 
add or subtract according to your needs (it is understood, also, that 
individual traditions dictate certain items, e.g. Gardnerian has cords and 
a scourge) . 

Most Witches "do their thing" in the evenings (not a necessity, of 
course) and so illuminate with candles around the Circle and on the 
altar. A candle on the altar is also helpful so that you can read from the 
book of rituals. Whether you have one candle or two is up to you. 

An incense burner is pretty much a necessity. Incense has been 
used in religious rites for thousands of years. The old belief was that the 




M*K<VfcJV.$ |iX4 

Lesson Two: Beliefs 1 23 

smoke of the incense carried your prayers up to the gods. Certainly it 
adds immeasurably to the atmosphere of the ritual. Since there is frequent 
need to move the incense-burner about the Circle (e.g. to cleanse, or 
"cense" the Circle itself during the consecration part of a ritual) , a simple 
dish to hold a cone or stick of incense is not ideal. It is far better to have a 
hanging (swinging) censer. These can be bought or can be made. A 
special charcoal briquet is then placed in the censer and lit, then powdered 
incense is sprinkled on the charcoal. This is much more economical than 
burning cones or sticks and one briquet will burn for two hours or more. 
Both briquets and powdered incense can be bought at most church supply 
stores. There is nothing against cones or sticks, of course, if you prefer 
them. Choose an incense that you enjoy; nothing too sweet and sickly. If 
you feel you must have a specific incense for a particular ritual, fine, but 
generally I find it doesn't make any difference which ones you use. I 
personally enjoy a good sandalwood or frankincense or one of the better 
"high altar" mixtures of the Christian Church. Incidentally, if you have 
nothing else, you can burn incense in any saucer-like vessel. If you are 
using charcoal briquets and are afraid of the vessel cracking, simply fill it 
with sand and that will absorb the heat. 

Salt and water dishes are found on most Witch altars. Salted water 
represents life (salt itself symbolizes semen, as is detailed in an interest- 
ing essay by Ernest Jones, titled The Symbolic Significance of Salt). Baptismal 
water, or "Holy Water", is nothing more than salt and water. The dishes 
you use can be of any type. Some people even use sea-shells as 

During rituals it is usual to drink some wine (or fruit-juice, if alcohol 
is not possible) . To toast the gods, a libation is always poured first. When 
meeting outdoors this can simply be poured on the ground. But when 
indoors the best, and usual, way is to pour the offering into a dish; the 
Libation Dish. Later — after the ceremony — the dish can be taken outside 
and the wine poured out on the ground. Like the salt and water dishes, 
the libation dish can be of any type. 

The wine goblets of the Priest and Priestess stand on the altar; those 
of the other celebrants are placed on the ground at their feet. Again the 
goblet can be to suit yourself. It could be simply a glass or it could be a 
decorative drinking horn. The latter can be made from cow-horns 
(obtainable from handicraft stores, such as the Tandy Leather Company 
chain), with stands either separate or attached, made from bent silver 
or copper wire or from wood. Some Witches refer to their goblet as a 
"chalice" but, to my mind, this smacks of the eucharistic cup of Christianity 
so I tend to avoid it. 

Some Witches do not care to have deity figures on their altar. The 
majority, however, do. You can seek out actual statues, though good 
ones are not easy to come by (copies of Boticelli's "Birth Of Venus" — 
irreverantly known as "Venus On a Half-Shell"! — are ideal for the God- 
dess) . Many Witches search for years to find a statuette that exactly fits 
the mental image they have of the deity. Antique stores and flea markets/ 
swap meets seem to be the best places to look. Some Wiccans use sym- 
bols, such as a sea-shell for the Goddess and an antler for the God. I have 
seen candles used, also various chess pieces, rocks, plants, etc.. One 

24: 1 Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

possibility is pictures. I have seen beautiful deity 
representations made by decoupaging appropriate 
colored pictures to attractive pieces of wood. If you 
have the talent, of course, there is no reason why you 
shouldn't sculpt or draw your own figures. 


Magick will be dealt with in detail later, in Lesson 
Eleven. There you will learn all the many and varied 
forms of magick and their workings. However, here I 
would like to take a quick look at some of the rudiments 
of magick; the basics. 

First among these is TIMING. You may know that 
the Moon is frequently associated with Witchcraft, but 
you may not know why. One of the reasons is that the 
phases of the Moon are important to the proper work- 
ing of magick. Taking the two main phases: the time 
from the New Moon, through the First Quarter, to the 
Full Moon is known as the Waxing Moon. From the 
Full, through the Last Quarter, to the New is known as 
the Waning Moon. When the Moon is growing in size, 
it is waxing; when it is decreasing in size, it is waning. 








First Quarter 

Last Quarter 





Basically, constructive magick (for growth) is done 
during the waxing cycle and magick for destruction is 
done during the waning cycle. Constructive magick 
would include such things as love, success, protection, 
health, fertility. Destructive magick would include 
such things as binding spells, separation, elimination, 

extermination. There is a certain element of sympa- 
thetic magick just in this time of working. For example, 
as the Moon grows, so grows the opportunity (or 
whatever) for which you are working. Or, as the Moon 
dwindles, so declines the bad habit you are trying to 
overcome, or the wart you are trying to remove. 

The second basic of magick is FEELING. You 
must want whatever you are working at to really hap- 
pen. You must want it with all your being. You must 
put every infinite particle of power into that desire, 
that urge for the act to come to pass. For this reason it is 
usually far more effective to do magick for yourself 
than to do it on someone else's behalf. It is seldom that 
another person can feel as intensely about something 
as the one directly concerned. This strong "feeling" is, 
in effect, the raised "Power" used in magick. As an aid, 
a booster, to your power there can be used a number 
of amplifiers. One of these is Chant and another is 
Rhyme. The rhythmic chanting of a spell, with a solid, 
regular beat, can do much to intensify your feeling 
and, thereby, increase your power. Similarly, dancing 
can raise the power and so can a number of other treat- 
ments, including sex, all of which will be discussed in 
detail in Lesson Eleven. 

One other aspect might be mentioned here. When 
performing magick it is advisable to have a clean body. 
This means cleansed externally and internally. Bathe 
the body (with a spoonful of sea salt added to the 
water. This can be bought at most supermarkets or, 
failing that, at health food stores). Also prepare the 
inner body by the removal of toxins. This is done by 
fasting for twenty-four hours before working magick. 
No alcohol, no nicotine and no sexual activity (more 
specific details later) . 

Whenever doing magick, always consider the 
Wiccan Rede. Will your action harm anyone? If the 
answer is "Yes" . . . don't do it. More later. 


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1. This Lesson deals with Beliefs. Examine your present beliefs on reincarnation. Do you have any past-life 

2. Construct/draw an altar table. Indicate what will be placed on it, and show their arrangement. 


3. Construct a diagram of a temple which would be ideal for your needs. Indicate the area which would best 
reflect your affinities (outside, inside). What actual items would you like it to contain? Make this a realistic 
layout of what your temple will actually be like. 


4. List some examples of magickal workings appropriate for your needs you would do during the waxing cycle 
of the Moon. 

5. List examples of magick you would do during the waning cycle of the Moon. 



The working tools are dictated by the tradition to 
which you belong. In Gardnerian, for example, there 
are eight working tools which include Athame (knife), 
Sword, Wand, Scourge, Cords, White-Handled Knife 
and Pentacle. In the Saxon tradition there are fewer: 
Seax (knife), Sword and Spear. If you are creating 
your own denomination then you can decide for your- 
self which to have and which not to have. All tools, 
after they have been made, are ritually cleansed and 
purified before use, to remove any negative vibra- 
tions. They are then personally charged and conse- 
crated. Details for this are given next lesson. For now, 
as you finish making each tool, wrap it in a piece of 
clean, white linen and store it away safely until you are 
ready for the consecration. 


Every Witch has a personal knife. In many traditions 
this is called an aihamk (pronounced "a-tham-ay"). In 
the Scottish tradition it is a yag-dirk and in the Saxon a 
seax ("see-ax"). The knife usually has a steel, double- 
edged blade, though one exception is in the Frosts' 
tradition, where it is a single-edged brass knife. It 
might be worth quoting from Anglo-Saxon Magic by Dr. 
G. Storms (Gordon Press, NY 1974), an annotated 
translation of various ancient Anglo-Saxon manu- 

"Iron manifestly takes its power from the 
fact that the material was better and scarcer 
than wood or stone for making tools, and 
secondly from the mysterious way in which 
it was originally found: in meteoric stones. 
It needed a specialist and a skilled laborer to 

obtain the iron from the ore and to harden 
it. Indeed we find many peoples regard 
their blacksmiths as magicians . . . among 
them Wayland stands out as the smith par 
excellence. The figure of this wondrous 
(Saxon) smith symbolizing at first the mar- 
vels of metalworking . . . was made the sub- 
ject of heroic legend." 

So iron, or steel, would seem to be the best material 
to use. 

The size of the knife should be to suit yourself; 
whatever feels comfortable. This is your personal tool — 
a magical tool — and as such is something very special. 
It will not do, then, to simply go to a store and buy a 
ready-made knife (though more on that later). The 
best thing, by far, is to make your own from scratch. Of 
course, not everyone is capable of this but, for those 
who are, let me start by looking at how to make one. 

If you can't buy a suitable piece of steel, use an old 
file or chisel and work with that. Whatever steel you 
have, it is going to be hard so your first job will be to 
soften it for working. Heat the steel till it is a dull red. If 
you have no other way of doing it, lay it on the burner 
of a gas or electric stove. You may have to leave it 
there, with the control turned full on, for several hours 
but it will eventually heat up to a dull red. Once it has 
reached that color, turn off the heat and let it cool 
down naturally. That's all there is to it. It will now be 
softened and easier to work. 

Mark on the metal, with a pencil, the shape you 
want it to be (see Figure 3.1). With a powered bandsaw 
(if you have one) , or a simple hacksaw, cut out the pro- 
file and file off any rough edges. Then start shaping the 
blade for sharpness. A grinding wheel would come in 
handy here, though you can work with rough and 


30 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

smooth files. The blade is going to be double-edged, so you are aiming 
for a diamond-shaped cross-section (see Figure 3.2). Finish off the blade 
with two grades of wet and dry paper. 

Now your blade will need to be hardened and tempered. Heat it up 
again, this time until it is red hot. Then take hold of it with a pair of pliers 
and plunge it into a bowl of tepid water (not cold, or the blade will crack) 
or oil. Allow it to cool off then clean it with wet and dry paper. 

Next, to temper it, reheat the blade to a dull red. Again plunge it, 
point downwards, into the tepid water or oil, moving it up and down in 
the liquid. Clean it with wet and dry paper, then heat it up again. Watch 
the blade carefully this time as it changes color. It will go to a bright, light, 
straw color, then to a medium straw color. Immediately plunge the blade 
into water and let it cool off (don't let it get past the straw color; it would 
go on to blue, then purple and green) . Watch the point as that will change 
color first. At the first sign or "blueing" on the point, plunge the blade 
into the water. NOTE: The colors appear quickly. Keep the point the 
furthest from the heat. 

Once the blade is cold take it outside and plunge it into the ground a 
couple of times. Now you have 

Moved the blade through the 
Heated it with 
Plunged it into 
and Showed it to the 





For the handle, take two pieces of wood. Draw around the tang (the 
handle part of the blade) on each of the pieces of wood (see Figure 3.3 and 
3.4). Then chisel out the marked sections, each one to half the thickness 
of the tang. When finished, the two pieces of wood should lay together 


Figure 3.2 

Figure 3.1 

Figure 3.3 

Figure 3.4 

Lesson Three: Tools, Clothing and Names / 31 

perfectly with the tang inserted between them. When you are satisfied 
they fit well, slightly roughen the inside wood and then spread a good 
epoxy resin glue all over. Put the tang in place, press the two wooden 
handle halves together and clamp. When clamping, put on the pressure 
slowly so as to give a better "spread" to the glue. Leave clamped for at 
least three days. 

When removed from the clamp, draw a profile of the handle you 
want on the wood and start cutting/ carving it to shape. 

Some traditions call for certain signs to be carved on the handle. 
Even if yours does not, you may wish to add some decoration. I would 
certainly recommend at least putting your Craft name (described later) 
or monogram on it. You might also like to etch something on the blade. 
This is not too difficult to do. 


Melt some beeswax and cover the blade with it. Then cut into the 
wax with a sharp inscribing tool (a sharpened nail will do the trick), in 
the way you want the inscription to look. Make sure that you go right 
through the wax to expose the metal of the blade. Then pour on either 
sulphuric acid, iodine, or a similar etching agent. Leave for a few minutes 
then hold under running water. The acid will eat into the metal — "etching" 
it — where you have inscribed but the wax will protect the rest of the 
blade. After washing off the acid, clean off the wax and you have your 
etched knife. It would obviously be a good plan to practice first on some 
scrap metal of the same type as the blade, to judge the exact amount of time 
to leave the acid before flushing it away. 

It is possible to purchase an "etching pen". This looks like a ball- 
point pen but contains acid for marking. It will work on steel, brass, 
aluminum and copper and has replaceable cartridges. One such pen is 
manufactured by the Fowler company and should be obtainable from 
any hardware store. 

An alternate to etching is to engrave the blade. This doesn't give as 
solid a marking as the acid etching but is nonetheless effective. Engraving is 
done just like writing with a pen or pencil, but you use an engraving tool 
instead. You can purchase one in a hobby store or, as mentioned, simply 
sharpen a nail to a fine point on a grindstone. A problem many people 
have in engraving is in having the tool slip and score the metal in the 
wrong place (it is necessary to bear down hard on the tool, to make an 
impression, so control is not too easy) . One way to avoid this is to place a 
piece of transparent tape on the blade and mark guide lines on it first 
with a pen. Then simply follow the lines with the engraving tool — the 
tape will be no barrier and will stop the tool from slipping. 

A motorized engraving tool, such as a Dremel®, does a very 
good job. 

There are many who, for whatever reason, are not able to make a 
knife, as described. Don't worry; you can adapt an existing knife. The 
main point is that there should be something of YOU in the athame. So, 
get a knife with a double-edged blade (or get one with a single-edged 
blade and then grind and/or file the second edge to it), such as a hunting 

32 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

knife, and remove the handle. Handles are fitted in a 
variety of ways. Some screw on/off directly; some 
have a pommel at the end, that screws on/off; some 
are even riveted on. However you have to do it, remove 
the handle. Now replace it with one of your own making. 
To do this you can either follow the directions I gave 
above, for making a handle, or you can pattern it after 
the handle you have removed(See Figure 3.5). 

Again, if you wish you can carve the handle or 
etch the blade with your Craft name (in one of the 
magickal alphabets detailed later) or your Magickal 
Monogram. Some truly beautiful athames have been 
made and adapted. I have seen, for example, an 
eighteenth century short bayonet adapted to become 
a magnificent athame. I have also seen handles made 
from deer hooves. Start work on yours now. 

In some traditions of the Craft (e.g. Gardnerian) 
the knife may only be used in the Circle, for ritual use. 
In other traditions (e.g. Scottish) the Witch is encouraged 
to use the tool as often as possible, the feeling being 
that the more it is used, the more mana (or "power") it 
will acquire. 


The Sword is not essential; the knife can always 
substitute for it. But while every individual Witch has 
an athame, many covens like to have a coven sword — 
one for the whole group. The sword is usually used for 
marking the Circle at the start of the meeting; being 
used by the Priest/ess or whoever casts the Circle. It 
can be made in the same way that the knife is, or you 
can purchase one. There are certainly many com- 
panies that offer replicas of ancient swords, these 
days. If you decide to get a ready-made one, again do 
some work on it yourself. In fact, since it is a coven tool, 
it is nice if the whole coven either get together to make 

one or join in engraving and decorating it. 

Other ritual tools are the WAND, STAFF, BELL, 
Which of these you use — none, some, all — will depend 
on the path you decide to follow. If you follow one of 
the established traditions then it will have been decided 
for you. If you are starting from scratch, then it may 
take you a while (weeks, months, perhaps even years) 
to discover which you really need and which you 

If you want a WAND there are several options 
available. Some say that it must be of rowan wood, 
others say of ash, or willow, hazel . . . you can take 
your pick. The trouble here is that a lot of Ceremonial 
Magick has got mixed up with Witchcraft (not just in 
the case of the wand, but with other tools and other 
aspects of the Craft also). For example, some people 
swear that "the wand must be exactly twenty-one 
inches long, cut from a virgin hazel tree (one that has 
never borne fruit), in the hour of Mercury on the day 
of Mercury (Wednesday), etc., etc., etc." Others sim- 
ply go out and buy a length of wood dowel from their 
local hardware store and paint it gold! The fact that 
both wands can work equally well should show that 
the real magick comes not from the tool but from 
within the Magician — or, in this case, the Witch. The 
wand, then, is merely an extension of the operator. As 
such, make your wand whichever way feels right for 
you. If you feel you need to inscribe it with mystical 
signs and symbols, do so. Don't worry about what 
others may say of what you do. As I said in the 
Introduction, there is no one-and-only-one-right-way. 
If it works for you, then it is right. As a suggestion 
(only) for a wand, twenty-one inches is certainly a 






Figure 3.5 

Lesson Three: Tools, Clothing and Names / 33 

convenient length. Another suggestion is a length equal to the length 
from your elbow to your fingertips. Whichever wood you use, taper it 
slightly from the base to the tip. You can mark it, if you wish, by engrav- 
ing or even by wood-burning. Paint it, stain it, or leave it plain. Decora- 
tive bands of silver or copper can look attractive. Some traditions (e.g. 
Frost's) drill the length of the wand and insert a metal rod. 

What I said for the wand applies equally to the STAFF. The staff can, 
in effect, be a large wand and is used as such in such traditions as the 
Scottish (Pecti-Wita) . I have seen some wonderful staffs, decorated with 
leather, feathers, gems; carved and engraved. All were right for their 
particular owners. A good length for a staff is equal to the height of its 
owner. Hardwood seems preferable to softwood, and it should be well 
seasoned and as straight as possible. 

The BELL is used by some and I have, in fact, included it in the 
rituals in this book. For centuries it has been thought to have certain 
magickal qualities. In my book Practical Color Magick (Llewellyn Publica- 
tions, 1983) I talk about vibrations of sound. The clear, high pitch of a 
small bell, used in ritual, can cause vibrations that can, in many ways, 
supplement the power raised and also create harmony among those 
present. Choose a small hand-bell with a note that is pleasant. Some 
bells — especially cheaply produced ones — can have a harsh note to 
them; avoid these. If you wish to engrave the bell, do so. Or, if it has a 
wooden handle, you might want to work on that. 

The BURIN is simply an engraving tool used to mark the name or 
sigil (symbol), ritually, on your magickal tools. Some traditions (e.g. 
Gardnerian) borrow from Ceremonial Magick and use a WHITE-HILTED 
KNIFE in the same way. I personally do not see the need to regard this 
instrument as a ritual tool, in the Craft, any more than I would a file or 
hacksaw. However, if you feel you want this as part of your complement, 
by all means include it. A burin is simply an engraving tool with a handle, 
and can be made by fitting a sharpened nail, or similar, to a wooden handle 
in the same way as you fitted the athame blade to a wooden handle using 
the two pieces of wood. 

Some traditions (e.g. Alexandrian) use CORDS of different colors 
to denote the degree of the wearer. But the more important use of cords 
is in the working of magick. I will therefore leave details of cords till a 
later lesson, when I discuss magick and, specifically, Cord Magick. 


Many covens — and certainly the vast majority of Solitary Witches — 
work naked . . . referred to, in the Craft, as skyclad — "clad only by the 
sky". This certainly seems a preferred and recommended practice. But 
there are times when, perhaps due to temperature, you may wish to be 
robed. It may even be that you just prefer to be robed most of the time 
anyway . . . that's all right. 

Robes can be as simple or as elaborate as you like. I here give you 
instructions for making a simple one. Those more adept with a needle 
than I am may elaborate to their heart's content. 

Any type material will do, the choice is up to you — polyester (if you 

In a recent discussion on Witchcraft, the ques- 
tion came up 'What proof is there that Witches 
always worked naked? Is this tradition, or is 
it a recent innovation?' 

There are certainly many early illustrations 
of naked Witches anointing themselves pre- 
paratory to their departure for the Sabbat, but 
there are also illustrations of Witches at the 
Sabbat who are clothed. For interest I did a little 
research to see how many, if any, such early 
illustrations showed the Witches actually naked 
at the Sabbat. The result was fairly conclusive. 

Hans Baldung Grun, the sixteenth Century 
German, did any number of Witch illustrations 
(Witches at Work and Witches' Sabbat 
are typical) all showing naked participants. 
Albrecht Durer's The Four Sorcerers is of 
naked Witches. The Douce Collection, Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, contains an illustration of 
The Witches Sabbat On the Bracken with 
many of the participants naked. Practically all 
of Goya's paintings of Witches show them 
naked (Two Witches Flying On a Broom 
being typical) and especially interesting is the 
1613 (Paris) edition of Pierre de Lancre's 
Tableau de I'inconstance des mauvais 
anges which shows a great gathering of 
Witches with a circle of dancing nudes in one 
part and a nude mother presentingher equally 
naked child to the Homed God in another 

It would seem, then, that there was no hard 
and fast rule. As is found today, some covens 
only strip when working magick but other- 
wise wear loose robes. Other covens are naked 
throughout their rites. 

Witchcraft Ancient and Modem 
Raymond Buckland, HC Publications, NY 


Throughout the fifteenth century a popular 
headdress for women was the tall, conical 
'dunce hat'; sometimes with a brim but more 
often without. By the early sixteenth century 
this was no longer the fashion at court or in 
the large cities and towns. The fashion, indeed 
the actual hats themselves, eventually found 
their way out to the villages and farms. Part of 
the purging by the new religion was to show 
that the Old Religion was outdated. Witches 
were therefore pictured, at this time, wearing 
the demode head-gear — they were 'behind 
the times'; out of fashion. 

Witchcraft from the Inside 
Raymond Buckland, Llewellyn 1971 

34 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

must!), silk, cotton, wool. Consider, though, its weight: 
will it be too heavy and hot, or too light and cool? Also 
consider how easily it creases and wrinkles. Will it 
stretch too much? Is it washable? Will it itch? Since 
Witches wear nothing under their robes, this last is a 
serious consideration! 

Measure yourself from wrist to wrist, with arms 
outstretched (Figure 3.6, measurement A), then from the 
nape of the neck to the ground (measurement B) . You 
will need to buy material of A width by twice B length. 
Take the material and fold it in half, as in Figure 3.6. If 
the material has an "outside" and an "inside", fold it 
inside out. Now cut out a piece from each side, as 
indicated. You will be left with what you see in Figure 
3.7; a more-or-less "T" shape. 

The exact dimensions of the cuts will depend on 
you. Leave enough for a full sleeve at "x" but don't take 
it up to make it too tight under the arm at "y". I recom- 
mend you experiment with paper first (pattern paper 
can be purchased from material stores) . At "z" cut an 
opening for your head, as shown. Sew where indicated: 
along the bottom of the sleeves and down the sides. 
All that remains is to turn it right side out again, try it 
on and hem it to a convenient length (e.g. an inch or so 
above the ground) . If you wish to add a cowl-hood 
there will be plenty of material available from that 
initially cut off. Either a pointed or a rounded hood 
is appropriate. 

Add a cord around the waist as a finishing touch. 
Some wear a magickal cord but I am of the opinion 
that a magickal cord is for working magick, not for 
holding your robe (things were different during the 
persecutions, when it was necessary to hide one's 
magical tools. It is not necessary now). 

Think carefully about the color of your robe. It 
used to be that most Witches wore white robes, but I'm 
glad to see more and more color appearing at festivals. 
In Saxon Witchcraft, the Priest/ess wears either white, 
purple or deep green and the others wear greens, 
browns, yellows and blues, though this is not a hard 
and fast rule. Combinations of colors can be attractive, 
of course, as can a basic color trimmed with silver or 
gold, or with a second color. Some few Witches do 
wear black but, while acknowledging it to be a very 
"powerful" color (in fact a non-color), I personally 
think that it plays up the misconception of equating 
Witchcraft with Satanism and, if only for that reason, 
should be avoided. We are a religion of Nature, so let's 
use the colors of Nature . . . the bright and the sombre 
earth colors (there is actually very little black to be 
found in nature). But again, in the last instance it is 
your choice. 


In some traditions certain jewelry is used to signify 
rank. For example, in Gardnerian Witchcraft female 
Witches of all degrees wear a necklace (signifying the 
Circle of Rebirth); the Third Degree High Priestess 
wears a wide silver bracelet, with certain specific 
inscriptions; the High Priest wears a torque-like gold 
or brass bracelet (again with certain signs on it); and 
the Queen wears a crescent-moon crown of silver and 
a silver-buckled green garter*. In other traditions dif- 
ferent customs rule. 

Generally many Witches — though females especial- 
ly — wear a headband. 

Necklaces and pendants are very popular, including 

Figure 3.6 

Figure 3.7 

*Not a "garter-belt", as one writer once reported! 

Lesson Three: Tools, Clothing and Names 1 35 

necklaces of acorns, beans, wooden beads or similar. Rings, often bearing 
inscriptions or depictions of the deities, are also very popular. Certainly 
there are some very talented Witch jewelers who produce incredibly 
beautiful items that deserve to be displayed. 

But some people feel that jewelry has no place in the Circle. There 
are some who feel that it is a hindrance to the raising of power — though 
in almost a quarter of a century of practice I have never found this to be 
true. However, I do respect those who do feel this way. If they truly 
believe that it restricts, then it will restrict. So, decide for yourself 
whether to encourage the use of jewelry; whether to limit its use; 
whether to use it to denote position; whether to prohibit it altogether. 


Where the Priest and Priestess may each wear a band of copper or 
silver, with a crescent moon, sun, or similar, at the front, the Priest may 
wear a Horned Helmet at certain rites where he specifically represents 
the God, and the Priestess may wear a Goddess Crown at certain rites 
where she specifically represents the Goddess. These are not difficult 
things to make. In fact here are two or three possible ways to make the 
Horned Helmet (you might even be able to purchase one, if you search 
hard enough. Replica "Viking helmets" are made these days). One way 

Horned Helmet of a High Priest 

36 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

is to take a stainless steel or copper mixing bowl of the right size to fit 
your head. You may have to squeeze the sides inwards slightly to make it 
more of an ellipse than a circle. Any handle, hook or hanging-ring 
should be removed. Take two cow horns and insert and glue wood- 
blocks in their mouths (see Figure 3.8). Now drill two holes through the 
bowl, one on either side, and put screws through from the inside, into 
the wood blocks in the horns. Put some epoxy glue between the horns/ 
wood-blocks and the bowl, also, to help hold them firm. The bottom of 
the horns, where they join the bowl, can be bound with leather to cover 
and hide the join. 

Another possibility is to make a leather hat and attach horns. Basic 
patterns for hats can be purchased in any department store or piece 
goods store. Most of them involve cutting segments and sewing them 
together. You can fasten the horns as described above, but you will need 
a large square or circular "washer" on the inside, against which to tighten 
the screws. 

Yet another way is to make an open copper (or other metal) circlet 
for the head and attach the horns to that. In all of the above, antlers may 
be used in lieu of cowhorns. It will be necessary, however, to drill a hole 
in the base of the antler to accept the screw. 


I have talked about engraving and etching your working tools and 
putting your Craft name on them (more on your name and how to 
choose it, later). There are a number of different "Magickal Alphabets" 
that can be used for this.* Most popular are various of the runic alphabets 
and the Theban form of writing found in Ceremonial Magick. Let's look at 
runes first. 

The word Rune means "mystery" or "secret" in Early English and 
related languages. It is certainly heavily charged with overtones, and for 
good reason. Runes were never a strictly utilitarian script. From their 
earliest adaptation into Germanic usage they served for divinatory and 
ritual uses. The Seax-Wica use a runic alphabet which is as follows: 






















1 r 
S T 





I, J 









Y Z 


Figure 3.8 


There are to be found more variations of Runes 
than any other alphabet, it seems. Adopted by 
Witches and Magicians alike Runic served as 
a very popular form of occult writing. There 
are three main types of Runes: Germanic, 
Scandinavian, and Anglo-Saxon. They each, 
in turn, have any number of subdivisions/ 

Looking first at the GERMANIC, there are 
basically twenty-four different runes employed, 
though variations may be found in different 
areas. A common name for the Germanic 
Runes is futhark, after the first six letters 
("th" is one letter— f> ). In the SCAN- 
DINAVIAN (Danish and Swedish-Norwegian, 
or Norse) are found sixteen runes, again with 
(innumberable) variations. 

The ANGLO-SAXON Runes vary in num- 
ber, anywhere from twenty-eight to thirty- 
one. In fact by the ninth Century, in Northumbria, 
we find thirty-three runes. A common name 
for the Anglo-Saxon Runes is futhorc, again 
from the first six letters. 

The Tree: The Complete Book 

of Saxon Witchcraft 

Raymond Buckland, 

Samuel Weiser, NY 1974 

*These forms of writing are also used in the making of charms and talismans and will be discussed further, in that context, in a later lesson. 

Lesson Three: Tools, Clothing and Names 1 37 

It will be noticed that any of the glyphs can be 
written backwards (sometimes referred to as "mirror 
writing") . If there are double letters in a word (e.g. 
merry; boss) then one of the double letters would be 
reversed, giving the mirror image: 

MERRY =|X| M^f*f\ 

boss = & p* *i r 1 

With the single symbols for "th" and "ng", for example, 
you can write a five-letter word like "thing" with only 
three symbols: p j ^ 
Examples of names in runes: 

MERLIN = M M F* T I + 
NAUDIA = t K h H I K 
ISSBIA = | i P 1 & | f 

THRENG = f> f* fvl £ 

An interesting MAGICKAL MONOGRAM can 
be made up by superimposing one runic letter over 
another, for your Craft name. For example, "Diana" 
would be 

The first letter oA already contains the second \ LJ 
Adding the third: p would give v W ~ fH 
Now to add the fourth p gives i>2 p = p<. 
And the fifth n^ is the same as the third, so it 

is already there. So the Magickal Monogram for 

iS H 

That single glyph contains the whole name, with all 
its power. 

Another example: 

MERLIN =f><|+|\/| + f* + f^ + | +\ =f^ 

In this instance I have taken the liberty of "lifting" 

the center of the E \\fi tnus: \^\ 

so that it will fit exactly over the M pj thus: ( I CXj 

It is always possible, also, to reverse a letter (any letter) 
so that the Monogram will not be clumsy. The aim is to 
make it as simple as possible yet to incorporate all of 
the letters. Practice with Monograms. Aim to get them 
down to the simplest sigil possible. 

One thing to remember in writing runes: do keep 
the characters upright. 


One reason (apart from just being incorrect to slope 
them) is that it can cause confusion. For example, in 
the Seax-Wica runes, a sloping N rune would look like 

The THEBAN alphabet is used quite a lot in the 
Craft. In Gardnerian, for example, it is used for writ- 
ing the High Priestess's name on her bracelet. It is an 
attractive form of writing. The runes are angular, 
with no curves, because they were used for carving 
into wood and stone. But the Theban was written on 
parchment, as well as being engraved and etched on 
talismans, so could be more elaborate. The Theban 
Alphabet is depicted in Figure 3.9. 1 will speak more on 
this alphabet, and several others, in the later lesson on 
charms and talismans. 

38 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

\ i n ^ a 









Signifying the 
end of a sentence 


7 If y 1/ 

I J 





y 3 \ y j? 

% i % \ x 


\ \\ T % \ 

. . . To know a person 's name is to have a hold, 
a power, over them. For to know the name is to 
be able to conjure with it. Sir James Frazer tells 
the story of Isis obtaining the most secret 
name of Ra, the great Egyptian sun god, so 
that she might use it to make herself a goddess. 
She fashioned a serpent from the spittle ofRa, 
and the earth on which it fell, and laid it in his 
path so that it bit him. He cried out for help 
from 'the children of the gods with healing 
words and understanding lips, whose power 
reacheth to heaven . . . And Isis came with 
her craft, whose mouth is full of the breath of 
life, whose spells chase pain away, whose 
word maketh the dead to live. 'Ra told her how 
he had been stung while out walking and Isis 
said, 'Tell me thy name, divine Father, for the 
man shall live who is called by this name. 'Ra 
told her many of the names by which he was 
known, all the time growing weaker. Isis, 
however, refused to heal him, repeating "That 
was not thy name that thou speakest unto me. 
Oh tell it me, that the poison may depart; for 
he shall live whose name is named. ' Finally 
Ra gave Isis his true name and she caused the 
poison to flow away; and she became 'the 
queen of the gods, she who knows Ra and his 
true name'. 

Witchcraft from the Inside 

Raymond Buckland, 
Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN 1971 



You are starting your life anew (in effect) . Why not start it with a 
name of your choosing, then, rather than one that was given to you by 
your parents (and which you may not care too much for) ? Many Witches 
choose a name which, they feel, reflects their personality or, in some 
way, describes their interests or feelings. Names are important. It used to 
be that, to know someone's name was to have a power over them — for if 

Lesson Three: Tools, Clothing and Names 1 39 

you knew the name of your enemy you could conjure 
with it. In Borneo, the Dyaks believe very strongly in 
the power of a name. A mother, there, will never call 
her child home, after dark, using his real name in case 
an evil spirit should learn the name and call the child 
itself. The mother will only call the child by a "nick- 
name". Your Witch name need not be kept a solemn 
secret but at least respect it. Use it only with other 
Witches or, at least, only with those close to you. 

Of course you may be quite happy with your 
regular, given name. If you want to use that as your 
Witch name also, that is fine. However, check it out 
numerologically, as describe below, before you make 
a final decision Some Witches take names from his- 
tory or mythology, especially those names associated 
with their branch of the Craft (Welsh names in Welsh 
traditions; Saxon names in Saxon traditions, etc.). 
Others make up names. You will be called by your 
name only; it is not used with the prefix "Witch . . .", as 
in "Witch Morgan" or "Witch Hazel"(!), as sometimes 
found in cheap novels. 

In some traditions the prefix "Lady", or even 
"Lord", is used. In Gardnerian the High Priestess is 
always referred to as "Lady . . (Name) . ." When 
speaking directly to her, it is also proper to say "My 
Lady". She is the only one so called, in that tradition, 
and no male in Gardnerian is ever called "Lord . . . 
(Name) . . ." 

Whichever name you choose, or feel especially 
drawn to, check out to see if it is in fact right for you. 
You do this through numerology. There are a number 
of different systems of numerology. The below is 
probably the most commonly used. Follow it step 
by step. 

1) Find your Birth Number by adding the digits of 
your date of birth, e.g. If you were born June 23rd 
1956, your number would be 

6.23.1956 = 6+2+3+1+9+5+6 = 32 
Bring that down to a single digit: 3 + 2 = 5 
Then 5 is your Birth Number. 
Note: Be sure to include the "19" of the year 
(1956). There are still people alive who were 
born in the late 1 800's and it won't be long before 
we are into the 2000's, so it is important. 

2) Find the Name Number of the name you have 

This is done by equating all the letters of the 
alphabet with the first nine numbers: 




































Suppose you like the name DIANA. Using the 
above chart, D = 4, 1 = 9, A = 1, N = 5, and A = 1. 
Therefore DIANA = 4+9+ 1+5+1 = 20 = 2. But your 
Birth Number was 5. For your Witch Name you should 
aim for a name that matches your Birth Number. In the 
above example, you could do this by adding a "3" let- 
ter to DIANA: a C, L or U. So you could have, perhaps, 
DICANA, DILANA OR DIANAU, all of which would 
then add up to 5. If you don't care for any of those, 
think again of another possible name and check it 

It may take a while to find a name, or choice of 
names, that you like and that are numerologically cor- 
rect, but it is well worth it. Perhaps the best method is 
to get an assortment of appropriate letters and keep 
rearranging them until you hit an attractive combina- 
tion (from the above "Diana" example, NAUDIA might 
be a possibility) . I will be looking more at numerology 
in Lesson Nine. 

Why does the name have to match your Birth 
Number? Because your Birth Number is unchanging. 
People can change their names, addresses, etc., but 
they cannot change their date of birth. By choosing a 
new name that matches that Birth Number, you are 
then aligning yourself with that same vibration; the 
vibration of the moment you chose to be born. 

As I mentioned above, there are several different 
systems of numerology. This is probably the most 
popular and, I have found, the most accurate. But if 
you feel more comfortable with a different system, 
then use it. The important thing is, whichever system 
you use, attune your new name to your Birth Number. 


Lesson Three deals with the making of your sup- 
plies. Decide how you will make your tools. What 
materials will you use? You can make your own 
or adapt an existing tool. Illustrate what tools you 
plan to use. 

2. Explain how you intend to make/obtain your 
athame. What will you do to make it specifically 

3. What special name will you choose? 

Determine the number value of your given name 
and your new name using numerology. 


5. Design your robe. What color, fabric will you 
use? What were your reasons for these choices? 
Make an illustration or diagram of your robe 




A "Rite of Passage" is a transition from one state of life to another. 
Birth, marriage and death are examples. Van Gennep, a Flemish anthro- 
pologist, was the first to so label such rituals, in 1909. The main Rite of 
Passage that you will be concerned with is that of Initiation. It is impor- 
tant that you be aware, and have some understanding, of the different 
parts of the initiation ritual and its symbolism. 

In its most general sense, initiation denotes a body of rites and oral 
teachings arranged to bring about a very definite change in both the 
religious and the social status of the person undergoing the ritual. There 
is a catharsis: a spiritual cleansing. The person becomes, in effect, another 
person. The central theme of an initiation (any initiation, whether it be 
Witchcraft, primitive tribal or even Christian, in form) is what is termed a 
Palingenesis: a rebirth. You are ending life as you have known it to this 
point and are being "born again" . . . and reborn with new knowledge. 

All initiation rituals follow the same basic pattern. And this is 
worldwide: Australian aboriginals, Africans, Amerindians, Eskimos, 
Pacific Islanders, Witches, ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, to 
name but a few. All include the same basic elements in their rites. 

First comes a SEPARATION. With many peoples this is a literal 
separation from friends and especially from family; from all they have 
known so far. Oftimes there is a special hut, cave or building of some 
sort, where the novices are taken. There they begin their training. 

A CLEANSING, externally and internally, is the next important 
part. With some primitives this might include complete removal of all 
body hair. It would certainly include a period, or periods, of fasting and 
of sexual abstinence. In certain areas there are also various dietary 
taboos prior to fasting. 

A SYMBOLIC DEATH is one of the maj or parts of initiation, though 
some primitives do not realize that it will be only symbolic and fully 
expect to actually be put to death. With some tribes it does include actual 
dismemberment; perhaps circumcision, tattooing, the amputation of a 
finger or the knocking out of a tooth. Ritual scourging is another, more 
common, symbolic form of death. Or the death could take the form of a 
"monster" — perhaps the tribe's totem animal — swallowing the initiate. 


A typical initiation ceremony is the one found in 
Gardnerian Witchcraft. It is in four parts. The 
first part is known as the Challenge. The Initiate 
is asked if she really does want to go through 
with it. this may seem a simple and needless 
question. But from first making contact with a 
coven it may have taken anywhere up to a year 
for the would-be Witch to reach the point of 
initiation. This time is necessary, from the Craft's 
point of view, to sort out the wheat from the 
chaff; those who are sincerely interested in Witch- 
craft as a religion, as opposed to those who 
have all the wrong ideas — believing it to be 
Devil-worship, looking for wild orgies, want- 
ing to join "just for kicks ", etc., etc. . So after the 
very long waiting period, during which she has 
been reading and studying, the Initiate is at last 
there on the threshold. She looks about the Inner 
Sanctum for the first time— at the flickering 
candles, the smoking incense, the stem-faced Priest 
pointing a sword directly at her. It may seem a 
little ominous to her; a little frightening. It would 
be small wonder if she then and there decided she 
would not bother going through with it after 
all . . . perhaps she'd take up macrame instead! If 
such should be her decision she is free to turn 
around and walk away. But after the long waiting 
period there are few, if any, who decide that way. 
So, after the challenge, the Initiate is blindfolded 
and bound and led into the Circle . . . There is an 
Oath of Secrecy taken by the Initiate, in the 
majority of traditions. Once this has been taken 
the blindfold can be removed and, shortly after- 
wards, the cords. It is strictly an oath of secrecy. 
There is no repudiation of any previous religion. 
There are no crosses to spit upon, no pacts to sign 
in blood, no goat's buttocks to kiss! After the oath 
comes the Showing of the Tools. Each coven has a 
number of so-called "working tools". These are 
presented, one by one, to the Initiate by the 
Priest. As each one is presented its use is explained 
and, to show she has understood the explana- 
tion, the Initiate lays her hands briefly on the 
tool . . .At the end of the ceremony the Initiate is 
taken, by the High Priest, around the Circle to 
the four cardinal points. At each of these she is 
Presented to the Gods — who are believed to be 
there witnessing the event — as a newly made 
Priestess and Witch. 

Anatomy Of the Occult 
Raymond Buckland, Samuel Weiser, NY 1977 

42 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

After "death" the initiand then finds himself in 
the womb, awaiting his new birth. In some societies he 
finds himself in a hut which represents the world. 
He is at its center; he inhabits a sacred microcosm. The 
initiate is in the chthonian Great Mother — Mother 
Earth. There are innumerable myths of great heroes, 
gods and goddesses, descending into Mother Earth 
(remember the myth of the Seax-Wica Goddess, 
given in Lesson Two) and triumphantly returning. 
Within that earth-womb they invariably find great 
knowledge, for it is often the home of the dead who, 
traditionally, can see into the future and therefore 
know all things. Therefore the initiates, by virtue of 
being in the womb, will learn NEW KNOWLEDGE. 
This is underscored in the Congo, for example, 
where those who have not been initiated are called 
vanga ("the unenlightened") and those who have 
been initiated are the nganga ("the knowing ones"). 

After receiving this new knowledge, the initiate is 
REBORN. If he has been swallowed by a monster, he 
may either be born from it or disgorged from its mouth 
(the mouth is often a substitute for the vagina). In 
some African tribes he will crawl out from between 
the legs of the women of the village, who stand in a 
long line. He is now given a new name and starts his 
new life. Interestingly enough there are several paral- 
lels of this renaming to be found in the Roman Catholic 
Church: a new name is taken at confirmation; on 
becoming a nun a woman takes a new name; a new 
name is given to a newly elected Pope. 

On excavating at Pompeii, there was found a villa, 
named the "Villa of Mysteries". This was where every- 
one in ancient Italy originally went to be initiated into 
the Orphic Mysteries. In the Initiation Room itself 
there are frescoes painted around the walls showing a 
woman going through the various stages of initiation. 
In this instance the symbolic death was a scourging. 
Part of the revelation of knowledge came from the 
initiand scrying* with a polished bowl. The final scene 
shows her, naked, dancing in celebration of her new 
birth. The scenes are typical of the palingenesis of 

The full initiation into Witchcraft contains all the 
above elements. There is not quite the literal separa- 
tion, at the start, but you will, of course, have separated 
yourself from others in the sense of absorbing your- 
self in your studies of the Craft. You will also spend 
much time alone, meditating on what you are about to 
undertake. You will cleanse yourself, by bathing and 
fasting — only bread, honey and water are allowed for 

twenty-four hours prior to the actual initiation — and 
by sexual abstinence. 

At the ritual itself, rather than any rigorous 
symbolic death or dismemberment, you will exper- 
ience a blindfolding and binding, which symbolize 
the darkness and restriction of the womb. As you are 
"born", these restrictions will fall from you. You will 
gain new knowledge as certain things are revealed to 
you, and then receive a new name. You will be 
welcomed to your new life by your brothers and 
sisters of the Craft. The full initiation is a very moving 
experience — many claim it to be the most moving of 
their entire lives. 

The usual process is that you find a coven and, 
after a trial period, are accepted into it and initiated. 
But supposing you are starting from scratch; a group 
of friends who are going to form their own coven and, 
basically, start their own tradition? How does the first 
person get initiated, so that s/he can initiate the others? 
Similarly, if you are a Solitary, not wanting to join a 
group, how do you go about it? The answer is, through 

Some years ago the majority of Witches (myself 
included!) frowned on the very idea of a self-initiation. 
We didn't stop to think of (a) what might have been 
done in the "old times", for those living miles from any 
coven, or (b) how did the first Witch get initiated? 
Today some of us at any rate are more enlightened. 

The Self-Dedication is exactly that — it is a dedicat- 
ing of oneself to the service of the gods. It does not 
contain all the elements we have mentioned above, 
but is none the less a moving experience. A full coven 
initiation may always be taken at a later date, if you so 
desire of course, but note that it would not be manda- 
tory — just a matter of personal preference. 

A question often asked is, "How valid is self initia- 
tion?" To some traditions it is not valid at all (though 
one might question the whole "validity" of those 
traditions themselves!). Certainly you couldn't self- 
initiate yourself as a Gardnerian, for example. But the 
point here is, how valid is it to YOU? If you are sincere; 
if you wish to become a Witch and to worship the old 
gods; if you have no ulterior motives . . .TTIS VALID, 
and don't listen to anyone who says it is not. 

Obviously if you want to be part of a particular 
tradition and that tradition has its set initiation rite (as 
with Gardnerian, as I just mentioned), then you must 
go through that particular rite to j oin that tradition. But 
no one tradition has the right to say what is correct or 
incorrect for another. It seems to me that far too many 

*See Lesson Nine — Divination. 

Lesson Four: Getting Started 1 43 

people get hung-up on a "line of descent" — who 
initiated whom, and through whom? — rather than 
getting on with the business of worship. One of the 
oldest of the modern traditions is the Gardnerian and 
that (in its present form) is only about thirty-five years 
old, as of this writing. Not very old when we look at the 
whole picture of Witchcraft. So if a Gardnerian initia- 
tion (for example) can be considered "valid", then so 
can yours. 


A Roman ambassador in a foreign country would 
draw a circle around himself with his staff, to show he 
should be safe from attack; the Babylonians drew a cir- 
cle of flour on the floor round the bed of a sick man, to 
keep demons away; German Jews, in the Middle Ages, 
would draw a circle round the bed of a woman in 
labor, to protect her from evil spirits. The use of a circle 
to mark the boundary of an area which is sacred, is 
very ancient (e.g. Stonehenge). But the circle not only 
keeps the unwanted out, it also keeps the wanted — 
the raised power; the magickal energy — in. 

The dimensions of the circle depend entirely on 
who is drawing it and for what purpose. In Ceremonial 
Magick, where the Magician is conjuring entities, the 
exactness of the circle (and everything within it) is 
critical. But there is the other end of the scale, as it 
were. In the old days, when the villagers would get 
together to give thanks to their gods, they would simply 
mark a rough circle on the ground, usually very crudely 
drawn, and use it whether accurate or not. Its purpose 
was merely to designate a space to be hallowed for the 
rites; a place "special" for that purpose. Your circle 
does not have to be as painstakingly accurate as the 
Ceremonial Magician's (though more on this in Lesson 
Eleven — Magick), yet it is drawn with a certain amount 
of care and exactness. The Coven Circle is nine feet in 
diameter; the Individual's Circle is five feet. The draw- 
ing of the Circle starts, and finishes, in the East and is 
always drawn clockwise, or deosil. If you are meeting 
outdoors, then the Circle is actually marked on the 
ground with the sword, as the Priest/ess walks around. 
Indoors the Circle should first be marked on the floor 
with a length of white cord, with chalk, or — if you have 
a permanent temple — it can be painted in white paint. 
But the Priest/ess will still walk around with the sword, 
starting and finishing in the east, "marking" it and 
directing power into it through the point of the sword. 

On the line of the Circle stand four white, unlit 

candles; one in the north, one in the east, one in the 
south and one in the west. If you wish, there may be 
additional candles, already lit, between these four. 
They should stand around the Circle but outside the 
line. They would be there purely for extra illumina- 
tion, if required. 

The first ritual performed, always, is what, in 
Saxon Witchcraft, is called ERECTING THE TEMPLE. 
Other traditions call it, variously, OPENING THE CIR- 
CLE, CASTING THE CIRCLE, or similar. In this ritual 
the Circle and all within it is properly purified and 
consecrated. For now I will just deal with casting a Cir- 
cle sufficient for your Self-Dedication/Initiation. Pre- 
suming that you have not yet even made your athame, 
this casting is of the most basic. You will need your 
altar furniture: candle, censer, goblet or drinking- 
horn, salt and water, libation dish and (if you wish) 
figures representing the deities. There should be wine 
in the goblet. 


This ritual should be performed during the wax- 
ing moon, as close to the full moon as possible. For the 
ritual I would suggest you be completely naked, 
wearing no jewelry of any kind. 

Along with the rest of the altar furniture there 
should be a small dish of anointing oil (see Lesson Thir- 
teen, page 198 for recipe) standing between the water and 
the salt. 

The altar is set up in the center so that, when you 
stand in front of it, you are facing east. The Circle is 
indicated (by cord, chalk or paint) about you. Sit, or 
kneel, before the altar with your eyes closed. Concen- 
trate your thoughts on seeing, in your mind's eye, 
yourself enclosed in a ball of white light. Direct your 
energies to make that light expand to completely fill 
the Circle. Hold it for a moment and then relax. Open- 
ing your eyes, stand and move to the east. Point your 
right forefinger (left, if left-handed) down at the Circle 
line. Walk slowly around the Circle, deosil, "drawing" 
the Circle through the power being directed down 
your arm and off your pointing finger (figure 4.1A). 
When you have been all the way around, return to the 
altar (figure 4.1B). Light the altar candle and the in- 
cense. Now take the altar candle and, moving round 
the altar, light the east candle from the altar candle. 
Continue and light the south, west and north candles 
(figure A) . Continue on back to the east then back to 
standing in front of the altar, and replace the altar can- 
dle (figure B). Now, again concentrate your energies 

44/ Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

down your arm and finger and place the tip of your forefinger in the 
salt. Say: 

"Salt is Life. Let this Salt be pure and let it purify my life, as I 
use it in this Rite, dedicated to the God and the Goddess* in 
whom I believe." 

Now take three pinches of the salt and drop them, one at a time, into the 
water. Stir the water three times round, deosil, with your finger and 

"Let the Sacred Salt drive out any impurities in this Water that 
together they may be used in the service of these deities; 
throughout these Rites and at any time and in any way I may 
use them." 

Take the bowl of salted water to the east and, walking deosil, sprinkle it 
on the line of the Circle. Replace it on the altar; take up the censer and, 
again from the east, go around the Circle once more, swinging the 
incense-burner along its line. Return to the altar and replace it. 

There are several ways of creating a tem- 
porary Circle. One is to permanently mark the 
Circle on a secondary piece of carpet that can 
be rolled up and put away between rituals, 
and unrolled and laid down over the regular 
floor covering when needed. Another is to 
have a six to twelve inch wide length of 
material in the form of a circle, with the ritual 
Circle marked on it. This can also be taken up 
and laid down when needed. The advantage is 
that it is far less bulky than a complete carpet 
and so much easier to store. 

"The Sacred Circle is about me. I am here of my own free will 
and accord, in Peace and in Love." 

Dip your forefinger into the salted water and mark a cross in a circle © 
on your forehead, in the position of the third eye (between the eye- 
brows) . Then mark a Pentagram y^ on your chest, over your heart. 

"I now invite the gods to witness this Rite I hold in their 

Hold your hand, with finger pointing up, high in salute as you now 

"God and Goddess; Lord and Lady; Father and Mother of 

All Life, 
Guard me and guide me within this Circle and without it, 
In all things. So mote it be." 

Kiss your hand to the Lord and the Lady, then take up the goblet and spill 
a little of the wine on the ground (or into the libation dish) as an offering 
to the gods, with the words: 

"The Lord and the Lady!" 
Take a drink and then replace the goblet on the altar with the words: 

"You may insert the names of the deities you have chosen, if you wish. 

Lesson Four: Getting Started 1 45 

"Now is the Temple erected. I shall not 
leave it but with good reason. 
So be it." 

Sit or kneel before the altar, head bowed, and meditate 
for a few minutes on the God and the Goddess, the 
Craft and what the Old Religion means to you. Then 
stand and lift both hands high above the altar and 

"Lord and Lady hear me now! 

I am here a simple pagan holding thee in 

Far have I journeyed and long have I 

Seeking that which I desire above all things. 
I am of the trees and of the fields. 
I am of the woods and of the springs; 
The streams and the hills. 
I am of thee and thee of me." 

Lower your arms. 

"Grant me that which I desire. 

Permit me to worship the gods 

And all that the gods represent. 

Make me a Lover of Life in All Things. 

Well do I know the creed: 

That if I do not have that spark of Love 

within me, 
Then will I never find it without me. 
Love is the Law and Love is the Bond. 
All this I honor above aught else." 

Kiss your right hand and hold it high. 

"My Lord and Lady, here do I stand before 

Naked and unadorned, to dedicate myself 

to thine honor. 
Ever will I protect you and that which is 

Let none speak ill of you, for ever will I 

defend you. 
You are my life and I am yours, 
From this day forth. 
I accept and will ever abide by the Wiccan 

'An' it harm none, do what thou wilt'. 
So be it." 

Take up the goblet and slowly pour the remainder of 
the wine on to the ground, saying: 

"As this wine drains from the goblet (horn), 
So let the blood drain from my body 
Should I ever do aught to harm the gods, 
Or those in kinship with their love. 
So mote it be!" 

Dip your forefinger in the oil and again make the sign 
of the cross in a circle on your third eye, and the Penta- 
gram over your heart. Then, also, touch the oil to your 
genitals, right breast (nipple), left breast, and then 
genitals again. (This last forms the Sacred Triangle, 
symbolizing the drawing of power up from the root of 
that power) . Say: 

"As a sign of my rebirth I take unto myself a 

new name. 
Henceforth I shall be known as ..(Name).., 
For my life within the Craft. 
So mote it be!" 

Now sit comfortably and, with eyes closed, meditate 
on what the Craft means to you. It may well be that, at 
this time, you will receive some indication that you are 
indeed in touch with the gods. But whether you do or 
not, just let your feelings for them, and for the Old 
Religion, flow from your body. Luxuriate in the feeling 
of "coming home"; of having finally become one with 
the Old Religion. 

When you have finished meditating, if you feel 
like singing or dancing or celebrating in any other 
way, go ahead and do so. Then, when you are ready, 
stand and raise both hands high and say: 

I thank the gods for their attendance. 

As I came here in love of them, I now go 

my way. 
Love is the Law, and Love is the Bond. 
So be it! The Temple is now closed." 

The above is adapted from the Seax-Wica Rite 

of Self-Dedication. 

Although I have not yet given the full details of 
the regular ERECTING THE TEMPLE Ritual (nor had 
you consecrate your tools) I will divert for a moment 
to follow this Self-Dedication with a full coven Initia- 
tion Ceremony, for the sake of completeness on this 

46 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

subject. Next lesson I will continue from where I here left off. 


As with all of the rituals in this workbook, they are presented as 
patterns — blueprints which you may either adopt or adapt. You will see 
that this Initiation Rite contains all of the elements I have previously 
discussed. If you decide to write your own, I urge you to follow the 
general pattern. 

In this ceremony I have written it as for a Priest initiating a female. It 
can obviously be adapted for reversal of the roles (in virtually all 
traditions male initiates female and female initiates male) . 

It is usual for the Initiate to be naked in this rite. If the coven usually 
works naked then, of course, this is fine. However, if the coven is usually 
robed then the Initiate should either be the only one naked or should 
wear a robe that can be opened down the front as and when indicated 
(even robed covens usually wear nothing under their robes). 

The Initiation can take place with all the coven present; with only the 
Priest, Priestess and Initiate; or with Priest, Priestess, one or two assistants 
and the Initiate. The coven should decide which method they prefer. 
The below ritual is written for Priest, Priestess, two assistants (whom I 
shall call MAIDEN and SQUIRE) and Initiate. In addition to the usual 
altar furniture, there is a dish of anointing oil between the water and the 
salt and a red, nine-foot length of cord and a blindfold on the altar. The 
Priestess's Goddess Crown and the Priest's Homed Helmet rest beside 
the altar. The Initiate wears no jewelry of any kind, nor make-up, and 
waits in a room outside the Temple Room. Anointing will be done as des- 
cribed in the Self Dedication. A Keltic Cross in a circle © is drawn slightly 
above and between the eyes, in the position of the Third Eye; a Pen- 
tagram"^ is drawn over the heart; an inverted triangle is marked by 
touching the genitals, right breast, left breast and genitals again. 

The ERECTMG THE TEMPLE ritual is performed in the usual manner 
(see next lesson) . The bell is rung three times. 

Priestess: "Let there be none who suffer loneliness; none who are friend- 
less and without brother or sister. For all may find love and 
peace within the Circle." 

Priest: "With open arms, the Lord and Lady welcome all." 

Squire: "I bring news of one who has traveled far, seeking that which 
we enjoy." 

Maiden: "Long has been her journey, but now she feels an end is 

Priest: "Of whom do you speak?" 

Squire: "Of she who, even now, waits outside our Temple, seeking 

Priestess: "Who caused her to come here?" 

Maiden: "She came herself, of her own free will." 

Priest: "What does she seek?" 

Maiden: "She seeks to become one with the Lord and the Lady. She 
seeks to join with us in our worship of them." 

Lesson Four: Getting Started 1 47 

Priestess: "Who can vouch for this person?" 

Squire: "I can. As her teacher* I have shown her the 
ways; pointed her in the right direction and 
set her feet upon the path. But she has chosen 
to take this step and now bids you give 
her entrance." 

Priest: "Can she be brought before us?" 

Squire: "Indeed she can." 

Priestess: "Then let it be so." 

SQUIRE takes Cord and athame; MAIDEN takes blind- 
fold and candle. They go, clockwise, around Circle to 
the east and there exit the Circle, t They go out of the 
Temple, to the Initiate. MAIDEN blindfolds her while 

SQUIRE binds her (see illustration) . With initiate between 
them, they approach the door to the Temple Room. 
SQUIRE bangs on door with handle of athame. 

Priest: "Who knocks?" 

Squire: "We return with one who would join our 

Priestess: "What is her name?" 

Initiate: "My name is ...(Given Name)... I beg entry." 
Priestess: "Enter this our Temple." 

The three enter the Temple Room and stand outside 
the Circle, in the east. MAIDEN holds the candle; 
SQUIRE the athame. The bell is rung once. 


1. Nine foot red cord is looped over Initiate's left wrist, behind her 
back. At mid-point of cord, a single reef, or square, knot is tied. 

2. Initiate's right arm is laid wrist over wrist, over left arm and 
another knot is tied. Note: Arms form base of triangle to head 
(see ilustration) : 

3. Two ends of cord are taken up and around either side of Initiate's 
head, crossing in front. 

4. Looping one end on around the back of the head, the two ends are tied 
with a bow at the right shoulder. 


This part should obviously be played by the person who has been working with the Initiate up to this point. 
tSee details for entering and exiting a cast Circle in Lesson Ten. 

48 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 




"...(Name)..., why do you come here?" 

"To worship the gods in whom I believe and 

to become one with them and with my 

brothers and sisters of the Craft." 

"What do you bring with you?" 

"I bring nothing but my True Self, naked 

and unadorned." 

"Then I bid you enter this our Circle of 

Worship and Magick." 

SQUIRE admits them to the Circle. They stand just 
within, still in the east. PRIEST and PRIESTESS move 
around to them; PRIEST carrying the censer and 
PRIESTESS the salted water. 

Priest: "To enter this our Sacred Circle, I here duly 
consecrate you, in the names of the God and 
the Goddess." 

If Initiate is robed, the PRIESTESS opens the robe 
while the PRIEST sprinkles and censes her, then closes it 
again. PRIEST and PRIESTESS return to the altar, 
and PRIESTESS stand in front of altar, while SQUIRE 
and MAIDEN move round to far side, opposite, with 
INITIATE between them. They face Priest and Priest- 
ess. Bell is rung twice. 

Priestess: "I speak now for the Lady. Why are you 

Initiate: "I am here to become one with the Lord and 

the Lady; to join in worship of them." 
Priest: "I am he who speaks for the Lord. Who 

made you come here?" 
Initiate: "None made me come, for I am here of my 

own choosing." 
Priest: "Do you wish an end to the life you have 

known so far?" 
Initiate: "I do." 
Priest: "Then so be it." 

With his athame, SQUIRE cuts a lock of Initiate's hair 
and throws it on the censer. SQUIRE and MAIDEN 
lead INITIATE around Circle to the east. 

Maiden: "Hearken, all ye at the East Gate. Here is one 
who would join us. Welcome her and bring 
her joy." 

They move on to the south. 

Squire: "Hearken all ye at the South Gate. Here is one 
who would join us. Welcome her and bring 
her joy." 

They move on to the west. 

Maiden: "Hearken all ye at the West Gate. Here is 
one who would join us. Welcome her and 
bring her joy." 

They move on to the north. 

Squire: "Hearken all ye at the North Gate. Here is 
one who would join us. Welcome her and 
bring her joy." 

SQUIRE and MAIDEN lead INITIATE back to stand 
behind altar again, facing Priest and Priestess. PRIEST 
and PRIESTESS place their crowns on their heads 
and, taking up their athames, stand side by side with 
their right arms holding the knives high in salute. 
SQUIRE rings bell three times. 

Maiden: "Now, then, must you face those whom 
you seek." 

MAIDEN removes Initiate's blindfold. 

Maiden: "Behold, in these two priests do we see the 

gods. And in that know that we and they 

are the same." 
Squire: "As we need the gods, so do the gods need 

Priest: "I am he who speaks for the God. Yet are 

you and I equal." 
Priestess: "I am she who speaks for the Goddess. Yet 

are you and I equal." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS lower their athames and pre- 
sent the blades to the INITIATE, who kisses the 



"I salute the Lord and the Lady, as I salute 

those who represent them. I pledge my love 

and support to them and to my brothers and 

sisters of the Craft." 

"Know you the Wiccan Rede?" 

"I do. An' it harm none, do what thou wilt." 

"And do you abide by that Rede?" 

"I do." 

Lesson Four: Getting Started / 49 

Priest: "Well said. Let your bonds be loosed that ye 
may be reborn." 

SQUIRE unties cord. MAIDEN leads INITIATE around 
to stand between Priest and Priestess. MAIDEN then 
returns to her place beside Squire. 

Priestess: "That you may start life afresh it is only meet 
and right that you start with a name of your 
own choosing. Have you such a name?" 
Initiate: "I have. It is ...(Craft Name)..." 
Priest: "Then shall you be known by that name 
henceforth, by your brothers and sisters of 
the Craft." 

PRIEST takes up anointing oil. If Initiate is robed, 
PRIESTESS opens robe. PRIEST anoints (Cross, Penta- 
gram and Triangle) and says: 

Priest: "With this Sacred Oil I anoint and cleanse 
thee, giving new life to one of the Children 
of the Gods. From this day forth you shall be 
known as ...(Craft Name)..., within this Cir- 
cle and without it, to all your Brothers and 
Sisters of the Craft. So Mote It Be." 

All: "So mote it be!" 

Priestess: "Now you are truly one of us. As one of us 
will you share our knowledge of the gods 
and of the arts of healing, of divination, of 
magick and of all the mystic arts. These shall 
you learn as you progress." 

Priest: "But we caution you ever to remember the 
Wiccan Rede. An' it harm none, do what thou 

Priestess: "An' it harm none, do what thou wilt. Come 
now, ...(Name)..., and meet your kindred." 

INITIATE salutes* Priest and Priestess then moves 
around to salute and greet all the others in the Circle. If 
the initiation has been taking place without the other 
coven members being present, they now return to the 
Circle to join the celebrants. If it is the coven custom to 
present a newcomer with any gift(s) this may be done 
at this time. Bell is rung three times. 

Priest: "Now is it truly a time for celebration." 

Feasting and merriment follow till the Temple is 

Next lesson you will consecrate your tools, so that 
they may be used in future rituals. 

•When one Witch salutes another, it is with an embrace and a kiss. 


1. How did you prepare yourself for the Initiation? 

If you are joining an existing Coven, describe the members, Priest and Priestess, and goals of that Coven. 
Why are you joining that particular Coven? 






Throughout history there have been individual, 
or "Solitary" Witches . . . Witches who worked (and 
frequently lived) alone. There are still many today 
who feel more comfortable that way and I will look at 
them specifically later in this book. But the majority of 
Witches work in groups, known as covens. The origin 
of the word is in doubt. Margaret Murray (The Witch 
Cult in Western Europe) suggests it "is a derivative of 

The coven is a small group; usually no more than 
a dozen. The "traditional" size is thirteen, though 
there is absolutely no reason why that particular num- 
ber should be adhered to. Personally I have found that 
the most comfortable number is about eight. One of 
the things that governs the number of people in the 
coven is the size of the circle in which they hold their 
rituals. By tradition, again, this is nine feet in diameter, 
so it can at once be seen that the number of people 
who can comfortably fit in its confines will be limited. 
But this is really putting the cart before the horse. In 
actual fact you should base the size of the circle on the 
number of people, not the other way around. To arrive 
at the ideal size, all should stand in a circle facing 
inwards and hold hands. Then move slowly outwards, 
with arms outstretched, until your arms are extended 
as far as possible. The Circle should then be of a size 
that will just comfortably contain you all. Whether that 
means it will be seven feet, eight feet, ten feet six 
inches or fifteen feet in diameter doesn't matter. What 
is important is that such a circle will contain the group 
comfortably, without fear of breaking the boundaries 
even when dancing round, yet also will not have any 
excess space. 

A coven is a small, close-knit group. In fact, the 

members of your coven frequently become closer to 
you than the members of your own family, hence the 
Craft is often referred to as a "family religion". And for 
this reason you should choose your fellow Witches 
carefully. It is not enough that you all have an interest 
in the Old Religion. You must be thoroughly compat- 
ible; completely comfortable and at ease with one 
another. To get to this point usually takes time and for 
this reason you shouldn't rush to form a coven. 

Study the Craft together with your friends. Read 
all the Witchcraft books you can lay hands on, discuss 
them and question one another. If you know of any 
initiated Witches, or can contact authors willing to cor- 
respond, don't be afraid to ask them questions. 

Don't be so serious about all this that you have no 
sense of humor. Religion is a serious business, yes, but 
the gods know how to laugh and Witches have always 
believed in enjoying what they do. Coven rituals 
should not be undertaken lightly, of course, but if 
somebody makes a mistake (or sits on a candle!), don't 
be afraid to be human about it and have a chuckle. 
Religious rites should be performed because you want 
to perform them and because you enjoy performing 
them, not because you have to perform them (we can 
leave that to the other faiths!). 


The group needs a leader, or leaders. The leaders, 
as priests for the group, will be representing the God 
and the Goddess, so one male and one female leader 
would seem to be the ideal. In the Saxon tradition (and 
some few others) these are democratically chosen by 
the coven members: they lead for a year and then 
there is a re-election (if re-elected, their terms running 
concurrently or not, they are known in their sub- 


54 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

sequent terms as High Priest/ess, to indicate this 
experience). Such a system has the distinct advantage 
of (a) precluding any ego-trips and power-plays by 
the priesthood, (b) giving everyone who wishes a 
chance to lead the group and have the experience of 
running a coven and (c) allowing those good at the job 
to be re-instated, while conversely allowing the removal 
of any who abuse their position. 

However, in many traditions there are found 
degree systems — systems of advancement through 
promotion — and in these it is impossible to be a leader 
without being of the requisite degree. Regretably 
these systems do frequently lead to power-plays ("I'm 
a higher degree . . . ergo 'better' . . . Witch than you 
are!") and all the ramifications of favoritism/abuse/ 
self-glorification. Let me hasten to add that this is not 
always the case. It is simply that there is always the 
potential. There have been many covens that have 
existed very happily for years with such a system. 

In most degree systems you are initiated into the 
First Degree. Let's look at the Gardnerian tradition as a 
typical example. There, in the First Degree, you par- 
ticipate in the rituals as part of the "chorus", as it were, 
and learn from your Elders. You must remain in that 
degree for at least a year and a day. When taken to the 
Second Degree you can then be more active in the 
rituals. For example, a female Gardnerian of the Second 
Degree can even cast the Circle for the High Priestess. 
However, she cannot initiate anyone. After at least a 
year and a day there, it is possible to then be taken to 
the Third Degree, if found ready. As a Third Degree 
Witch a Gardnerian female can break away and form a 
new coven if she so desires. She would then run that 
coven, initiating whomever she wished, with no inter- 
ference from her original High Priestess. Covens, you 
see, are autonomous. Of course, the Third Degree 
Witch does not have to break away and start afresh. 
Many of that rank are quite content to stay in the 
original coven, where they are regarded as "Elders". 

Different traditions have different systems: some 
have more than three degrees; some insist on a longer 
minimum time between steps; some have the Priest 
with equal powers to the Priestess. 

What sort of a person should a Priest/ess be? 
When I was originally initiated, by the Lady Olwen 
(Gerald Gardner's High Priestess) in Perth, Scotland, 
in 1963, she gave me an outline of what a really good 
coven leader should be. I don't know who the author 
was, but this is what it said: 

The Love Of the Priest and the Priestess 
You may come to them for a few moments, 

then go away and do whatever you will; 

their love is unchanging. 
You may deny them to themselves or to 

yourself, then curse them to any who will 

listen; their love is unchanging. 
You may become the most despised of 

creatures, then return to them; their love 

is unchanging. 
You may become the enemy of the gods 

themselves, then return to them; their 

love is unchanging. 
Go where you will; stay however long you 

will and come back to them; their love 

is unchanging. 
Abuse others; abuse yourself; abuse them 

and come back to them; their love is 

They will never criticize you; they will never 

minimize you; they will never fail you, 

because to them you are everything and 

they themselves are nothing. They will 

never deceive you; they will never ridicule 

you; they will never fail you, because to 

them you are God/Goddess-nature, to 

be served and they are your servants. 
No matter what befalls you, 
No matter what you become, 
They await you always. 
They know you; they serve you; they love 

Their love for you, in the changing world, 

is unchanging. 
Their love, beloved, is unchanging. 

A non- Witch (someone not initiated) is referred 
to as a cowan. Generally cowans cannot attend Circles, 
though some traditions do have allowances for such 
visitors. I personally think cowans should be able to sit- 
in at the religious rites (not the working of magick, 
however), if all of the coven are agreeable — and if the 
coven works robed rather than skyclad. What better 
way to learn of the true spirit of the Old Religion and to 
determine whether or not it is the path sought? It also, 
incidentally, is excellent Public Relations, helping 
straighten the popular misconceptions. 

Participation is very important in religion. One of 
the detractions of Christianity, I think, is the fact that 
the average worshipper is little more than a spectator. 

Lesson Five: Covens and Rituals 1 55 

Sitting in the "audience", as it were, s/he can only watch most of the 
ritual along with the rest of the crowd. How different in the Craft where, 
as a member of the coven "family", you are right there in the middle, 
taking part. 

Expound on this idea. As much as possible give different coven 
members things to do. At each meeting (or on a rotating system) have 
one person in charge of the incense; another to see that the wine is 
topped-up; another to turn the pages of the book, etc.. All are supposedly 
equal in the Circle; the ritual leaders (coven Priest and Priestess) are just 
that . . . leaders, not rulers. PRIESTHOOD IS LEADERSHIP, NOT POWER. 
You will find that the rituals in the pages that follow are written to 
include as many people as possible. 

Once initiated you are a Witch and Priest/ess. The Craft is a religion 
of priesthood, which is how it is possible for Solitaries to conduct their 
own rites. I might say a word here about titles. Everyone initiated is a 
Witch, but in none of the major traditions is the word used as a title, as I 
mentioned briefly in Lesson Three. In other words, you are not known as 
"Witch Lema" or "Witch Scire", or whatever your name. You are simply 
"Lema" or "Scire". Some traditions do use the titles "Lord" and "Lady" 
however. In Gardnerian, and in Saxon, the High Priestess (only) is 
referred to as "Lady Freyan" (or whatever her name) and, when speak- 
ing to her, you would use the phrase "my lady". But none of the other 
females is so addressed. As stated, in traditions other than these both 
"Lord" and "Lady" seem to be applied indiscriminately. I don't know if 
there is any historical precedent for this but, as with so many things, it 
doesn't really matter . . . it's again a case of what suits you. 

I am going to completely by-pass any discussion of the titles "Queen" 
or "King". Covens are autonomous and there are no" leaders of all Witches" 
recognized in Wicca, regardless of occasional claims to the contrary. 


The name given to the home of the coven (the place where it always, 
or most often, meets) is the Covenstead. Within the Covenstead, of 
course, is found the Temple. The Covendom traditionally extends for one 
league (approximately three miles) in all directions from the Coven- 
stead. This is the area where, traditionally, the coven's Witches live. It 
used to be that one Covendom could not overlap another, so one 
Covenstead would never be closer than six miles to the next. These days 
those old boundaries are seldom honored. However, you should still 
refer to your own coven meeting-place as the Covenstead and, if you 
wish, you can think of any distance up to halfway between your Coven- 
stead and the next, as the Covendom radius. 



The Craft was originally a purely oral tradition — nothing was ever 
written down; all was passed on by word of mouth. But with the start of 
the persecutions Witches and covens had to go into hiding and, con- 
sequently, started to lose touch with one another. So that the rituals 

56 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

would not be lost, the Witches began to write them down. 
Not everything; just the basic rituals. Since they were 
having to meet in secret — "in the shadows", as it were — 
the book in which the rites were kept became known 
as "The Book of Shadows". It is still called that today. 

It used to be that there was just one such book for 
each coven. Individual coven members might also 
keep a book in which they kept notes on their own 
specialty (e.g. herbal lore; astrology; healing) but there 
was only the one book which contained all the rituals 
and that would be in the safe-keeping of the Priest or 
Priestess. This was obviously done so that there would 
be less chance of the book being discovered by those 
antagonistic to the Craft. 

In recent years it has become common for all Witches 
to have a Book of Shadows, with everything contained 
therein. You should start your own book, then. It is 
possible to buy blank-paged books in stationery and 
office-supply stores and these are fine. Some traditions 
hold that the book must have a black cover; others say 
green; others brown. Again, it is up to you. 

Many Witches like to make their own book from 
scratch, using parchment for the pages and binding 
the finished product in tooled leather, or even bet- 
ween carved wooden covers. Putting together such a 
book can be a labor of love and certainly gives plenty 
of scope for free artistic expression. Hand-binding is 
not difficult to do. There are several books available on 
it (Hand Bookbinding by Aldren A. Watson, Bell Publish- 
ing, NY 1963, is one). If you decide on one main coven 
book, in addition to any individual Witch's book, then 
several people can work on that coven one. 

You may feel free to do yours as you wish. I have 
seen some really beautiful books, with elaborately 
decorated pages, including illuminated lettering. Of 
course, if you prefer simplicity that is all right too. Your 
book should reflect YOU. One point worth bearing in 
mind — the book is to be used; the rituals to be read in the 
Circle. Don't make the writing so elaborate that, in the 
flickering candlelight, you can't read what is written! 

As you come to the different rituals in this work- 
book, copy them into your own book. By the time 
you've worked through this entire book your Book of 
Shadows will be complete. 


The tools you have made — plus any jewelry you 
might make — carry a variety of vibrations. Before using 
your tools, therefore, it is necessary to ritually cleanse 

them and to dedicate them to the work you will be 
using them for. This is done through a "sprinkling and 
censing". When you charge your salt and then mix it 
with the water, it becomes, in essence, "Holy Water". 
Together with the smoke of the incense, this acts as a 
spiritual cleansing agent. 

The first thing you will consecrate will be your 
knife, or athame, since you will need that for regularly 
casting the Circle and for general ritual work. The 
Consecration Ritual that follows is written for the 
athame. You simply change the wording to apply to 
anything else you happen to be consecrating (e.g. 
sword, talisman) . The consecration only need be done once. 
It does not have to be repeated every time you have 
a Circle. 

Start by casting your Circle, as detailed in Lesson 
Three— Self — Dedication. Go as far as the lines: "Now is 
the Temple erected. I shall not leave it but with good 
reason. So be it." Now continue: 

Consecration Ritual 
Taking up your knife, hold it high in salute and say: 

"God and Goddess; Lord and Lady; Father 

and Mother of All Life. 
Here do I present my personal Tool for your 

From the materials of nature has it been 

Wrought into the form you now see. 
I would that it henceforth may serve me 
As a tool and weapon, in thy service." 

Place it on the altar and stand, or kneel, for a few 
moments with head bowed, thinking back over the 
construction of the knife (sword, talisman or whatever) 
and what you did to personalize it; to make it truly 
your own. Then dip your fingers in the salted water 
and sprinkle the knife. Turn it over and sprinkle the 
other side. Now pick it up and hold it in the smoke of 
the incense, turning it so that all parts of it get thoroughly 
censed. Say: 

"May the Sacred Water and the smoke of 
the Holy Incense drive out any impurities in 
this knife, that it be pure and cleansed, ready 
to serve me and my gods in any way I desire. 
So mote it be." 

Hold it between the palms of your hands and concen- 
trate all your energies — your "power" — into the knife. 

Lesson Five: Covens and Rituals 1 57 

Then say: 

"I charge this knife, through me, with the 
wisdom and might of the God and God- 
dess. May it serve us well, keeping me from 
harm and acting in their service, in all things. 
So mote it be." 

If you are consecrating other things at this time, repeat 
the above with each of them in turn. Then close the 
Circle as follows. Raise your newly consecrated athame 
in your right hand (left, if left-handed) and say: 

"My thanks to the gods for their attendance. 
May they ever watch over me*, guarding 

and guiding me* in all that I do. 
Love is the Law and Love is the Bond. 
So Be It." 

Keep the consecrated item on your person, wher- 
ever you go, for twenty-four hours following the con- 
secration. Then sleep with it under your pillow for 
three consecutive nights. From now on you will use 
your athame as indicated in the rituals which follow. It 
is your own personal tool. There is no harm in letting 
someone else handle it, just to look at it, but do not 
lend it to anyone for use in or out of the Circle. 

Time now to look at the opening and closing 
ceremonies, as performed by a coven, with the appro- 
priate tools. In the Saxon tradition we call these rites 
TEMPLE. Preferring these terms to others, such as 
"Opening and Closing the Circle", I will use them 

The rituals in this workbook are written to utilize 
a number of people in the coven. Don't hesitate to 
modify them for more or less people. Where I have 
indicated "PRIEST/ESS" it means the words/action 
may be performed by either one. Otherwise one or the 
other will be specified. 


The Circle is marked out on the floor. There is a candle 
at each of the four quarters; yellow to the east, red to 
the south, blue to the west, green to the north. The 
altar is set up in the center of the Circle so that, when 

facing it, you are facing east. On the altar are one or 
two white altar candles, thurible, dishes of salt and of 
water, bell, deity figures (optional), bowl of anointing 
oil, goblet of wine (or fruit juice), libation dish, sword 
(if you have one) and/ or priests' athames. 
CENSERER lights the incense and the altar candles 
(not the Circle candles) and then leaves the area to 
wait, with the rest of the coven, in the northeastern 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS enter the Circle, from the 
east (just on the northern side of the east candle) — 
as will all, when they come in — and move to stand 
before the altar, facing east. PRIEST rings bell three 

Priest/ess: "Be it known the Temple is about to be erec- 
ted; the Circle is about to be cast. Let those 
who desire attendance gather in the east 
and await the summons. Let none be here 
but of their own free will." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS each take an altar candle and 
move around the altar, deosil, and across to the east. 
PRIESTESS lights the East Candle from the one she 

Priestess: "Here do I bring light and air in at the east, to 
illuminate our temple and bring it the breath 
of life." 

They move on round to the south, where the PRIEST 
lights the South Candle. 

Priest: "Here do I bring light and fire in at the 
south, to illuminate our temple and bring 
it warmth." 

They move to the west, where the PRIESTESS lights 
the West Candle. 

Priestess: "Here do I bring light and water in at the west, 
to illuminate our temple and wash it clean." 

They move to the north, where the PRIEST lights the 
North Candle. 

Priest: "Here do I bring light and earth in at the 
north, to illuminate our temple and to 
build it in strength." 

*"us" if more than yourself in the Circle. 

58 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

They move on around to the east, then back to the altar 
and replace their candles. PRIEST/ESS* takes up the 
sword (or athame) and, returning to the east, now 
walks slowly around the Circle with sword-point 
following the marked line. As s/he walks, s/he con- 
centrates power into the Circle line. When completed, 
s/he returns to the altar. The bell is rung three times. 
PRIEST places the point of his athame in the salt 
and says: 

Priest: "As Salt is Life, let it purify us in all ways we 

may use it. Let it cleanse our bodies and 
spirits as we dedicate ourselves in these rites, 
to the glory of the God and the Goddess." 

PRIESTESS takes up the Salt dish and uses the point of 
her athame to drop three portions of salt into the 
water. She stirs the now-salted water with the athame 
and says: 

Priestess: "Let the Sacred Salt drive out any impurities 
in this Water, that we may use it throughout 


At no time during the working of magick should the Circle be 
broken. At other times it is possible to leave the Circle and return, 
though this should always be done with care, and no more than 
absolutely necessary. It is done in the following manner. 

Leaving the Circle 

With athame in hand, standing in the east, make a motion as 
though cutting across the line of the Circle; first on your right and 
then on your left (see Figures A and B) . You may then walk out of the 
Circle, between the lines. If you like you can imagine that you have 
cut a gateway, or doorway, in the east through which to pass. 


When you return to the Circle, walk back in through that same 
eastern gateway and "close" it behind you by "reconnecting" the 
line of the Circle. Actually three circles were originally cast — one 
with the sword, one with the salted water and one with the incense — 
so you have three lines to reconnect. You do this by moving your 
blade backwards and forwards along the lines (see Figure C,). 
Incidentally, this is why the blade of the athame is double-edged. It 

is so that it will "cut" in either direction, in this and similar magi- 
cal actions. 

To finish, you"seal" the break by raising your athame and 
moving the blade to describe a pentagram. Start at the top and 
bring it down to the bottom left. Then, move it across to the right, 
slightly upwards; straight across to the left; down to the bottom 
right and, finally, back up to the top (see figure D). 

Then kiss the blade of your knife and return to your place. 
Normally once the Circle starts no one should leave until the Clear- 
ing the Temple. The Circle should not, therefore, be broken unless 
absolutely necessary (such as when someone really has to go to the 
bathroom!). If the person cutting out is to be gone for some time, 
then s/he should do steps A and B, pass through, then do step C 
from the outside, to temporarily close the Circle while they are 
gone. On returning, s/he will then need to cut through again (at 
the same spot; steps A and B, pass through and close as usual with 
step C, followed by step D to seal it. 


*In the light half of the year, the Priestess; in the dark half, the Priest. 

Lesson Five: Covens and Rituals 1 59 

these rites." START 

PRIEST takes up Thurible; PRIESTESS takes up Salted Water. They again 
move round the altar to the east. Starting there, they slowly walk clock- / 

wise around the Circle, PRIESTESS sprinkling the salted water along the / 

line of the circle and PRIEST passing censer along its line, till they return / 

to their starting point. They then return to the altar and replace the tools. ^ 

PRIEST drops a pinch of salt into the oil and stirs it with his finger. He 
then anoints the Priestess (Note: if robed, the Keltic Cross in Circle alone 
is used. If skyclad, the Pentagram and Inverted Triangle follow) . 

Priest: "I consecrate thee in the names of the God and the Goddess, / 

bidding you welcome to this their Temple." / ^^ 

They salute, then PRIESTESS anoints Priest, with the same words and 
salute. They then both move, together, round to the east, PRIESTESS 
carrying the oil and PRIEST his athame. There he makes two "cuts" 
across the line of the Circle, thus opening it (see Figures A-B). i 

One by one the coveners enter. As they do so they are anointed — "^""7 Z- 7 

the males by the Priestess and the females by the Priest — and greeted ' s ' 

with the words: jL- ' 

Priest/ess: "I consecrate thee in the names of the God and of the God- 
dess, bidding you welcome to this their Temple. Merry 
Meet." / 

The COVENERS move around to stand all about the altar, as far as possible 

alternating male and female. When the last has been admitted, the / 


PRIEST closes the Circle by drawing his athame across the line again, " 

connecting the two "broken" ends. PRIESTESS sprinkles a little of the oil 

there and PRIEST raises his athame and draws a pentagram to seal it (see 

illustration). They then return to the altar. The bell is rung three times. f 


Priest/ess: "May you all be here in peace and in love. We bid you welcome. "x/ \ ^ 

Let now the Quarters be saluted and the gods invited." / "^ v % \ 

I' V A 
The COVENER closest to the east turns outward and moves to stand 
facing the East Candle, with her/his athame raised. S/he draws an 
invoking pentagram (see diagram) and says: 

Covener: "All hail to the element of Air; Watchtower of the East. May it 
stand in strength, ever watching over our Circle." 

S/he kisses the blade of her/his athame and returns to the Circle. The 
Covener closest to the south then turns to face the South Candle. With 
athame raised, s/he draws an invoking pentagram and says: 

Covener: "All hail to the element of Fire; Watchtower of the south. May 
it stand in strength, ever watching over our Circle." 

S/he kisses the blade of her/his athame and returns to the Circle. 

60 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

The Covener closest to the west then turns to face the 
West Candle. With athame raised, s/he draws an in- 
voking pentagram and says: 

Covener: "All hail to the element of Water; Watchtower 
of the West. May it stand in strength, ever 
watching over our Circle." 

S/he kisses the blade of her/his athame and returns to 
the Circle. The Covener closest to the north then turns 
to face the North Candle. With athame raised, s/he 
draws an invoking pentagram and says: 

Covener: "All hail to the element of Earth; Watchtower 
of the North. May it stand in strength, ever 
watching over our Circle." 

S/he kisses the blade of her/his athame and returns to 
the Circle. PRIEST/ESS raises athame and draws a 
pentagram, saying: 



"All hail the four Quarters and all hail the 
Gods! We bid the Lord and Lady welcome 
and invite that they join with us, witnessing 
these rites we hold in their honor. All hail!" 
"All hail!" 
"Let us share the Cup of Friendship." 

PRIEST takes the goblet and pours a little of the wine 
onto the ground, or into the libation dish, saying the 
names of the gods. He then takes a drink and passes 
the goblet to the Priestess. She drinks and passes it to 
the nearest Covener on her left, who drinks and passes it 
on to the next. The goblet goes all around the Circle 
until all have drunk and it is returned to the altar 
(Note: it is not necessary for everyone to pour libations; 
just the first person — in this case, the Priest). Bell is 
rung three times. 



"Now are we all here and is the Temple 
erected. Let none leave but with good reason, 
till the Temple is cleared. So Mote It Be." 
"So Mote It Be!" 

Erecting the Temple is done at the start of every 
meeting. It is, basically, the consecration of both the 
meeting place and of the participants. The meeting — 
be it Esbat, Sabbat, or whatever — continues from this 

point. Then, at the end of every meeting, there is the 
Clearing the Temple. 


Priest/ess*: "We came together in love and friendship; 
let us part the same way. Let us spread the 
love we have known in this Circle outward 
to all; sharing it with those we meet." 

PRIEST/ESS raises sword, or athame, in salute. ALL 
COVENERS raise their athames. 

Priest/ess: "Lord and Lady, our thanks to you for sharing 
this time together. Our thanks for watching 
over us; guarding and guiding us in all 
things. Love is the Law and Love is the 
Bond. Merry did we meet; merry do we 
part; merry may we meet again." 

All: "Merry meet; merry part; merry meet again." 

Priest/ess: "The Temple is now cleared. So Mote It 

All: "So Mote It Be!" 

ALL kiss their athame blades. They then move about 
the Temple to kiss one another in farewell. 


The regular meetings of Witches are called ESBATS. 
It is at these that any work is done (e.g. magick, healing) . 
Most covens meet once a week, but there is really no 
hard and fast rule. There should certainly be a Circle at 
least once a month, at the full moon. Since there are thirteen 
full moons in the year then, obviously, there will be at 
least thirteen meetings in the year. In addition to the Full 
moons, many covens also celebrate the new moons. 

And in addition to the Esbats there are the fes- 
tivals known as SABBATS (from the French s'ebatt re, to 
revel or frolic) . There are eight of these, spaced more 
or less equidistant throughout the year. They are, the 
four"Greater Sabbats": Samhain (pronounced "soe- 
in", though the vast majority of Witches mis- 
pronounce it "Sam-ain"), Imbolc (pronounced "Jm- 
bulk"), Beltane (pronounced "B'yd-t'n") and Lughnasadh 
(pronounced "Loo-n'sar") t and the four "Lesser Sab- 
bats": Spring and Autumn Equinox and Summer and 
Winter Solstice. Margaret Murray, in God of the Witches, 

^Depending on the time of year. 

tYou will find much disagreement on the subject of pronunciation. Don't worry too much about it. 

Lesson Five: Covens and Rituals / 61 

points out that the two most important — Samhain and 
Beltane — coincide with the breeding seasons of both 
wild and domestic animals. The pagan festivals were 
later exploited by the Christian Church. For example 
Imbolc became Candlemas and Lughnasadh became 

On each of the eight Sabbats a different ceremony 
is performed, appropriate for the time of year. Once or 
twice in the year the Sabbat date may coincide with a 
full or new moon. When that happens the Esbat 
normally done on that date gives way to the Sabbat. 

Essentially Sabbats are looked upon as a time for 
rejoicing and celebration. No work is done at a Sabbat, 
unless there is some emergency such as a healing. 
Here, then, are the ceremonies for the Esbats and 
the Sabbats. 


Here is a basic Esbat ritual that can be used every 
week, if you meet that often. For times of the Full 
Moon, include the Full Moon Rite (below) where 
indicated. Similarly with the New Moon Rite. 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. 

Priest/ess: "Once more we meet together, one with 
another, to share our joy of life and to re- 
affirm our feelings for the gods." 
Covener: "The Lord and the Lady have been good to 
us. It is meet that we thank them for all that 
we have." 
2nd "They also know that we have needs and 

Covener: they listen to us when we call upon them." 
Priest/ess: "Then let us join together to thank the God 
and the Goddess for those favors they have 
bestowed upon us. And let us also ask of 
them that which we feel we need; remem- 
bering always that the gods help only those 
who help themselves." 

Then should follow three or four minutes of silence 
while each, in their own way, gives thanks or requests 
the help of the gods.* Bell is rung three times. 

Priest /ess: "An' it harm none, do what thou wilt." 
All: "An' it harm none, do what thou wilt." 

Priest/ess: "Thus runs the Wiccan Rede. Remember it 
well. Whatever you desire; whatever you 

would ask of the gods; whatever you would 
do; be assured that it will harm no one— not 
even yourself. And remember that as you 
give, so it shall return threefold. Give of 
yourself — your love; your life — and you 
will be thrice rewarded. But send forth harm 
and that too will return thrice over." 

Here there should be music and song. If you have a 
favorite song, or chant, to the Lord and the Lady, use it. 
Or someone may produce something extemporane- 
ously. If you have instruments, play them. If not, at the 
very least clap hands and chant the names of the God 
and the Goddess. Enjoy this for a few minutes. 

Priest /ess: "Beauty and Strength are in the Lord and 
the Lady both. Patience and Love; Wisdom 
and Knowledge." 

[If the Esbat is taking place at either the Full or the New 
Moon, then the appropriate segment (below) is inserted at 
this point. Otherwise go directly into the CAKES AND 
ALE ceremony.] 


PRIESTESS stands with her legs apart and her arms 
raised up and out, stretching to the sky. PRIEST kneels 
before her. All the COVENERS also kneel. ALL raise 
their arms high. 

Covener: "When the Moon rides on high, 

As she crosses the sky, 

And the stars on her gown trail behind, 

Then we Wiccans below 

Are with love all aglow, 

Just to see her so brightly enshrined." 
Covener: "On the night of Full Moon, 

As we sing to the tune 

Of the Lady who watches above, 

We raise high our song 

As she glides by so strong, 

And we bask in the light of her love." 

ALL lower their arms. PRIEST rises and kisses Priest- 
ess, then kneels again. 

Priest: "Lovely lady, you have been known by so 
many names to so many people. 

*In paganism generally it is thought to be far more efficacious to speak "from the heart" rather than read a set prayer, parrot-fashion, from a book. 

62 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Aphrodite, Kerridwen, Diana, Ea, Freya, 
Gana, Isis, and many more have been your 
names. Yet do we know you and love you as 
...(Name)...*, and in that name do we adore 
you and worship you. With your Lord by 
your side, do we give you due honor and 
invite you to join with us on this, your spe- 
cial night." 

PRIEST stands and, with his athame — or wand, if 
used — draws a pentagram above the Priestess's head. 
A COVENER rings the bell three times. 

Priest: "Descend, my Lady, descend we pray thee, 
and speak with us your children." 

PRIEST kneels again. PRIESTESS spreads her arms 
out to her coven. If she feels so moved, she may now 
speak — or allow the gods to speak through her. If she 
does not "feel the spirit", she may simply recite the 

Priestess: "I am She who watches over thee; 
Mother of you all. 

Know that I rejoice that you do not forget 
me. To pay me homage at the full of the 
Moon is meet and right and brings joy unto 
yourselves even as it does to me. Know that, 
with my good Lord, I weave the skein of life 
for each and every one of you. 
I am at the beginning of life and at its end; 
The Maiden, the Mother and the Crone. 
Wherever you may be, if you seek me know 
that I am always here, For I abide deep 
within you. 

Look, then, within yourself if you would 
seek me. 

I am Life and I am Love. 
Find me and rejoice; for love is my music 
and laughter is my song. 
Be true to me and I will ever be true to you. 
Love is the Law and Love is the Bond. 
So Mote It Be." 

PRIESTESS folds her arms across her breast and closes 
her eyes. Then follows a moment or two of silence 
before going into the Cakes and Ale Ceremony. 


PRIESTESS stands with head bowed and her arms 

across her breast. COVENERS start to move deosil 
round the Circle, chanting the name of the Goddess. 
They move around completely three times then stop. 
PRIEST stands before Priestess. 





"Dark is the night as we reach this turning 

point. Here is a time of death; yet a time 

of birth." 

"Endings and beginnings." 

"Ebbing and flowing." 

"A journey done; a journey yet to start." 

"Let us honor now the Crone— Mother 

darksome and divine." 

"Let us give of our strength and in return 

see rebirth." 

"Behold, the Lady of Darkness; Mother, 

Grandmother. Old yet ever young." 

PRIESTESS slowly raises her head and spreads her 
arms outwards and upwards. ALL kneel. 

Priestess: "Hear me! Honor me and love me now 
and always. 

As the wheel turns we see birth, death and 
rebirth. Know, from this, that every end is 
a beginning; 

Every stop a fresh starting point. 
Maiden, Mother, Crone ... I am all of these 
and more. Whenever you have need of any- 
thing, call upon me. I, and my Lord, are 
here — for I abide within you all. Even at the 
darkest of times, when there seems no 
single spark to warm you and the night 
seems blackest of all, I am here, watching 
and waiting to grow with you, in strength 
and in love. 

I am she who is at the beginning and the end 
of all time. 
So Mote It Be." 

All: "So Mote It Be!" 

PRIESTESS folds her arms again. There is a moment 
or two of silence, then follows the Cakes and Ale 

There is a ceremony known as CAKES AND ALE. 
This acts as the "connecting link", as it were, between 
the ritualistic part of the meeting and the working/ 
social part . . . the sitting and talking on Craft and non- 

*The name your coven uses for the Goddess. 

Lesson Five: Covens and Rituals I 63 

Craft matters; discussion of magick, healing, divina- 
tion; consideration of personal or coven problems, 
etc. These things all come after the worship. Honoring 
the gods is first and foremost in Wicca. 

Some traditions call this ceremony "Cakes and 
Wine", others "Cakes and Ale".* The latter is perhaps 
more indicative of the "common" origins of the religion 
(peasants and serfs would seldom, if ever, get to drink 
wine. Ale was their lot and they were happy with it). 
At Wiccan coven meetings today, however, even if 
retaining the "Ale" in the title of the ceremony, Witches 
drink what they prefer: ale, beer, wine, fruitjuice. 

Such a ceremony is found universally, in various 
forms, as a thanking of the gods for the necessities of 
life; thanking them for the food and drink we need in 
order to live. 

A plate of cakes (or cookies) rests on the Altar, 
beside the goblet. Wine (or whatever) is in the goblet. 


One COVENER is responsible for keeping the 
goblet filled. At the start of this rite he fills it and 



"Now is the time for us to give thanks to the 
gods for that which sustains us." 
"So be it. May we ever be aware of all that 
we owe to the gods." 

PRIESTESS calls two coveners by name, one male and 
one female. They come and stand before the altar. The 
FEMALE takes the goblet in both hands and holds it 
between her breasts. The MALE takes his athame and 
holds the handle between his two palms, with the 
blade pointing down. He slowly lowers the point into 
the wine, with the words: 

Male "In like fashion may male join with female, 

Covener: for the happiness of both." 
Female "Let the fruits of union promote life. Let 
Covener: all be fruitful and let wealth be spread 
throughout all lands." 

HE raises athame. SHE holds goblet for him to drink, 
then HE holds it for her to drink. Goblet is then passed 
around the Circle for all to drink, Priest and Priestess 
drinking last. 

MALE covener takes up plate of cakes and holds them 
before him. FEMALE touches each of them with the 
point of her athame, and says: 

Female "This food is the blessing of the gods to 

Covener: our bodies. Let us partake of it freely. And, 

as we share, let us remember always to see 

to it that aught that we have we share with 

those who have nothing." 

SHE takes a cake and eats it, then takes the plate and 
offers to the male, who takes and eats. The cakes are 
passed around the Circle, Priest and Priestess taking 
last. MALE and FEMALE coveners return to their 
places in the Circle. 

Priestess: "As we enjoy these gifts of the gods, let us 
remember that without the gods we would 
have nothing." 

Priest: "Eat and drink. Be happy. Share and give 
thanks. So Mote It Be." 

All: "So Mote It Be!" 

ALL now sit and, if desired, individual goblets may be 
filled and a general repast enjoyed. This is a good time 
for talk and discussion; for advice and questioning. If it 
is an Esbat and magick is to be done (see coming lessons), 
then this is a good time to discuss all aspects of what is 
to be done and how. If, however, there is no further 
business, then general conversation, with music and 
song and dance if you wish, may continue till it is 
decided to do the CLEARING OF THE TEMPLE. 

Next lesson I will give you the four major Sabbat 
rituals: Samhain, Imbolc, Beltane and Lughnasadh. 


•Ale is a fermented liquor similar to beer. The principle is extracted from several sorts of grain, most commonly from barley, after it has undergone the process of malting. 

1. Describe your Coven. What kind of a degree system do you have? 

Describe where your Covenstead is located. Where is your Covendom? How far does it extend? Draw a map 
if you like. 

3. Describe your Book of Shadows. 

It is enjoyable to be able to refer back to special ceremonies in your life. For this reason it is helpful to have a 
tape recording or written account of these happenings. Relate here the events in your Consecration of 
Tools Ceremony. 

5. Practice drawing a Pentagram. 

6. What are the dates of the Esbats and Sabbats this year? What rites will you take part in? 


As I mentioned in the last lesson, there are eight 
Sabbats in the course of a year. These are times to cele- 
brate; to rejoice with the gods and have a good time. 
No work (magick) is done at a Sabbat, unless there is 
some emergency such as a healing desperately needed. 
But there is much feasting and merriment. 

In the old days, before the persecutions, many 
different covens would come together to celebrate. 
There might be as many as several hundred Witches, 
from widely scattered covens, all congregating in one 
place to give thanks to the gods and to celebrate the 
Sabbat. In these modern times I have seen similar 
gatherings — though not for a specific Sabbat — such as 
the "Pan Pagan Festival" held in Michigan in 1981, 
where nearly eight hundred Witches and pagans were 
in attendance. But whether you can join forces with 
others or you celebrate as a single coven — or even as a 
Solitary Witch (more on this later)— the keyword is 

As the Goddess is honored with the phases of the 
moon, so is the God at certain of the phases of the sun. 
These are the "Lesser Sabbats" that occur at the Sum- 
mer and Winter Solstice and the Spring and Autumn 
Equinox. The four "Greater Sabbats" are more in the 
nature of seasonal, rather than specifically solar, fes- 
tivals and are therefore times for general celebration 
with both God and Goddess duly honored. 

Janet and Stewart Farrar, in their book Eight Sab- 
bats for Witches (Robert Hale, London, 1981), suggest a 
deeper leit motif for the Homed God, with a duality 
which they term the Oak King and the Holly King.* 
Although I see much merit in this, I am going to "stick 
to basics", as it were, and leave you to elaborate as the 
spirit moves you. 

In simple terms, we can think of the God pre- 

dominating in the winter (the "Dark Half" of the year) 
and the Goddess predominating in the summer (the 
"Light Half" of the year). This, of course, goes back to 
what I outlined in the first lesson— originating with 
the reliance on success in the hunt in the winter and 
nourishment of the crops in the summer. But there is 
more to it than that, even without getting into the com- 
plexities of Oak and Holly kings. In neither half of the 
year should you think of the one deity being supreme — 
being there without his or her partner. The key word is 
predominant. In other words, the emphasis is on the 
one but not to the total exclusion of the other. It should 
also be remembered, of course, that each deity — as with 
every individual — bears the attributes of both male 
and female. 

Sabbats start, as do all Circle rituals, with the 
Erecting the Temple rite. You should follow this with a 
Full or New Moon ritual, if appropriate for the Sabbat 
date (if the sabbat falls at a quarter point, then omit 
this). Then comes the particular sabbat ritual, which 
leads to Cakes and Ale. This is then followed by games 
and/or entertainment and feasting. 

In the suggested greater Sabbat rituals that I give 
below, you will find a general pattern which you may 
want to follow when writing your own rituals. It starts 
with a PROCESSIONAL. Then comes a HYMN to the 
deity. Next is an ENACTMENT of the seasonal motif, 
followed by a DECLARATION (these two segments 
give you wide scope for expression. The enactment 
can take many forms, from a solo performance to full 
coven participation in a mini-play, mime or dance). 
Since the Declaration is, in effect, an explanation of the 
meaning and significance of the particular sabbat, 
then it is possible to combine it with the Enactment, as 

•This is an excellent bookand should be studied both for this interesting theory of theirs, on a duality of the Horned God, and for the structuring and composition of sabbat rituals as 
a whole. 


68 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

in the form of a mime or dance accompanied by narration. Then comes the 
IITANY— a lead-and-response— followed by DANCE/SONG/CHANT. 
If OFFERINGS are appropriate (as at harvest time) then they should 
come before Cakes and Ale. 

Since we think of the God predominating in the dark half of the year 
and the Goddess in the light half of the year, then the change-overs from 
one to the other should be included as a significant part of the rites, 
occuring at Samhain and at Beltane. Here, then, are suggested rituals for 
the four Greater Sabbats, starting with Samhain. The four Lesser will be 
given next lesson. 


It is nice to "dress up" the altar and Circle for sabbats. Should 
you choose to use an altar cloth at these times, it should be of 
the same color as the candles or, alternatively, use the altar 
cloth in the color indicated but with white candles. 

SAMHAIN— Greater Sabbat 

This is the time of year for getting rid of weaknesses (in the old days 
the cattle least likely to make it through the winter would be cut from the 
herd and slaughtered) . Coveners should bring into the Circle with them 
a small piece of parchment on which they have written down weak- 
nesses or bad habits they would like to lose. 

The outer edge of the Circle may be decorated with autumnal 
flowers, branches, pine-cones, small pumpkins, etc.. There should be 
flowers on the altar. The altar cloth/candles should be orange. The 
Horned Helmet rests beside the altar. In the north quarter stands a 
cauldron containing material for a fire (regular kindling, if the Circle is 
outside, or a candle or a Sterno® burner, if meeting inside). 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. This may be followed by Full 
Moon or New Moon rite, if appropriate. Bell is then rung three times by a 
covener acting as SUMMONER. 

Summoner: "Haste! Haste! No time to wait! 

We're off to the Sabbat, so don't be late!" 
Priest/ess: "To the Sabbat!" 
All: "To the Sabbat!" 

"Dance and song, as an essential part of the 
religious hunting ceremony, is almost univer- 
sal even today. The Yakuts of Siberia, for 
instance, and many American Indian and 
Eskimo tribes, always dance before hunting. 
Dance/rhythm is the first step to ekstasis — 
the 'getting out of oneself. When the dance is 
for the increase of food, the dancers frequently 
imitate the movements of the animals, or the 
growing of the plants, which they are trying to 
influence. . . . the Masked Dancer at Four- 
neau du Diable, Dordogne, is depicted playing 
some form of musical instrument. This might 
indicate a ritual similar to that of the primitive 
Semang, of the Malayan jungle, who today 
enact the hunting of the coconut-ape through 
an action-song. It is performed partly for 
entertainment but mainly for magickal influence 
over the ape in the future hunt. The perform- 
ance goes through the stalking of the ape to the 
actual killing, by blowpipe. An interesting 
point, however, is the inclusion in the song of 
the ape 's feelings and the reactions of its family 
to its death. " 

'Witchcraft from the Inside 
'Raymond Buckland, Llewellyn, MN 1971 

With PRIEST and PRIESTESS leading, the coven moves deosil around 
the Circle, walking or dancing as each feels moved. It is appropriate to 
carry small drums or tambourines, to give a beat. Coven circles as many 
times as they wish. At some point, as they move around, PRIEST/ESS 
should start singing a hymn to the gods (this can be anything from a sim- 
ple repetitive chanting of the names of the gods to a spontaneous song of 
praise, or can be one of the songs or chants given in Appendix D). All 
can join in as the procession continues. If it is preferred, the coven can 
circle a number of times then come to a halt and start the singing while 
standing in place. 

Priest: "Now is a time of change. Now do we leave the light and 

Lesson Six: Sabbats I 69 

enter the darkness. Yet do we do so gladly, 
for we know it to be but the turning of the 
mighty Wheel of the Year." 
Priestess: "At this time of the year the gates between 
the worlds are open. We call upon our 
ancestors, our loved ones, to pass through 
and join with us at this time. We invite 
them to delight in celebration with those 
they love." 

Then follows an enactment of a seasonal motif. This 
can vary greatly and may be based on any of a number 
of themes, including local beliefs and practices. Here 
are some examples: life — death — new life; death of 
the old king and crowning of the new; the turning 
wheel of the year; the killing-off of those animals (cattle) 
that would not survive the winter; return of the dead 
to rejoice, briefly, with the living; gathering of the har- 
vest and storing for the winter; the creation of the 
world, with chaos transformed to order. This enact- 
ment can take the form of a play, mime or dance. At the 
end of the enactment, the bell is rung seven times. 
Then one of the coveners speaks: 

Covener: "We are at the crack of time, for this day 
belongs neither to the old year nor to the 
new. And as there is no distinction between 
the years, so is there no distinction between 
the worlds. Those we have known and 
loved, in ages past, are free to return to us 
here in this meeting place. Reach out, each 
and every one of you, in your own way, 
and feel the presence of one you have 
known and thought lost. From this reunit- 
ing gather strength. Know, all of you, that 
there is no end and no beginning. All is a 
continuous turning, a spiralling dance that 
goes and returns, yet moves ever on. In 
that turning, Samhain is the sacred festival 
marking the end of the summer and the 
beginning of winter: a time to celebrate; a 
time to welcome the God as he starts his 
journey down the tunnel of darkness that 
bears the light of our Lady at its end." 

Priest/ess: "The Old Year ends." 

All: "The New Year begins." 

Priest/ess: "The Wheel turns." 

All: "And turns again." 

Priest/ess: "Farewell to Our Lady." 

All: "Welcome to Our Lord." 

Priest/ess: "Goddess-Summer draws to a close." 

All: "God-Winter sets his foot upon the path." 

Priest/ess: "Hail and farewell!" 

All: "Hail and farewell!" 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS lead coven in a dance 
around the Circle. This may be followed, or accom- 
panied, by a song or chant (see Lesson Twelve and 
Appendix D for dances, songs and chants). PRIESTESS 
takes up Horned Helmet and stands before altar. 

Priestess: "Gracious Goddess, we thank thee for the 
joys of summer. 
We thank thee for all thy bounty; 
The fruits, the crops, the harvest. 
Return again as the Wheel turns 
And be with us once more. 
Even as our Lord accepts the mantle, 
Walk with him through the darkness, 
To come again into the light." 

PRIEST stands and faces Priestess. SHE holds Helmet 
high over his head. A Covener stands by the cauldron, 
with fire ready. 

Priestess: "Here do I display the symbol of our 
He who rules Death and that which comes 

The Dweller in the Darkness; 
The Husband/Brother of the light. 
May he guard us and guide us in all that we 

Within and without this Circle. 
With our Lady at his side, may he lead us 

through hardship 
And bring us, with hope, into the light." 

PRIESTESS places Horned Helmet on Priest's head. 
As she does, COVENER lights the cauldron fire. 

Covener: "Now is our Lord among us. 

Speak, for we are your children." 
Priest: "Behold, I am he who is at the beginning 

and at the end of time. 
I am in the heat of the sun and the coolness 

of the breeze. 
The spark of life is within me, as is the 
darkness of death. 

70 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

For I am he who is the Gatekeeper at the 

end of time. 
Lord-dweller in the sea, 
You hear the thunder of my hooves upon 

the shore 
And see the fleck of foam as I pass by. 
My strength is such that I might lift the 

world itself to touch the stars. 
Yet gentle am I, ever, as the lover. 
I am he whom all must face at the 

appointed hour, 
Yet am I not to be feared, for I am brother, 

lover, son. 
Death is but the beginning of Life, 
And I am he who turns the key." 

PRIESTESS salutes Priest. One by one other COVEN- 
ERS move around. If they wish to, they may place an 
offering on the altar or before it. They then embrace 
and/or kiss the Priest and move on back to their places. 
As they pass the burning cauldron, they throw into it 
their piece of parchment listing their weakness. PRIEST 
stands for a moment and meditates on his position for 
the coming half year. He then removes the Helmet 
and replaces it beside the altar. Bell is rung nine 

Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale. After 
that the Clearing the Temple is performed so that there is 
plenty of room for fun, games and entertainment 
(which may still take place around the altar, if desired). 
The evening concludes with a feast (usually a potluck 
affair, with dishes brought by the coveners) . 

BELTANE— Greater Sabbat 

The outer edge of the Circle, and the altar, maybe 
decorated with flowers. The altar cloth and candles 
should be dark green. A crown lies beside the altar. 
This may be a crown of flowers or it may be a silver 
crown decorated with silver crescent moons or similar. 
In the north quarter stands a cauldron containing 
material for a fire (regular kindling or a candle or a 
Sterno® burner) . In the east quarter is a Maypole — the 
Circle may be drawn extra large to accommodate it. 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. This may be 
followed by Full Moon or New Moon Rite, if appro- 
priate. The bell is rung three times by a Covener acting 
as Summoner. 

Summoner: "Haste! Haste! No time to wait! 

We're off to the Sabbat, so don't be late!" 
Priest/ess: "To the Sabbat!" 
All: "To the Sabbat!" 

With PRIEST and PRIESTESS leading, the COVEN 
move deosil around the Circle, walking or dancing as 
each feels fit, with small drums or tambourines giving 
a beat. Circle as many times as you wish. PRIEST and 
PRIESTESS start singing a hymn to the gods and all 
join in. Eventually all halt and singing ends. 

Priest: "The Lord has reached the end of his 

Priestess: "The Lady sets her foot upon the path." 

Then follows an enactment of a seasonal motif (e.g. 
triumphant return of the Goddess from the world 
between lives; creativity/reproduction; start of one of 
the breeding seasons for animals, both wild and 
domestic; dancing about the Maypole; driving of cat- 
tle between two fires to ensure a good milk yield) . Bell 
is rung seven times. 

Covener: "The gates swing back and forth and all 
may freely pass through. 
Our Lord has reached the ending of his 

To find the Lady awaiting him, with warmth 

and comfort. 
This is a time for joy and a time for sharing. 
The richness of the soil accepts the seed; 
And now is the time that seeds should 

be spilled. 
Togetherness brings joy and abundance 

fills the earth. 
Let us celebrate the planting of abundance; 
The turning of the Wheel; 
The season of the Lady. 
Let us say farewell to the darkness 
And cry greetings to the Light. 
Lord and Lady become Lady and Lord 
As the Wheel turns and we move ever 
Priest: "The Wheel turns." 

All: "Without ceasing." 

Priestess: "The Wheel turns." 
All: "And turns again." 

Priest: "Farewell to our Lord." 

Lesson Six: Sabbats I 71 


"Welcome to the Lady." 


"God-Winter ends his reign." 


"As Goddess-Summer turns to face the 



"Hail and Farewell!" 


"Hail and Farewell!" 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS lead coven in a dance about 
the Circle leading to the Maypole. Each of the COVEN- 
ERS takes a ribbon and dances around the pole with it, 
intertwining one with another. This is continued till all 
ribbons are tied around the pole, symbolizing the 
union of male and female; the joining of all together. A 
suitable chant/song to sing while dancing is found in 
the Gardnerian book. It is Gerald Gardner's version of 
a Rudyard Kipling poem: 

"Oh, do not tell the priests of our Art 

For they would call it sin. 

But we shall be in the woods all night 

A-conjuring Summer in. 

And we bring you good news, by word of 

For women, cattle and corn; 
Now is the sun come up from the south, 
With oak and ash and thorn." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS return to the altar. PRIEST- 
ESS stands with head bowed and arms crossed on her 
breast. PRIEST takes up the crown and holds it over 
her head. 

Priest: "Our Lord, with the lady at his side, 

Has brought us through the Darkness to 
the Light. 

It was a long journey that was not easy. 

Yet did the gods show strength 

And, through them, did we all grow and 

Now may they both continue. 

Now may the Lady, with her Lord at her 

Move on down the path, 

Spreading her Light and driving out Dark- 

PRIESTESS moves to stand with legs astride and arms 
up and outstretched. PRIEST lowers the crown onto 
her head. As he does so the cauldron fire is lit by one of 
the coveners. 

Covener: "Now is our Lady among us. 

Speak, Lady, for we are your children." 

PRIESTESS lowers her arms and spreads them wide 
to her coveners. 

Priestess: "I am she who turns the Wheel, 
Bringing new life into the world 
And beckoning those who pass along the 

In the coolness of the breeze you hear my 

My heart is in the rushing of the wind. 
When you thirst, let my tears fall upon you 

as gentle rain; 
When you tire, pause to rest upon the 

earth that is my breast. 
Warmth and comfort do I give thee 
And ask for nothing in return 
Save that you love all things even as your- 
Know that Love is the spark of Life. 
It is always there; always with you if you 

but see it. 
Yet you need not seek afar, for love is the 

inner spark; 
The light that burns without flicker; 
The amber glow within. 
Love is the beginning and the end of all 

things . . . 
And I am Love." 

PRIEST kisses Priestess. One by one COVENERS 
move around to kiss Priestess and to lay their offerings 
on the altar. When all have returned to their places, 
PRIEST and PRIESTESS join hands and lead them in a 
dance (as singles or couples) around the Circle. As 
they come to the cauldron, they jump over it. After 
several times around they halt. The bell is rung three 
times. Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale. 
After that the Clearing the Temple is performed so that 
there is plenty of room for fun, games and entertain- 
ment (which may still take place around the altar if 
desired) . The evening concludes with a feast. 

IMBOLC— Greater Sabbat 

This is the "Feast of Lights". It is another fire festival, 
so there is again a cauldron containing the makings of 

72 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

a fire standing in the north quarter. Beside it lies a 
besom (broomstick). This is the mid-point of the dark 
half of the year; the halfway point in the God's pre- 
dominence. But although it is in that segment of the 
year's cycle, yet it is very much a festival of the God- 
dess (particularly Brigid, Brigantia, Bride and other 
variations) . 

Beside the altar rests a "crown of light" — a circlet 
of candles*. The altar cloth and candles should be 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. This may be 
followed by Full Moon or New Moon Rite, if appro- 
riate. Bell is rung three times by Covener acting as 

Summoner: "Haste! Haste! No time to wait! 

We're off to the Sabbat, so don't be late!" 
Priest/ess: "To the Sabbat!" 
All: "To the Sabbat!" 

With PRIEST and PRIESTESS leading, the COVEN 
moves deosil around the Circle, walking or dancing. 
Circle as many times as you wish. PRIEST/ESS starts a 
hymn to the gods and all join in. Finally, all halt and 
stop singing. 




"Now has our Lord reached the zenith of 
his journey." 

"Now does he turn to face the Lady." 

"Though apart they are one." 

"They are both the shadow and the light." 

Then follows an enactment of a seasonal motif (e.g. the 
midpoint in the sun's winter journey; sweeping out 
the old and starting anew; the running of the priests of 
the Lupercalia, at the ancient Roman festival; the pre- 
paration of seed-grain for growing in the spring; the 
inviting of the Goddess of Fertility to enter into the 
house and lodge therein). Bell is rung seven times. 

Covener: "Our Lord now has reached mid-journey. 
Ahead he sees the light of our Lady, 
And the start of Life anew, after this period 

of rest. 
This was the first festival of the Keltic 

This is the time when spring lambs are 


And ewes come into milk. 

Spring itself is scented in the distance 

And thoughts are on the Goddess as much 
as on the God. 

Burn, now, the evergreens — the ivy, mistle- 
toe and holly; 

The rosemary and the bay. 

Clear out the old, that the new may enter 


"Light to dark." 


"Darkness to light." 


"Light to dark." 


"Darkness to light." 


"Farewell Lady; welcome Lord." 


"Farewell Lord and welcome Lady 


"All hail!" 






"All hail!" 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS lead coven in a dance about 
the Circle. This maybe followed, or accompanied, by a 
chant or song. 

PRIESTESS stands before the altar, with arms crossed 
on her breast. PRIEST kneels before her and kisses her 
feet. He then takes up the crown, stands, and places 
the crown on her head. He then dances deosil around 
the Circle three times. As he passes the cauldron on 
the second circuit, a covener lights the kindling (candle, 
or whatever) . As PRIEST comes to the cauldron on his 
third circuit, he jumps over it. He then comes on 
around and stops before the Priestess. With a taper, 
from the altar candle, he lights the candles on the 
Priestess's crown. PRIESTESS opens her arms and 
stands with legs apart and arms raised high. 

Priest: "All hail, Our Lady of Light!" 

All: "All hail, Our Lady of Light!" 

Covener: "Welcome, thrice welcome, Triple God- 
dess of Life." 
Covener: "Mother of the Sun, we welcome thee." 
Covener: "Goddess of Fire, we invite thee in." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS move round to the cauldron. 
COVENER hands besom to the Priestess. She hands 
besom to the Priest, with a kiss. PRIEST goes deosil 
around the Circle, "sweeping out" that which is no 
longer needed. When he returns to the north, he 

"Care must be taken with this. There is not only the danger of setting fire to the Priestess's hair, but also of burning her with hot wax. Miniature cake candles, or cut-down tapers, are 
best, with carefully designed, cupped holders. Thirteen candles (the number of moons in the year) is the number to have. 

Lesson Six: Sabbats I 73 

returns the besom to the Priestess, with a kiss. She 
then gives it to the first Covener, with a kiss. COVENER 
sweeps around the Circle. This is repeated with all 
Coveners. When all have done, PRIEST and PRIEST- 
ESS return to altar. Bell is rung three times. Then shall 
follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale. 
After that the Clearing the Temple is performed so that 
there is plenty of room for fun, games and entertain- 
ment (which may still take place around the altar if 
desired) . The evening concludes with a feast. 

LUGHNASADH— Greater Sabbat 

Summer flowers are on the altar and around the 
Circle. The altar cloth and candles should be yellow. 
The Erecting the Temple is performed. This may be 
followed by Full Moon or New Moon Rite, if appro- 
priate. The Bell is rung three times by Covener acting 
as Summoner. 

Summoner: "Haste! Haste! No time to wait! 

We're off to the Sabbat so don't be late!" 
Priest/ess: "To the Sabbat!" 
All: "To the Sabbat!" 

With PRIEST and PRIESTESS leading, the coven move 
deosil around the Circle, walking or dancing. Circle as 
many times as you wish. PRIEST/ESS starts a hymn to 
the gods and all join in. Finally all halt and stop 

Covener: "The powers of life and death are held by 

the gods." 
Covener: "Great is the power of the Mighty Ones." 
Covener: "God is old yet young." 
Covener: "And the power is his." 

Then follows an enactment of a seasonal motif (e.g. 
Death and rebirth of the god, leading to a great harvest- 
thinning of plants, toward a better harvest; strength 
and testing; killing of older god by younger god, with 
funeral games to honor the dead one). Bell is rung 
seven times. 

Covener: "In the midst of our Lady's rule do we 
remember her brother/lover/husband. 

Great is his power through his union with 
the Goddess. 

And through his death and rebirth, as the 

younger son, 
Is the harvest assured and the power 

passed on, 
To grow and spread wide to all he loves. 
Remember the Lord, yet in him ever see 

the Lady. 
Praise the Lady and, through her, the 
Priest: "Blessed be the Lady of the Circle." 

All: "And blessed be her Lord." 

Priestess: "May the surplus be drawn from the land." 
All: "That the body may be filled with strength." 

Priest: "Power to the Lord." 

All: "And power to the Lady." 

Priestess: "Let the old wane." 
All: "That the young may wax anew." 

Priest: "Ever turns the Wheel." 

All: "Ever onward." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS lead the coven in a dance 
about the Circle. This may be followed, or accom- 
panied, by a song or chant. 

ALL, except Priest and one male Covener, sit. PRIEST 
then dances around, deosil, between the seated 
coveners and the line of the Circle. MALE COVENER 
dances around widdershins, between the coveners and 
the altar (in other words, one outside the ring, going 
clockwise, and one inside, going counter-clockwise) . 
As they pass each other they strike hands over the 
coveners' heads. Coveners may, if they wish, clap the 
beat for them to dance to, shouting "Lugh!" at the 
striking of hands. They circle and strike hands twelve 
times. At the twelfth strike the PRIEST drops to the 
ground and COVENER jumps over the seated ones to 
run once around the circle, deosil now, along the 
Priest's path. Returning to the Priest, he helps him to 
his feet and they embrace. All cheer and come to 
their feet. 

Priest: "Lady and Lord, we thank thee, 

For all that has been raised from the soil. 
May it grow in strength from now till 

We thank thee for this promise of fruits 

to come. 
Let the power of our Lord 
Be in each and every one of us 
At this time and throughout the year." 

All: "So Mote it be." 

74 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

The bell is rung three times. Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and 
Ale. After that the Clearning of the Temple is performed so that there is 
plenty of room for fun, games and entertainment (which may still take 
place around the altar if desired). The evening concludes with a feast. 


The Sabbats are holidays, a time to celebrate and rejoice with the Gods. List the eight Sabbats and the dates 
they fall on this year. Describe what each Sabbat commemorates and relate how you celebrated each 

2. Make up (create, write) a hymn or song appropriate for a ritual/occasion of your choice. 

3. Create your own version of a favorite ritual. 

4. Describe your Enactment of a seasonal motif and the Declaration from a favorite Sabbat ritual. 



Let's take a brief respite from the sabbats and look at meditation. In its 
present form meditation has come to the Western world by way of the 
East. For centuries the eastern initiates have known of the power and the 
advantages of regular meditation. They have used it, developing it into a 
fine art through which they have learned to control the mind, overcome 
sickness, separate themselves from problems and fears, develop psychic 
abilities and expand philosophy and knowledge of Universal Law. 

Today, in the Western world, there is an evergrowing awareness of 
these benefits of meditation. TM — Transcendental Meditation, Yoga, 
Silva Mind Control — all these and many more are now common, turn- 
ing up in everyday conversations not only among Wiccans and other 
occultists, but among ordinary, everyday folk. The trouble is that, in lis- 
tening to these conversations, it quickly becomes obvious that many are 
mere dabblers in this realm. Many are confused. "Which technique is 
best?" "Why am I getting nothing out of it?" "Am I doing it right?" 

So, what is meditation? Quite simply it is a listening . . . listening to the 
Higher Self or, if you prefer, the Inner Self, the Creative Force, the 
Higher Consciousness; even the gods themselves. It can be all of these. 
Properly used, meditation opens the door to individual growth and per- 
sonal advancement. Of all the techniques of advancement in the psychic 
and spiritual fields, meditation is by far the most effective. Coinciden- 
tally, it is also the most simple. And it can be practiced alone or in a 
group setting. 

The late, renowned psychic Edgar Cayce, in one of his readings 
(#281-13), said that "Meditation is emptying self of all that hinders from 
the creative forces rising along the natural channels of the physical man 
to be disseminated through those centers and sources that create the 
activities of the physical, mental and spiritual man; properly done 
(meditation) must make one stronger mentally, physically . . . we may 
receive that strength and power that fits each individual, each soul for 
greater activity in this material world." In short, meditation is a method 
whereby we can improve our lives materially, physically, mentally and 
spiritually. As with the Eastern Master, you too can discipline your mind, 
control your emotions, overcome illness, solve problems and begin to 


CROWN (Pituitary)- 

THIRD EYE (Pineal)- 


THROAT (Thyroid)- 

HEART (Thymus)- 

SPINE (Adrenal) ► 

LUMBAR (Gonads) . 

Figure 7.1 


and the glands they coincide with 

80 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

create your own reality. You only need to have the 
desire and be willing to expend the effort. 


To understand how meditation works we must 
examine human make-up on a conscious level and 
must also realize that we are spiritual as well as physical 
beings. The physical and spiritual bodies are connected 
at the vital centers, known by their Sanskrit name — 
Chakra (see Figure 7.1). In meditation the mysterious 
psychic energy can be sent up through these centers. 
This very potent force is called the Kundalini, or 
"Serpent Power". As this mighty force begins to flow 
within you, these vital psychic centers — the chakras — 
begin to open in successive order. 

On a conscious level, consider the total conscious- 
ness as a sort of sandwich. On one side you have the 
Conscious Mind. This is the mind that is concerned 
with your everyday world and activities and your 
physical/material being. It is your waking state of con- 
sciousness. On the other side of the sandwich is what 
is called the Higher Consciousness, or the Super- 
Consciousness. This is your Higher Self Mind. It is 
concerned with your spiritual well-being and retains 
your Universal Memory. In the center is that which is 
often called the Subconscious Mind. It is passive and is 
largely subordinate to the conscious mind — primarily 

because it has been made so. It rules the realm of the 
involuntary body functions; memory; reflex actions; 
and serves as the connecting passageway between 
your conscious and super-conscious minds. 

As the vital forces begin to flow through the 
nervous sytem, the individual achieves a sense of 
well-being and peace. The subconscious begins to 
clear itself of the negative and undesired patterns of 
feelings and the images that have been programmed 
into it through your lifetime. The cosmic force of the 
Kundalini very naturally operates in a calm, relaxed, 
contemplative atmosphere. As the succession of opening 
chakras continues, your awareness and perception of 
life flows continually from within. You are led to do 
the right thing at the right time. A new vibrancy 
permeates your being. 

Meditation allows you to learn to control the 
restless, materially oriented conscious mind and re- 
program the subordinate subconsciousness, in order 
that you may function from your spiritually oriented 
higher consciousness. It opens up the channel to your 
Higher Self. 


Many people fail in their meditation because 
either they are using the wrong technique, or they 
simply do not have a technique. Master teachers of 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats 1 81 

eastern philosophies suggest that during meditation you focus your 
attention on the "thousand petaled lotus" of the third eye (see Figure 7. 2) . 
This is the seventh and highest chakra. In this way you re-orient yourself 
by transcending association with your gross physical self and your 
mental identifications — and you become aware of the true source. When 
you sit in meditation, with your attention focused on the third eye, you 
lift yourself above and beyond the conscious and subconscious cares of 
the physical. 

Notice that when you are feeling well and alert you are in touch with 
your environment through the eyes and other physical senses. Your 
focus is outward into the physical world. When you are in a negative 
mood, or depressed, notice how you withdraw from your physical 
world. You turn your eyes down and your focus reflects subconscious 
thoughts and problems. The next time that you feel depressed or moody, 
lift your eyes; focus your attention outward and upward — above the level 
of the horizon. Be aware of your surroundings and communicate with 
them. You will begin to feel better. Your gloom will fade and optimism 
will return. 

You see, when you turn your eyes DOWN, you tend to relate to the 
subconscious. When you look STRAIGHT OUTWARD, you tend to 
relate to your conscious mind, which is oriented towards the gross 
physical/material world. When you look UP, you tend to relate to your 
higher, spiritual consciousness and the realm beyond the physical. 

The natural tendency to place your attention in the manner that you 
focus your eyes, is used to aid your meditation in what is called the Third 
Eye meditation technique. Do you want to focus on the higher self? Then 
by using your natural tendencies, simply focus your eyes and your atten- 
tion upward and inward to the third eye; a spot about one inch above the 
brow line and one inch inside the surface of the forehead. 

Figure 7.2 


Meditation should be comfortable and secure. Therefore your 
posture should be comfortable and secure. You may choose any position 
you like so long as you make sure to keep your spine straight. I personally 
recommend that you sit in a comfortable, straight-backed chair. You 
should be able to sit well back — spine straight — with your feet flat on the 
floor. The chair should, preferably, have arms to it on which to rest your 
arms. It need not have a high back, in fact it is better if it does not. You 
may prefer to sit or lay on the floor. If you choose to sit on the floor, the 
lotus position is not recommended unless you are an adept and completely 
comfortable with it. You should select a location that allows you to lean 
against something for back support. The floor surface should be comfor- 
tably soft. It is helpful, though not absolutely necessary, to reduce the 
presence of man-made fibers such as metal, plastic and synthetics, as 
much as possible. Ideally a soft sheepskin or a heavy woolen item, such 
as a blanket or rug, could be used for sitting or lying on. Some prefer to 
lay flat on their back, legs together and arms at their sides. The only 
drawback to this position is that some people will tend to fall asleep! 

82 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


The area chosen for meditation should be a quiet 
place, away from outside noises such as traffic and 
children at play. The best place, of course, is your 
cleansed and consecrated Circle. If, for some reason, 
you must choose another area, it should be cleansed 
and consecrated in the same manner as your Circle. 

Some adepts insist that the meditator face the 
east. In certain cases it does seem to give a slight 
benefit, but generally speaking the direction of physical 
orientation is of slight importance. If your area has a 
blank wall on the east and a window on the west, you 
will probably feel far more comfortable facing the 
window. The important thing is to be as comfortable 
as possible. 

Remove possible sources of disturbance where 
possible. A ticking clock or, worse, the discordant ring 
of a telephone or doorbell, can be shattering. Discon- 
nect them if you can. Radios and television sets should 
be turned off, of course. Clothing should be loose, so 
as not to constrict the body in any way. Why not wear 
your robe, with nothing beneath it? Better yet — room 
temperature permitting — go skyclad. 


The best time for meditation is generally a matter 
of personal convenience. For most people it is either 
the early morning or the late evening. A few — usually 
those who are home during the day — find mid-afternoon 
most convenient. There is some evidence to suggest 
that a period close to the hour of your birth is best. 
Certainly astrological influences cannot be totally 
discounted. However, the slight advantage of attuning 
to the stars can be more than offset by the negative 
influences such as noisy neighbors or scheduling con- 
flicts with other required activites. So choose the time 
that is most convenient for you. The important thing is 
that you do meditate and that you consistently meditate. 
So, whatever time you choose, stick to that same time 
every day. 


To succeed and remain successful in meditation, 
you must meditate consistently. Some recommend 
fifteen to twenty minutes, twice a day. I feel that one 
fifteen minute period is sufficient as a minimum. But be 

consistent in the time of day and the length of time 
devoted each day. You cannot be successful on an 
occasional basis. 


Sit comfortably, relaxing the body as much as 
possible without slumping or allowing the spine to 
curve. Help loosen tight muscles by doing the follow- 
ing exercises: 

1 : Allow the head to fall forward on the chest. Breathe 
deeply in and out three times. Return to the up- 
right position. 

2: Allow the head to tip fully backwards. Breathe 
deeply in and out three times. Return to the up- 
right position. 

3: Tip the head as far as possible to the left. Breathe 
deeply in and out three times. Return to the up- 
right position. 

4: Tip the head as far as possible to the right. Breathe 
deeply in and out three times. Return to the up- 
right position. 

5: Allow the head to fall forwards, then move it in a 
circle, counterclockwise, three times. 

6: Repeat the last exercise, moving the head clock- 
wise three times. Return to the upright position. 

7: Breathe in, through the nose, with a number of 
short, sharp intakes until the lungs are full. Hold it 
a moment, then suddenly exhale through mouth 
with a "Hah!" sound. Do this three times. 

8: Breathe in slowly and fully, through the right 
nostril (hold the left one closed if necessary), feel- 
ing the stomach balloon out as you do so. Hold it a 
moment, then exhale slowly through the mouth, 
flattening the stomach as you do so. This exercise 
moves all the stale air from the bottom of the 
lungs. Do this three times. 

9: Repeat the last exercise, this time breathing in 
through the left nostril and out through the right 
nostril. Do this three times. 

Now, with your body relaxing and breathing 
normally but deeply, concentrate your thoughts until 
you can imagine your whole body encased in a globe 
of white light. Feel the luminous energy charging your 
whole body. 

Now focus your attention on your toes. Com- 
mand them to relax. Let the tension and tiredness melt 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats / 83 

away from them. Repeat the process with the balls of the feet, the arches, 
the heels, the ankles and so on. Completely relax the entire body, section 
by section. Calves, knees, thighs, groin, buttocks, spine, stomach and 
chest cavity, shoulders, upper and lower arms, wrists, hands, neck, 
throat, chin, jaw (let the jaw sag and hang slightly open if you feel a 
tendency for it to do so), eyes, cranial area and scalp. Relax every muscle, 
vein, nerve and fiber as you move up your body. Finish your relaxation 
technique at the forehead. Then you need only to focus inward to your 
third eye. 

With your attention focused at the third eye, let your eyes roll up, if 
you can. Go deeper and ever deeper into the third eye. Abandon the 
unreal material world; the ego self. It is only when the materialistic ego 
self is transcended that you can find the door to the inner kingdom and 
your higher self. Give yourself to it . . . yield to the magnetic pull from 
above. You don't need to pray or visualize to make anything happen. Just 
relax and let yourself flow inward and upward toward the higher power. 
Whatever sensation, inner light or sound, comes your way, move into it 
and through to the source from which it comes. Don't become fascinated 
or frightened by the phenomena. Don't become deluded into thinking 
you are "becoming psychic". Whatever you see, give yourself to it and 
move ever upward, ever inward, into and through. 

You may have a difficult time keeping the conscious mind still at 
first. Your consciousness is like a spoiled child, constantly demanding 
attention. Once it begins to become disciplined you will begin to notice 
positive results. You may not have dramatic, earth-shaking experiences, 
but you will begin to notice a deepening of intuition. You will begin to 
"know" things that you have not known before. This is proof that your 
meditation is working and the power of the Kundalini is waking. 

When you first begin to meditate you will find it difficult to sit still 
for more than a few minutes at a time. Your mind wants to wander, your 
body wants to fidget and may even develop a great itch demanding to be 
scratched! It will take a little time but you will discover that you are the 
master of your body and mind. Ignore the itch. Tell your conscious mind 
to sit down and shut up! YOU are very busy with more important 
business. The itch will go away and your conscious mind will become 
disciplined to sit quietly aside as you attune to your higher nature ... IF 
YOU REMAIN PERSISTENT. Remember, you let your mind and your 
emotions run your affairs all of your life. Now your mind and emotions 
must learn that they work for you. It may take a few lessons, but they will 
learn. Stay with it. You are embarking on the greatest voyage of your 

Group meditation can bring enormous satis- 
faction. The interaction of each person's 
vibrations work in a complementary manner 
resulting in tremendous psychic achieve- 
ment. When meditating alone you may, once 
in a while, experience an 'off day. This is 
never the case with group meditation. In fact, 
for this reason, many people will only medi- 
tate with a group. 

In group meditation . . . the group should 
seat themselves in a circle and should go 
through their breathing and light exercises in 
their own time. At the completion, by every- 
one, of the chakra color-reinforcement, the 
white electric light should be extinguished, or 
blinds drawn, and the circle should then be 
illuminated by a blue light. In the group in 
which I work, we use a Westinghouse 100- 
watt 'Colortone'® floodlight. It is available 
just about everywhere and is ideal for the 
purpose. This blue light should remain on 
throughout the meditation. 

Practical Color Magick 

Raymond Buckland, Llewellyn, 1983 


For your physical well-being it is important that you end each 
meditation period with a re-awakening of the physical and conscious 
selves. This should be done in the reverse order to the method for 
relaxation. As your consciousness begins to pull away from the third 
eye, direct it to expand up the forehead to the top of the head. Then, step 
by step, proceed down through the body: cranial area, eyes, back of the 

84 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

head, face, jaw, tongue, neck, throat, etc.. Command 
each in succession to awaken refreshed, vibrant and 
healthy. Shoulders, upper and lower arms, wrists, 
hands, upper back, chest, chest cavity, stomach, sides, 
lower back, groin, awaken refreshed, relaxed and 
vibrant with life. Buttocks, thighs, knees, calves, ankles, 
heels, arches, balls of the feet, toes. Go through all 
parts of the body. Command each and every muscle, 
vein, fiber and nerve to awaken healthy, refreshed and 
vibrant. You will be pleasantly surprised at how much 
better you will begin to feel after your meditation. You 
will feel an immediate inner satisfaction and a tremen- 
dous peace of mind. Through meditation you will 
discover that not only is your spiritual consciousness 
awakening, but you are also revitalizing the physical 
self, as you begin to tap the great cosmic forces that are 
your birthright. 


What is a dream? Are dreams important? At first 
glance someone unfamiliar with them might take little 
note of some seemingly trivial shred of a half-remem- 
bered dream. The apparently silly antics depicted in 
some dreams appear little more than the doodling of 
an off-duty head! Other more bizarre and frightening 
events cause the dreamer to wish that he might have 
no more of them. In either case the individual is likely 
to give little importance to these strange vignettes 
from the unknown world of sleep. 

But modern research continues to explore the 
dream world with intensity. Are dreams important, 
telling you things that could be to your advantage, or are 
they simply "night-time movies" to entertain your un- 
conscious mind while your conscious rests? According 
to research data, you average seven dream periods 
each of up to forty-five minutes duration — every night 
of your life. Scientists have also determined that 
dreaming is vital to the state of your well-being. 
Sleeping laboratory subjects, on having their dream 
periods interrupted over extended periods, developed 
emotional stress. But the scientist has focused on the 
phenomena and failed to investigate the source. He 
has worked from the outside in. 


To effectively deal with the dream you must un- 
derstand where it originates and why. Obviously it is 
not a product of the conscious mind; it occurs during 

the sleep state, when the conscious mind is at rest. The 
subconscious mind is passive and not capable of logic 
or thought development, so it cannot be the originator 
of the highly complex and elusive dream . . . the sub- 
conscious can only put out what has been put in. So 
where does that leave us? The dream is complex, well 
orchestrated and imaginative. The only possible source, 
apparently, is what Jung termed the "unconscious", or 
"higher spiritual mind". We now know this part of our 
mind or consciousness as the Super-Conscious. 

Are dreams important? The mere fact that they 
occur gives them a certain importance. No facet of 
your existence is totally trivial. However, when you 
consider the source of your dreams, the great impor- 
tance of them becomes increasingly clear. For many 
people the dream state is the only medium available to 
the higher mind for it to reach the consciousness. Thus 
every night it is busy trying to get its message across. 
Your higher self is expending a lot of time and effort in 
forming and transmitting dreams; the least you can do 
is try to understand what the message is. 


You have probably spent countless hours trying, 
unsuccessfully, to decipher the seemingly senseless 
riddles of your dreams. You are puzzled when a dream 
of attending Aunt Minnie's funeral proves not in the 
least prophetic as, ten years later, Aunt Minnie is still 
going strong. You're totally baffled at intimate exchanges 
with people you wouldn't normally go near. You are 
amazed at dreaming of doing things that are physically 
impossible in your everyday life. You end up with 
total frustration in your attempts to make any sense of 
the strange goings-on in your elusive dreams. Yet you 
still feel that somewhere there must be an answer . . . 
but where? What is the key? 

As an element of the Universal Consciousness, 
your super-conscious awareness is totally versed in 
Universal Symbolism. Since the super-conscious mind 
tends to speak in its own language, your dreams can 
be expected to contain some of this language of 
Universal Symbols. But even though it has its own 
language, the super-conscious mind is aware that you 
will respond best to those symbols with which your 
conscious mind is most familiar. Therefore it will use 
terms and symbols from your everyday life. Oftimes it will 
use the symbolism from recent events that are fresh in 
your memory. These impressions from your personal 
physical life are called Personal Symbolism. 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats / 85 

Universal Symbolism includes those things that 
remain true for all humankind throughout the ages. 
Included are colors, numbers, form and sexual identity 
(i.e. male and female). They come from the super-con- 
sciousness and therefore are timeless. A case in point 
is transportation — the universal symbol of spiritual 
advancement. As material technology has advanced, 
the application of symbology has kept pace. So transpor- 
tation may take one of the modern forms of conveyance, 
such as rockets, planes, steamships, trains or auto- 
mobiles, or one of the timeless modes of riding on the 
back of an animal or walking. 

It would be impossible to list all the universal 
symbols here, but a general sampling is given in the 
section on Universal Symbols. 


The eminent psychologist Carl Jung once stated: 
"No dream symbol can be separated from the individual 
who dreams it." Keep this thought in mind as you 
study the following concepts. Notice that almost all of 
the universal symbols have various shades of meaning. 
In fact, some even have contradictory meanings. The 
interpretation of such symbols can only be done by 
YOU, the dreamer, through consideration of your 
own feelings towards the dream, the symbol and your 
own intuition. 

The dream is a complex and almost limitless com- 
bination of symbols. It can be analytical, judgemental 
or therapeutic in nature. The majority of dreams are 
analytical. That is, they provide a means for the higher 
self to comment on your everyday life and your spiritual 
development. It will analyze how you are relating to 
your environment and your fellow man and woman. 
A small percentage of your dreams are of a prophetic 
nature, to warn and prepare you for future events (the 

percentage of prophetic dreams varies greatly from 
one person to another but it is estimated that perhaps 
one dream in twenty concerns the future. Don't im- 
mediately jump to the conclusion that what you dream 
about brother Bob, or cousin Mary, is an indication of 
something that is about to happen to him or her. It may 
be but far more likely is not) . Along with this, inciden- 
tally, it should be noted that invariably the principle 
characters in your dream are actually representing 
YOU — or some aspect of you. So when you dream of 
your sister Suzy arguing with you about something, 
you are actually seeing a representation of an inner 
conflict — one part of you at odds with another part 
(perhaps your male aspect against your female aspect) — 
with the image of sister Suzy being used simply as a 
recognizable form that you can accept. 

Again depending on the individual, the number 
of therapeutic dreams varies from person to person. It 
simply depends on the need of the individual. If a person 
has a strong feeling of inferiority, their therapy may be 
to dream of being a powerful, capable and attractive 
person. In this way, the Higher Self is compensating 
for the dreamer's psychological lack. If a person has a 
strong feeling of superiority, they might be taken down 
a peg or two by a dream that depicts him or her as a 
weak, defenseless and inferior person. Thus the dream 
often attempts to overcome character defects. 

Prophetic dreams will only occur when the in- 
dividual needs to be prepared for an event in the 
future. Even though you may not consciously remember 
it, the dream prepares you, subconsciously, for the 
shock that is to come. Not all precognitive dreams are 
of significant events; some may even appear quite 
trivial. But they are important just the same. They pro- 
gram and prepare the subconscious and conscious 
minds, over a period of time, to deal with the future 
events and situations in a proper manner. 

It would be impractical, if not impos- 
sible, to list all of the Universal Symbols 
here. However, the following list pro- 
vides the basics and gives you an idea of 
their function. From this you can begin to 
develop your own list. 


Abundance: Desire for independence. 

Accident: Something unplanned. 

Actor/Actress: Desire for recognition. 

Adultery: Guilt. 

Airplane: See Transportation. 

Altar: Self sacrifice. 

Anchor: Stability. Sometimes a desire for a 
permanent home. 

Anima: The feminine aspect of the individ- 
ual. Guide to the inner world. The 
Goddess. Receptive, prospective 
and nurturing. 

Animal: Depends on your feelings for the 
particular animal (for typical mean- 
ing see the specific type). A help- 
ful animal normally represents the 
instinctive self. 

Animus: The masculine aspect of the in- 
dividual. Uncompromising con- 
viction. Force. The God. 

Apple: Desire. 

Arrow: Pleasure; festivity. 
Auction: Promise of abundance. 
Automobile: See Transportation. 
Baby: Crying: frustrated plans. 

Laughing: plans fulfilled. 

Sleeping: Waiting period; patience. 
Ballon: Frustration. 

Basement: A place of refuge or retreat. 
Battle: Internal conflict. 
Bells: Fulfillment of plans; joy. 
Bicycle: Hard work will bring plans to frui- 
tion; also see Transportation. 
Birds: Usually transcendence from one 

state of being to another. 
Birth: Transition to new phase, or new 

86 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

aspect, of self. 

Bridge: Overcoming difficulties; a change. 

Broom: The ability to sweep or clean up. 

Bull: Animal nature; stubbornness. 

Burial: End of a phase; time to take a new 

Candle: Constancy. 

Cane or Crutch: The need of support. 

Capital (City or Town): The center. Also 
see Cities. 

Castle: Ambition. 

Cave: A place of retreat or refuge; a need 
for time to think and meditate. 

Circle: Totality; perfection; infinity; the All; 
the Collective Unconsciousness. 

Cities: Gatherings of consciousness. If 
significantly placed, it can repre- 
sent the Anima. 

Climbing: The self-mastery process; raising 

Clock: The passage of time; the need to 
take action. 

Clothes: Attitudes; personality. 

Coffin: See Burial. 

Colors: The symbolic meaning of color is a 
fascinating study in its own right. I 
only wish to touch lightly on the 
subject here, to give you the basic 
idea of the meanings of individual 
colors in your dreams. The follow- 
ing list is not inclusive but will 
give you the primary colors: — 
RED — strength, health, vigor, sex- 
ual love, danger, charity 
ORANGE — encouragement, adapt- 
ability, stimulation, attraction, 
plenty, kindness 
YELLOW — persuasion, charm, con- 
fidence, jealousy, joy, comfort 
GREEN — finance, fertility, luck, 

energy, charity, growth 
BLUE— tranquility, understand- 
ing, patience, health, truth, 
devotion, sincerity 
INDIGO — changeability, impulsive- 
ness, depression, ambition, 
VIOLET — tension, power, sad- 
ness, piety, sentimentality 

Cradle: Potential for advancement. 

Crossing the River: A fundamental change 
of attitude. 

Crying: Emotion; usually a sad event. 

Crystal: Union of matter and spirit. 

Curtains: Concealment; adornment. 

Darkness: The spirit world; the subcon- 
scious; turning inward. 

Death: The end of something; opportunity 
for new beginnings. 

Dog: Loyalty; laziness; anger. 

Eating: Need for new interests; stimula- 

Evening: Descending into the subconscious 

Eye: Perception; self-examination. 

Falling: Failing to live up to expectations. 

Fish: Transcendence from one state of being 
to another. 

Fire: Anger; purification; abundance of 

Flowers: Contentment; pleasure. 

Flying: See Transportation. 

Girl: Immature feminine aspect. 

Glass: Perception; being able to see (some- 
times into the future) . 

Graduation: Initiation; completing a phase. 

Hair: Thought. Grey or silver hair indicates 
wise thought. 

Hammer: Power to drive forward. 

Helpful Animal: The instinctive self. 

Highway: The path; the way ahead. 

Horse: WHITE HORSE— Symbol of life 
(the Keltic Goddess Epona was 
often depicted on a white mare); 

BLACK HORSE— Change of for- 

WILD HORSE— uncontrolled in- 
stinctive urges. 

WINGED HORSE— transcendence 
from one state of being to another. 

House: The symbol of personality and con- 
scious interest from the spiritual 
view. The particular room repre- 
sents particular interest: — 
BATHROOM— Cleansing; elimin- 
ation of the undesired. 
BASEMENT — place of refuge, re- 
treat, concealment. 
BEDROOM— place of rest and 

DINING ROOM— place of sus- 
tenance; refortification. 
KITCHEN — a place to prepare the 

LIVING ROOM— place of social- 

Ice: Coldness of character; frigidity; rigid- 

Illness: Boredom, delay. 

Individual Self: The "real" you; the inner 
you; the all-wise, all-powerful 
spiritual self. 

Jail: Confinement; frustration; inability 
to act. 

Journey: See Transportation. 

Judge or Jury: Your conscience. 

Key: The answer to a problem. 

Kiss: Satisfaction; completion. 

Ladder: Ability to climb (note the length of 
the ladder). 

Left (as in side or direction) : The subcon- 
scious side; sometimes the wrong 
side or direction; the logical side; 
the scientific side. 

Light: Hope. 

Lines: Broken lines represent the feminine 
aspect. Solid lines, the masculine 

Lizard: Transcendence. 

Lock: Frustration; security. 

Man or Male: Animus, the masculine aspect. 
The age indicates the maturity or 
lack of it in the individual. 

Mask: Falsehood; deception; concealment. 

Mirror: Need to reconsider. 

Mother: Haven; comfort. 

Nakedness: Real; true; without false attitudes; 
exposed; natural. 

Night (especially midnight) : Greatest strength 
of the super-consciousness. 

Noon: The greatest clarity of conscious- 

Number: In interpreting numbers you 
should first of all examine their 
balance or lack of balance. EVEN 
numbers signify balance and har- 
mony. ODD numbers signify im- 
balance and discord. In consider- 
ing the following definitions, note 
that a larger number is made up of 
a combination of smaller numbers: 
ONE — the beginning; the source; 
the ego. 

TWO — duality; the male and fe- 
male; positive and negative. 
THREE — the trilogy: father, mother 
and child; past, present and future. 
Completion of the first plane. 
FOUR — the material universe; con- 
sciousness, reality and law; physi- 
cal power, initiative, religion and 
spiritual evolution. It is Three and 

FIVE — the number of Wo/Man. It 
represents materialism, expan- 
sion, change, understanding and 
justice. It is Three and Two. 
SIX — the number of cooperation 
and balance. It represents interac- 
tion between the material and the 
spiritual; mental and physical. It 
signifies psychism, peace and com- 
pletion of the second plane. It is 
twice Three. 

SEVEN — Completion; old age; en- 
durance; evolution and wisdom. 
The seven stages of spiritual trans- 
formation. Four and Three. 
EIGHT — the number of dissolution 
and separation.The law of cyclic 
evolution and invention. Five and 

NINE — rebirth and reformation. 
Intuition; travel; karma and com- 
pletion of the third plane. Three 
times Three. 

ZERO — the circle. Infinity; the uni- 
verse; the All. 

Ocean: Opportunity; spirituality. 

Owl: Wisdom; need for further evaluation. 

Pearl: Joy. Broken string of pearls — misunder- 

Pirate: Suspicion. 

Prison: See Jail. 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats 1 87 

Pyramid: Thirst for knowledge; seeking. 
Railroad: A set path to follow; see also 

Rainbow: Great happiness; opportunity. 
Reading: Learning; gaining in knowledge; 

Riding: See Transportation. 
Right: The conscious; correctness; the 

artistic side. 
Ring: Completion; loyalty. 
River: Spirituality; a boundary. 
Rocket: See Transportation. 
Rocks: The unchanging self. 
Rodents: Transcendence or a less-than- 

nice person; distrust; betrayal. 
Roller Skates: See Transportation. 
Roses: See Flowers. 
Ruins: Failure of plans. 
Sacrifice: Overcoming pride. 
School: A place of learning; a need 

to learn. 
Scissors: Distrust. 
Sea: See Ocean. 
Self-image: The inner or spiritual self. The 

age indicates maturity or the lack 

of it. 
Sex: Union of opposites; union of male 

and female principles; satisfac- 
tion; completeness. 
Shadow: The subconscious; insubstantial- 

Ship: See Transportation. 

Skeleton: The basics; the root of a problem. 

Snake: Spiritual wisdom; transcendence 
into a state of wisdom. 

Snake-bite: Infusion of wisdom (bites are 
not usually painful in dreams) . 

Soldiers: Force; power; regimentation. 

Spade: Penetration; cutting; tough work 
lies ahead. 

Sunrise: Clearing of consciousness; awaken- 

Sunset: Need to protect assets. 

Swan: Beauty; comfort; satisfaction. 

Sword: Penetrating and cutting; conflict. 

Table: Support; a platform for presentation. 

Telescope: Need to get closer to subject. 

Thief: Loss or fear of loss; insecurity. 

Thunder: Anger. 

Towns: See Cities. 

Touching: The manner of touch and your 
feeling about it is important. Touch- 
ing normally represents the laying- 
on of hands, usually healing. On 
rare occasions it may mean a curse. 
Can be comfort; security. 

Trains: See Transportation. 

Transcendence: Achieving full realization of 
the individual self. 

Transformation: See Transcendence. 

Transportation: Spiritual advancement. The 
more efficient the mode, the more 
effective and rapid is the advance- 
ment. The rocket would be the 

most rapid and the highest travel- 
ing. Crawling would be among 
the least effective. A train is force- 
ful and direct, but is confined by 
narrow tracks. A car is fairly effi- 
cient and maneuverable. The air- 
plane is more efficient than the car 
or train and rises higher than any 
surface mode of transport. Roller 
skates are more effective (faster) 
than walking, but require a smoother 
surface and more effort; etc.. 

Traveling: The act of spiritual advancement. 

Tree: The life principle; psychic growth 
and development; success. 

Tunnel: Hiding; being afraid. 

Turning: Changing or developing. See Left 
or Right. Turning in a circle repre- 
sents lack of progress. 

Twins: Ego and alter ego. 

Umbrella: Shelter. 

Veil: Insecurity. 

Volcano: Sexual energy; emotions. 

Wall: Frustration; inability. 

Watch: See Clock. 

Water: Spirituality; emotion. 

Wedding: Culmination of plans; happi- 
ness; success. 

Witch: Supernatural ability; wisdom. 

Woman: The anima. Her age represents 
maturity or lack of it. 

Wreath: Self-pity. 


The obvious first step in dream interpretation is 
to remember them. If you have difficulty in remem- 
bering your dreams, the probable reason is that you 
have ignored them for so long the subconscious no 
longer tries to bring them to your conscious memory. 
If this is the case, you must program yourself to 
remember. This can be done through affirmation. 
During meditation, and just before going to sleep, 
tell yourself very firmly: "I WILL REMEMBER MY 
DREAMS". Do this three times. Release the command. 
Then again tell yourself, very firmly, three times: "I 
WILL REMEMBER MY DREAMS". Release the thought. 
Then for the third time, repeat the three commands: "I 
WILL REMEMBER MY DREAMS". So you instruct 
yourself nine times in all. 

The second step in interpretation is recording the 
dreams. Place a pad and a pencil by your bed for this 
purpose. This very act, in itself, reinforces the com- 
mand to remember. When you first awaken — even 
before that eye-opening cup of coffee! — jot down notes 
on what you remember. Don't worry about trying to 
get everything in perfect order at this point. The 

important thing is to capture what you can, even if you 
only have time to make a few brief notes. You will find 
that later on you will be able to recall more of the 
details of the dream.Then write down all the details 
that you can remember. Describe the people, their 
identities, occupations, clothes, the state of their emotions 
and their activities. Note your attitude towards them 
and their attitudes towards you. Describe everything 
you see, feel and hear. Pay special attention to the num- 
bers of things and their colors. It is all important. Then 
try to arrange your notes in the order in which they 
were dreamed. 

Once you have completed your notes and organ- 
ized them you can begin the task of interpretation. 
First of all, examine the dream to see if it fits any of the 
events of the preceding day. This will explain a few of 
your dreams. If this test fails, then you must determine 
whether the dream is literal or symbolic. 

A LITERAL dream is one in which the main dream 
character or image is a real person or thing in your life, 
or on your mind, at the time. If the literal interpreta- 
tion makes sense, you may have found the key. When 
the literal interpretation fails to make sense, the dream 
is obviously symbolic. 

88 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

A SYMBOLIC dream is one in which the dream 
character and images cannot be taken literally, as a real 
person or thing. Then the image is that of an aspect of 
you, the dreamer. Then the ancient wisdom of the 
Universal Symbols should be applied. 

As you first begin to work with symbology, you 
may still have difficulty unraveling the tangled threads; 
you may only decipher part of the mystery. Don't 
worry about this for it is quite natural in the beginning. 
Continue to affirm that you will remember. Continue to 
faithfully record all of the details that you can. As you 
do, you will find that the symbols will gradually begin 
to clear, as you and your higher self develop a dialogue 
that you can consciously understand. The hidden 
symbol in one dream will suddenly be revealed in 
another. When this begins to happen you should start 
to compile your own personal Dream Dictionary. Take a 
notebook that is not used for any other purpose and 
divide it into alphabetical sections. As you discover 
the meanings of new symbols, write them down. Soon 
you will find that you have an extensive set of personal 
symbols which will permit nearly total interpretation 
of all your dreams. 


Many published books on dream interpretation 
provide the reader with hundreds of symbols and 
simplified interpretation. Other than listings of Uni- 
versal symbols, such books are totally misleading. Each 
of us has his or her own unique personal symbology, 
based on our experiences in this life. For example, two 
elderly ladies dream of a cat. One of the ladies has 
lived a spinster life shared with a succession of cats 
that she has loved and pampered. The second lady has 
a very traumatic memory of a wild cat which scratched 
her severely during her childhood. It is obvious that a 
single interpretation of "cat" will not satisfy both 
dreamers. To the first lady, the cat is a warm, loving 
companion. To the second, the cat is an evil, dangerous 
creature that brings pain. Therefore, it is necessary for 
the dreamer to analyze the symbol from the standpoint 
of his or her own personal feelings. 


Many dreams are repeated in order to emphasize 
their meaning or to insure that they are noticed. This 
may or may not be obvious to the dreamer. Usually 
dreams come in a series of three. Sometimes their 
symbology will be quite similar. At other times you 

may record three dreams of entirely different symbology, 
but upon interpretation find that the underlying theme 
for each is almost identical. In either case the source of 
the dream is attempting to insure that the message 
gets through and is understood. A dream repeated 
over days, weeks or perhaps months, indicates some- 
thing that you have not taken action on. Once you 
understand, and respond to, the dream, through action 
or a change in attitude, the dream will cease to occur. 
Generally the recurring dream is one of the following: 

a) Precognitive or prophetic. 

b) Compensation for an improper attitude. 

c) The result of a traumatic incident which has left 
a negative impression. 


Among the more spiritually advanced is an 
occasional tendency to actively share or participate in 
a dream with someone else. In these cases, the two 
people are very much in tune with one another on a 
psychic or emotional level. It does not mean that they 
are "soul mates", destined for one another. Rather, 
they are in harmony at some levels in this particular 
time of their lives and are undergoing similar adjust- 
ments on the spiritual plane. Interpretation of the 
dream should be done the same as with an ordinary 
dream, but with the "other" person in the dream inter- 
preted as an aspect of yourself. 


The memory of out-of-body experiences (OOBEs) 
has the same elusive quality as the dream. Conse- 
quently it is often difficult to separate the two. One 
marked difference is the sensation of awareness. In a 
dream, the visual awareness of the self is in one direc- 
tion only. As with physical sight, you "see" only what 
is in front of you. In the OOBE, however, your aware- 
ness is all-encompassing. You see not only what is in 
front but also what is behind, above, below and on the 
sides — all at the same time. Do not attempt to interpret 
an OOBE as you would a dream. 

RITUALS continued 

Last lesson I detailed the four Major, or Greater, 
Sabbats. Now we'll look at the four Minor, or Lesser, 
Sabbats: Spring Equinox; Summer Solstice; Autum- 
nal Equinox and Winter Solstice (or Yule). In actual 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats 1 89 

fact the terms "Major" and "Minor", or "Greater" and "Lesser", are mis- 
nomers for each is as important as the other. 


Let there be a bundle of spring wild flowers lying on or beside the 
altar. The Coveners may wear flowers in their hair if they wish. On the 
altar lies the Priapic Wand, a wooden or earthenware bowl filled with 
soil and a large seed of some kind. Also on, or under, the altar is a sheet of 
parchment, or paper, and a writing instrument. The altar cloth and 
candles should be light green. 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. The bell is rung three times. 



"Blessed be all within this Circle." 

"Merry meet we at this Springtime Rite." 

"Merry meet." 

"Brothers and Sisters, hear my words. 

Awake and greet the Spring. 

Lord! Lady! Hear us, for we are here. 

We are here to celebrate with you and for you.' 

"Welcome, welcome beauteous Spring! 

Welcome the time for birth. 

Welcome the time for planting seeds." 

The PRIAPIC WAND is named after Priapus, 
the Roman Cod of procreation. In Asia Minor 
he was equated with Pan, the nature deity of 
Greece, and was considered the off-spring of 
Aphrodite and Dionysus. He presided over 
the fecundity of fields and flocks, over the rais- 
ing of bees, the culture of the vine and over 
fishing. He protected orchards and gardens, 
where his phallic image was prominently 

The Priapic Wand is, in effect, a representa- 
tion of a phallus (penis) . Although only used 
in a few rituals (if you so desire), you will 
need one. It should be about twenty-one inches 
in length overall with the last eight or nine 
inches carved in the shape of a male organ. An 
alternate design, which represents the phallus 
symbolically, is a wand ending in a pine- 

COVENERS, with PRIEST and PRIESTESS leading, take up the flowers 
and dance deosil around the Circle. As they dance, they bend down to 
drop their flowers on the line of the Circle, till the whole circle is 
decorated with the flowers. If they wish, they may sing as they dance. 
When the dancing stops the bell is rung three times. 

Priest/ess: "Springtime is seedtime. Now is the time for each of us to 
plant that which he or she wishes to come to flower." 

Covener: "Springtime is for hopes and desires; for new ideas; for 
balance and inspiration." 

Priest/ess: "Let us now meditate on that which we wish to bring forth. 
Let us consider our hopes and opportunities and direct our 
energies to one, or more, things we would start upon the 
road of life." 

All sit and, in as comfortable a position as possible, meditate. Think of 
what seed of an idea you would like to plant, that it may grow into an 
opportunity. It might be a quality like Patience, or Perseverence, or it 
might be the opportunity to do or create something. It might be some- 
thing not for yourself but for another [Note: You are not here working 
"magick" — I'll deal with that fully in a later lesson — but simply "planting 
a seed" in your mind that you can nurture and let grow. Like all seeds, it 
will need tending, attention and care, to help it develop and finally 
bloom.] When sufficient time has elapsed the bell is rung. PRIEST/ESS 
takes the parchment and pen and writes, at the top, his/her "seed" (try to 
concentrate it into as few words as possible). The parchment is passed 
around the Circle and all add their "seeds". When it is returned, PRIEST/ 



90 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

ESS lights the parchment from the altar candle and 
holds it so that as it burns the ashes fall into the bowl of 
earth. As s/he does so, s/he says: 

Priest/ess: "Lord and Lady, receive these our seeds. 
Let them germinate in our minds and our 

Let them prosper and grow to maturity, 
For we will care for them and encourage 

them in your name." 

Taking her athame, PRIESTESS mixes ashes into the 
soil. She then makes an indentation in the center and 
lays down the knife. PRIEST takes up Priapic Wand 
and dances three times around the Circle with it held 
aloft over his head. The first time round he dances 
slowly, the second time faster and the third time very 
fast. Returning to the Priestess, he holds out the Wand 
vertically before him. 

Priestess: "By the power of the raised Wand doth the 
Seed find the furrow. 
Blessings be upon this handsome Wand." 

She kisses the tip of it. 

Priestess: "All honor to it. May it be ever thus." 

PRIEST lays down the Wand and takes up the seed 
from the altar. He holds it for a moment between the 
palms of his hands, concentrating his energies into it. 
He then passes it to the Covener next to him, who does 
the same. The seed is passed around the Circle in this 
fashion till it returns to Priest. PRIESTESS then takes 
up the bowl from the altar and holds it high. 

Priestess: "Of old would we celebrate by together 
planting the seed, one with another. Here 
do we symbolize that act, in veneration of 
our Lady and our Lord." 

PRIESTESS turns to face Priest, bringing down the 
bowl and holding it between her breasts. 

Priest: "These rites of Spring belong to us all; 

To us and to the Gods. 
This is a time of joy and a time for plant- 

He places the seed in the hollowed space and closes 

the soil over on top of it. 

Priest: "This seed do I place in the womb of the 

That it may become a part of that Earth, 
A part of Life and a part of us." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS kiss, and PRIESTESS replaces 
bowl on altar. They then move around the Circle, kiss- 
ing and hugging each of the Coveners. Bell is rung 
three times. 

Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale. 
After that the Clearing the Temple is performed so that 
there is plenty of room for fun, games and entertain- 
ment. The evening concludes with a feast. 


The altar cloth and candles should be white. The 
Circle may be decorated with summer flowers, fruits, 
green branches or whatever is felt to be appropriate. 
In the South quarter stands a cauldron filled with 
water, with an aspergillum beside it. On the altar is an 
extra, large candle, unlit. Beside or on the altar is the 
Priest's Horned Helmet. The Erecting the Temple is per- 
formed. The Bell is rung three times. 

Covener: "Cease all sorrows!" 

Covener: "Cease all strife!" 

Covener: "This day is for living." 

Covener: "For living this life." 

PRIEST places Horned Helmet on his head and stands 
in front of altar. He takes extra candle, lights it from 
regular altar candle and then raises it high in his right 
hand. COVENERS raise both hands high and cry: 

All: "Hail, Lord! Hail the Sun God! Hail the 


While Priest remains in the center, PRIESTESS goes to 
stand beside the cauldron. COVENERS join hands 
and dance around the Circle, deosil. As they move 
around, PRIESTESS sprinkles them with water from 
the cauldron as they pass. All (including Priest and 
Priestess) sing*: 

All: "Comes the Lord of the Greenwood, Green- 


*The Lord Of the Greenwood by Tara Buckland ®1985 See Appendix D for music. 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats I '91 

Comes the Lord of the Greenwood, Green- 

Comes the Lord of the Greenwood, Green- 

To court the Lady fair. 

In the heat of their passion, passion, 

In the heat of their passion, passion, 

In the heat of their passion, passion 

The grain shall rise again. 

Comes the Lord of the Greenwood, Green- 

Comes the Lord of the Greenwood, Green- 

Comes the Lord of the Greenwood, Green- 

To court the Lady fair." 

At the end of the song the bell is rung seven times. 
PRIEST replaces lit candle on the altar then he dances 
slowly twelve times, deosil, around the Circle. As he 
goes, he says the following, which coveners repeat 
after him (line by line) : 

Priest: "I am He who is the Lord and the Light." 

All: "You are He who is the Lord and the 

Priest: "I am He who is the Sun." 

All: "You are He who is the Sun." 

Priest: "Let your love shine as does my radiance." 

All: "We let our love shine as does your radi- 

Priest: "Let your love spread throughout the 

world, as does my light." 
All: "We let our love spread throughout the 

world, as does your light." 
Priest: "Together with the sun we must also 

know rain." 
All: "Together with the sun we must also 

know rain." 
Priest: "So together with joy we must also know 

All: "So together with joy we must also know 

Priest: "I am the Life and I am the Hope." 

All: "You are the Life and you are the Hope." 

Priest: "I am the Death and the Life anew." 

All: "You are the Death and the Life anew." 

Priest: "Without me there can be nothing." 

All: "Without you there can be nothing." 

Priest: "With me, you can have all that you de- 

All: "With you, we can have all that we de- 

Priest: "I am He who is the Sun." 

All: "You are He who is the Sun." 

Priest: "I am He who is the Lord and the Light." 

All: "You are He who is the Lord and the 

Priest: "As I give light and life to you, so is it meet 

that you should give to others. Let us all 
share all that we have with those who 
have nothing." 

Returning to the altar, PRIEST assumes the God posi- 
tion. Led by PRIESTESS, Coveners move around to 
bow before Priest and to lay an offering* at his feet. 

Priest: "Now may you know the true j oy of giving. 

So be it." 
All: "So be it." 

Priest/ess: "We Wiccans give thanks to the Mighty 

For the richness and goodness of life. 

As there must be rain with the sun, 

To make all things good, 

So must we suffer pain with our joy, 

To know all things. 

Our love is ever with the Gods, 

For though we know not their thoughts, 

Yet do we know their hearts — 

That all is for our good. 

Mighty Ones, bless us now. 

Keep us faithful in thy service. 

We thank you for the crops; 

For life; for love; for joy. 

We thank you for that spark 

That brings us together — and to you. 

Help us to live with Love 

And with Trust between us. 

Help us to feel the joy of loving you 

And of loving one another." 
All: "So be it!" 

The bell is rung three times. Then shall follow the 
ceremony of Cakes and Ale. After that the Clearing the 
Temple is performed so that there is plenty of room for 

"Offerings can be to suit the giver. One coven I know gives offerings of money which are then donated to charity. Another gives offerings of food and clothing which is given to the 
needy. The offering should be something of a sacrifice on the part of the giver; it is not just a token giving. 

92 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

fun, games and entertainment. The evening con- 
cludes with a feast. 


The altar cloth and candles should be red. The 
Circle should be decorated with autumn flowers, 
acorns, gourds, pine cones, corn sheaves, etc.. A bowl 
of fruit (apples, pears, peaches and whatever) is on the 
altar. Offerings (see footnote to previous ritual) lie around 
the altar. 

Priest/ess: "Now do we enjoy the fruits of our labors." 
Covener: "Now do we celebrate the harvest." 
Covener: "As we sowed in the spring, now do we 

Priest/ess: "Now let us pay our dues and enjoy our 

just rewards." 

The bell is rung three times. ALL join hands and move 
slowly deosil about the Circle. A simple dance step 
(see Lesson 12) or a light skipping step may be used, if 
desired. The coven goes around three times. As they 
move around the PRIEST/ESS says: 

Priest/ess: "Here is the balance of Day and Night. 
At no point does time stand still. 
Ever does the wheel turn and turn again: 
Children are born and grow; age advances. 
Death will come to visit as surely as the sun 

doth rise. 
Since Death is inevitable, greet him as a 

Remember, he it is who opens the door 
That leads forward into life. 
Life to death and death to life: 
Balance and harmony; ever moving on." 

When the circling stops, the PRIEST takes up the bowl 
of fruit and moves around the Circle giving a fruit to 
each covener. At the giving there is an embrace and a 
kiss and the Covener says: 

Covener: "I give thanks to the Gods for this sign of a 
joyful harvest." 

PRIEST ends by giving a fruit to the Priestess then she, in 
turn, gives the last one to the Priest. The bell is rung 
seven times. All then sit and enj oy their fruit. At this time 
there can be happy conversation. When all have eaten, 

the bell is rung three times and all stand again. 

Priest: "Although the season of plenty draws to a 

close, yet are the Gods ever with us. Our 
Lord watches over us, as does his Lady." 

Priestess: "To the good seasons that have already 

All: "The Lord and the Lady give blessings." 

Priest: "To the beauty of autumn and to those 

friends we treasure." 

All: "The Lord and the Lady give blessings." 

Covener: "Peace, joy and love to the world." 

All: "To that do we give our blessings." 

Priest: "How is the ground?" 

All: "Well cared for." 

Priestess: "How are the crops?" 

All: "Beautiful and plentiful." 

Covener: "What are our lives?" 

All: "The harvest of the Gods." 

Priest/ess: "Whilst we enjoy the fruits of our labors, 
the harvest of our lives, let us never 
forget those who are not so fortunate." 

Covener: "We offer, here, a portion of our fortunes 
to go where it may be needed." 

All: "So mote it be." 

Priest/ess: "Then may the Lord and the Lady bless 
these offerings, bless the givers and bless 
those who will receive." 

The bell is rung three times. Then shall follow the 
ceremony of Cakes and Ale. After that the Clearing the 
Temple is performed so that there is plenty of room for 
fun, games and entertainment. The evening con- 
cludes with a feast. 


The altar cloth and the candles should be purple. 
The Circle maybe decorated with holly, mistletoe, ivy, 
etc.. There is a cauldron in the south, filled with kind- 
ling. The Priest's Horned Helmet is beside the altar. 
Short tapers (one for each Covener) lie on the altar. 
The bell is rung three times. PRIEST sits or kneels in 
the center of the Circle. 

Covener: "Blessed are the Gods who turn the mighty 

Covener: "Welcome, thrice welcome, to Yule; the 

turning point of winter is upon us." 
Covener: "Here is an end to the solar year." 

Covener: "But here, too, is a new beginning." 
Priestess: "Brothers, Sisters, Friends. Let us show 
our love by sending forth our power and 
our strength to he who is the Sun God. At 
this turning of the year's tide, let us join 
our energies with his, that he may be reborn 
to ascend once more unto his rightful 

COVENERS and PRIESTESS join hands and circle, 
deosil, chanting: 

All: "Turn, turn, turn the wheel. 

Round and round; around it goes. 
The flame that died, it now doth heal. 
Round and round; around it goes. 
Return, return, return to life. 
Round and round; around it goes. 
Welcome sunlight; farewell strife. 
Round and round; around it goes. 
The Sun Lord dies; the Sun Lord lives. 
Round and round; around it goes. 
Death opens hands and new life gives. 
Round and round; around it goes. 
Turn, turn, turn the wheel. 
Round and round; around it goes. 
The flame that died, it now doth heal. 
Round and round; around it goes." 

This may be kept up for as long as desired. Then, while 
still circling, PRIESTESS says: 

Priestess: "Let us kindle fresh fire to light our Lord 

upon his way." 
Covener: "Fire for strength!" 
Covener: "Fire for life!" 
Covener: "Fire for love!" 

As they pass the altar PRIESTESS first, then each 
Covener, takes up a taper and lights it from the altar 
candle. Continuing around the Circle, when the cauldron 
is reached the taper is thrown in, to light the kindling 
and then add to it. When all have thrown in their 

Lesson Seven: Meditation, Dreams and the Minor Sabbats / 93 

tapers, circling stops with Priestess before the altar. 
She takes up the Horned Helmet and moves around to 
stand before the kneeling Priest. 

Priestess: "May all our power, Witches all, strengthen 
the new-born Lord." 

PRIESTESS places Horned Helmet on Priest's head. 
He comes to his feet and raises his hands high. 


'Life! Love! I am the Sun Lord!" 

He lowers his hands then moves slowly around the 
Circle speaking, as though talking to each individual 
covener as he moves around. 

Priest: "I fell into deep darkness and death I 

Yet was I of star-seed. 
On the tail of a comet 
I rent the velvet darkness of everlasting 

Ablaze with glory, I was reborn, 
To start again the perennial cycle of guard- 
That evermore drives me through death 

and birth alike. 
With the companionship of our Lady 
I face into the wind, 

Knowing that we fly upon wings of time, 
Through timeless worlds, together." 
Covener: "All hail, the Sun God!" 
All: "All hail, the Sun God!"* 

Covener: "All hail the death and birth of Yule." 
All: "All hail!" 

Bell is rung seven times. PRIEST and PRIESTESS join 
hands and lead coveners in a dance about the Circle. 
Bell is rung three times. 

Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale. 
After that the Clearing of the Temple is performed so that 
there is plenty of room for fun, games and entertain- 
ment. The evening concludes with a feast. 

*Here may also be inserted an "All hail, ...(Name)..." — the particular name of the deity used by the coven. 


1. Relate any experiences, insights that have come to you while meditating. 

List below some recurring themes or symbols in your dreams. Try to interpret some of your more powerful 
dreams. Describe them here. Be sure to keep a special Dream Journal next to your bed. 

3. List the four Minor Sabbats and tell what each commemorates. Relate how you celebrated each Minor, or 
Lesser, Sabbat. 



Handfasting is the Wiccan word for the marriage cere- 
mony. Unlike the Christian form, where the man and 
woman are locked together "till death do us part" 
(even if they later grow apart and eventually come to 
almost hate one another), the Wiccan ceremony joins 
man and woman "for so long as love shall last". When 
there is no longer love between them, they are free to 
go their separate ways. 

These days most couples write their own Hand- 
fasting ceremony. I here give the Seax-Wica rite as an 
example. You may like to use it as it is, or just as a basis 
for your own ideas. Read it carefully. In addition to 
being very beautiful, I think you will find that it makes 
a great deal of sense. 


This rite should be performed during the waxing 
of the Moon. The Altar may be decked with flowers 
and flowers strewn about the Circle. If the coven nor- 
mally wears robes, for this rite it is suggested that the 
Bride and Groom at least be skyclad; preferably the 
whole coven. 

It is traditional in the Seax-Wica for the Bride 
and Groom to exchange rings. These are usually 
gold or silver bands with the couple's (Craft) names 
inscribed on them in runes. These rings rest on the 
altar at the start of the rite. The Priapic Wand is also on 
the altar. 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. PRIEST and 

Covener: "There are those in our midst who seek the 

bond of Handfasting." 
Priestess: "Let them be named and brought forward." 

Covener: "...(Groom's name)... is the Man and ... 
(Bride's name). the Woman." 

BRIDE and GROOM move forward to stand facing 
Priest and Priestess across the altar — Bride opposite 
Priest and Groom opposite Priestess. 

Priestess (to Groom): "Are you ...(Name)...?" 

Groom: "I am." 

Priestess "What is your desire?" 

Groom: "To be made one with ...(Bride's name)..., 

in the eyes of the Gods and the Wicca." 
Priest (to Bride): "Are you ...(Name)...?" 

Bride: "I am." 

Priest: "And what is your desire?" 

Bride: "To be made one with ... (Groom's name) ..., 

in the eyes of the Gods and the Wicca." 

PRIESTESS takes up sword and raises it high. PRIEST 
hands Priapic Wand to Bride and Groom. They hold it 
between them, each with both hands. 

Priestess: "Lord and Lady, here before you stand two 
of your folk. Witness, now, that which they 
have to declare." 

PRIESTESS replaces sword on altar, then takes her 
athame and holds the point of it to Groom's chest. 
Groom repeats the following, line by line: 

Priestess: "Repeat after me: T, ...(Name)..., do come 
here of my own free will, to seek the partner- 
ship of ...(Bride's name).... I come with all 
love, honor and sincerity, wishing only to 
become one with her whom I love. Always 
will I strive for ...(Bride's name)...'s happi- 
ness and welfare. Her life will I defend 


98 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

before my own. May the athame be plunged 
into my heart should I not be sincere in all 
that I declare. All this I swear in the names 
of the gods*. May they give me the strength 
to keep my vows. So mote it be.' " 

PRIESTESS lowers her athame. Priest then raises his 
athame and, in turn, holds it to the breast of the Bride. 
She repeats the oath, line by line, after him: 

Priest: "Repeat after me: 1, ...(Name)..., do come 

here of my own free will, to seek the partner- 
ship of ... (Groom's name) .... I come with all 
love, honor and sincerity, wishing only to 
become one with him whom I love. Always 
will I strive for ...(Groom's name)...'s hap- 
piness and welfare. His life will I defend 
before my own. May the athame be plunged 
into my heart should I not be sincere in all 
that I declare. All this I swear in the names 
of the gods*. May they give me the strength 
to keep my vows. So mote it be.' " 

PRIEST lowers the athame. PRIESTESS takes up the 
two rings and sprinkles and censes both. She hands 
the Bride's ring to the Groom and the Groom's ring to 
the Bride. They take them in their right hands, remain- 
ing holding the Priapic Wand with their left hands. 

Priest: "As the grass of the fields and the trees of 

the woods bend together under the pressures 
of the storm, so too must you both bend 
when the wind blows strong. But know 
that as quickly as the storm comes, so 
equally quickly may it leave. Yet will you 
both stand, strong in each other's strength. 
As you give love; so will you receive love. 
As you give strength; so will you receive 
strength. Together you are one; apart you 
are as nothing." 

Priestess: "Know you that no two people can be 
exactly alike. No more can any two people 
fit together, perfect in every way. There 
will be times when it will seem hard to give 
and to love. But see then your reflection as 
in a woodland pool: when the image you 
see looks sad and angered, then is the time 
for you to smile and to love (for it is not fire 
that puts out fire) . In return will the image 
in the pool smile and love. So change you 



anger for love and tears for joy. It is no 
weakness to admit a wrong; more is it a 
strength and a sign of learning." 
"Ever love, help and respect each other, 
And then know truly that you are one 
In the eyes of the Gods 
And of the Wicca." 
"So Mote It Be!" 

PRIEST takes Priapic Wand from couple and replaces 
it on the altar. BRIDE and GROOM each place ring on 
the other's finger and kiss. They then kiss Priest and 
Priestess across the altar, then move deosil about the 
Circle to be congratulated by the others. 

Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale 
followed by games and merriment. 

As I said at the beginning of this lesson, in many 
religions marriage is meant to be a lifetime partner- 
ship. Even though it may turn out that after a few years 
a couple find they are really unsuited to one another, 
they are stuck for the rest of their lives. This invariably 
leads to great unhappiness for husband, wife and any 
children. Although Witches most certainly do not 
encourage casual partnerships, they do recognize the 
fact that some marriages just do not work out ideally. 
When this is the case, and when all attempts have been 
made to settle any differences, then they will dissolve 
the partnership with the old ceremony of Handparting. 
This, of course, is never undertaken lightly. 


Before the ceremony the couple will sit with the 
Priest and Priestess and work out a fair division of 
their property, plus provision for support of any 
children of the marriage. A scribe will make note of 
this and the record will be signed by all. If either hus- 
band or wife are not available for the rite (by reason of 
relocation, ill health or whatever), then a Witch of the 
appropriate sex may stand in for the missing party. 
The rite will take place in this fashion only if there is a 
signed agreement from the missing party, together 
with the marriage ring. 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. Priest and 
Priestess kiss. 

Covener: "...(Husband's name)... and ...(Wife's 
name)..., stand forth." 

•Names used for the gods may be inserted here. 

Lesson Eight: Marriage, Birth, Death and Channeling 1 99 

Husband and Wife stand before the altar, Husband 
facing Priestess and Wife facing Priest. 

Priestess: "Why are you here?" 

Husband: "I wish a Handparting from ...(Name)..." 

Priest: "Why are you here?" 

Wife: "I wish a Handparting from ... (Name) ..." 

Priestess: "Do you both desire this of your own free 

Husband & Wife: "We do." 
Priest: "Has a settlement been reached between 

you regarding the division of property and 

(if appropriate) care for the children?" 
Husband & Wife: "It has." 
Priest: "Has this been duly recorded, signed and 

Covener-Scribe: "It has." 

Priest: "Then let us proceed, remembering that 

we stand ever before the gods." 

HUSBAND and WIFE join hands. They repeat the 
following, line by line, speaking together. 

Priestess: "Together repeat after me: T, ...(Name)..., 
do hereby most freely dissolve my partner- 
ship with ... (Spouse's name) .... I do so in all 
honesty and sincerity, before the Gods, 
with my brothers and sisters of the Craft as 
witnesses. No longer are we as One, but 
now are Two individuals, free to go our 
separate ways. We release all ties, one to 
the other, yet ever will we retain respect 
for one another, as we have love and respect 
for our fellow Wiccans. So be it.' " 

Priest: "Hand Part!" 

HUSBAND and WIFE release each other's hands, 
remove their marriage rings and give them to the 
Priestess. She sprinkles and censes them, saying: 

Priestess: "In the names of the Gods do I cleanse 
these rings." 

She returns them to the couple, to do with them as 
they wish. 

Priestess: "Now are you handparted. Let all know 
you as such. Go your separate ways in 
Peace and in Love — never in bitterness — 
and in the ways of the Craft. So mote it 


'So mote it be.' 

Then shall follow the ceremony of the Cakes and 
Ale and the Clearing the Temple. 

Generally speaking Witches are very open-minded 
people, especially where religion is concerned. They 
have no hard and fast "Commandments"; no catechisms. 
They feel that all should be free to choose the religion 
that best suits them. It would seem obvious that there 
can be no one religion for all. Temperaments differ. 
Some love ritual for its own sake; others look for simpli- 
city. All religions lead in the same direction, simply 
taking different paths to get there. Witches feel that all 
should therefore be free to choose their own path. 
All — including the Witches' own children. A child 
should not be forced to follow a particular religion just 
because it is the religion of the parent(s). For this 
reason most Witch parents try to give their children as 
wide a view of religion as possible, that the child may 
make a free choice when ready. It is naturally hoped 
that the child will choose the Craft, but it is not forced. 
Far better that the child be happy in a religion different 
from the parent than that s/he become a religious 

For the above reasons there is no Craft "baptism". 
Instead, in a simple ceremony, the parents ask the 
gods to watch over the child and give her, or him, wis- 
dom in choice when older. The child will be fully 
initiated only when old enough to decide for her/ 
himself. The exact age will, of course, vary from one 
child to another. Until that time the child should cer- 
tainly be encouraged to participate in Circles and to 
"get the feel" of the Craft. When ready, then the initia- 
tion will be conducted by the Priest and Priestess, or, if 
they so wish, by the parents acting as Priest and 

In virtually all branches of the Craft, anyone may 
leave at any time, should they so wish. They are also 
free to return again, at any time, should they so desire. 
There would be no need for a second initiation. 

BIRTH RITE (or Wiccaning) 

This may be performed at any of the rituals, prior 
to the ceremony of Cakes and Ale, or it may be done as a 
rite in itself, preceded by Erecting the Temple and then 
followed by Cakes and Ale and, of course, Clearing the 

100 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. Priest and 
Priestess kiss. 

Covener: "There is an addition to our number. Let us 
give her/him due welcome." 

PARENTS move to stand across the altar from the 
Priest and Priestess. They hold the baby. 


"What is the name of the child?' 

Parents give the child's name — the name by which it 
will be known in the Circle until old enough to choose 
its own name. 

Priest: "We welcome you, ...(Name)..." 

Priestess: "Welcome, and much love to you." 

PRIEST and PRIESTESS lead PARENTS and child 
three times, deosil, around the Circle. PARENTS then 
"offer" the child — they hold the child over the altar. 

Parents: "We here offer the fruit of our love to the 
gods. May they watch over her/him as s/ 
he grows." 

PRIESTESS dips her fingers in the salted water and 
gently wipes them over the baby's face. Mother then 
passes the child through the smoke of the incense. 

Priestess: "May the Lord and the Lady ever smile 
upon you." 

Priest: "May they guard you and guide you through 

this life." 

Priestess: "May they help you choose that which is 
right and shun that which is wrong." 

Priest: "May they see that no harm befalls you, or 

others through you." 

Priestess (to parents): "We charge you both, in the 
names of the God and of the Goddess, to 
lead this child, with love, through the high- 
ways and byways of life. Teach him/her the 
ways of the Craft that s/he may learn to honor 
and respect all life and to harm none." 

Priest: "Teach her/him of the Lord and the Lady; 

of this life, of all that went before and what 
may come after. Tell the tales of the gods 
and teach the history of our Craft. Teach 
her/him to strive for that perfection which 
all desire and, when the time is right, 

hope— but do not press — that s/he joins 
with us and becomes truly one of our 
beloved family." 
Parents: "All this will we do. So do we pledge." 
Priest and Priestess: "We bid welcome to ...(Name)..." 
All: "Welcome!" 

Then shall follow the ceremony of Cakes and Ale. 

Because of the Craft belief in reincarnation, death 
is a time for celebration rather than grief. Death signifies 
the completion of a learning period . . . the individual 
has "graduated" and will be going on to other things. 
This should be celebrated. Sorrow, then, is a sign of 
selfishness. We are sorry for ourselves, that we have 
been left behind, without the love and companionship 
of one dear to us. 

There are no hard and fast teachings on what 
should be done wih the body after death. After all, it 
was only a shell for the spirit, or soul, that inhabited it 
and has now gone on. Many Witches (I think, probably 
the majority) favor cremation; others leave their bodies 
to hospitals. It is a personal choice. Few, if any, Witches 
see the sense of the elaborate and (for the relatives) 
expensive trappings of today's funerals. 


This rite may be performed at any of the other 
rituals, prior to the Cakes and Ale, or it may be done as a 
rite in itself, preceded by Erecting the Temple and followed 
by Cakes and Ale and, of course, Clearing the Temple. 

The Erecting the Temple is performed. Priest and 
Priestess kiss. A single long note is sounded on a horn, 
by one of the Coveners. 

Covener: "The horn is sounded for ...(Name of 
Deceased Witch)." 

All: "So be it." 

Priestess: "That today ... (Name) ... is not with us, here 
in the Circle, saddens us all. Yet let us try 
not to feel sad. For is this not a sign that s/he 
has fulfilled this life's work? Now is s/he 
free to move on. We shall meet again, never 
fear. And that will be a time for further 

Priest: "Let us send forth our good wishes to bear 

her/him across the Bridge. May s/he return 
at any time s/he may wish, to be with us 

Lesson Eight: Marriage, Birth, Death and Channeling 1 101 

ALL take their athames and point them at a spot behind 
the altar, facing the Priest and Priestess. They imagine 
the dead Witch standing on that spot, looking as they 
best remember her or him. They concentrate on send- 
ing love, joy and happiness from their bodies, along 
the line of the athame, into the imagined body. This 
continues for a few moments. The Priestess signals the 
end by replacing her athame and saying: 



"We wish you all the Love and Happiness 
we may. We will never forget you. Do not 
you forget us. Whenever we meet here, 
you are always welcome." 
"So mote it be." 

ALL now sit and if any present wish to speak of the 
deceased, they may do so. If no one else, then at least 
the Priest and/or Priestess should speak reminiscen- 
tly of the dead Witch, remembering especially the 
good and happy times. Then shall follow the ceremony 
of Cakes and Ale. 


The word "psychic" means that which pertains to 
the spirit or higher consciousness. The word "occult" 
means that which is hidden from the uninitiated. In 
fact, there is nothing hidden or mysterious about your 
beyond-the-physical abilities. They are a part of every 
single one of us. Just as we each have arms and legs, 
fingers and toes, so do we each have beyond-the- 
physical abilities. These abilities are very much in 
evidence in some people but lie dormant — awaiting 
recognition and utilization — in others. And just as 
physical abilities differ in individuals, so do these psy- 
chic abilities. By testing your physical strength in dif- 
ferent tasks, you find what you are capable of and what 
you are not. So it is with your psychic strength. You 
need to test it, to exercise and attempt, in order to find 
out your true capabilities. 

Let's look first at Channeling — the tapping into 
the collective consciousness in order to obtain needed 


The ability to channel information falls into two 
general categories; the PHYSICAL and the MENTAL. 

Physical channeling is that which relates to, or has 
an effect on, physical objects. This would include psy- 
chometry, pendulum (radiesthesia), tea-leaf reading 
(tasseography), card-reading (cartomancy), etc.. 

Mental channeling is that which deals with impres- 
sions received on some level of conscious awareness. 
Included in the mental category are clairvoyance 
("clear seeing"), clairaudience (hearing), clairsen- 
tience (sensing) and telepathy (thought transference). 
The abilities to function in precognitive (knowing 
before the event), retrocognitive (after the event) and 
present time frames. 

A further division of channeling should be noted. 
That is, the difference between "trance" and "conscious" 
channeling (the trance condition can be further divided 
into deep, medium and light states) . Generally speak- 
ing, the term "trance" indicates the lack of conscious 
activity on the part of the psychic, or "Channel". In a 
deep trance, the Channel is not consciously aware of 
what is occurring during the process and will not 
retain any memory of the event. In a medium or semi- 
trance state, the Channel usually has some conscious 
awareness of what occurs and retains some memory. 
In this case, the conscious mind acts as an observer but 
does not actively participate in the channeling of the 
information. In a light trance the knowledge during, 
and later memory of, the event is more pronounced. 
However, the conscious memory still functions only 
as an observer and takes no active part. 

In the case of conscious channeling, the Psychic's 
conscious awareness can, and often does, actively par- 
ticipate. Not only are the higher levels of conscious- 
ness receiving and assimilating information, but the 
conscious awareness is receiving and analyzing data 
on the physical level (such as physical manifestation 
of emotional response, including body language, facial 
expression and voice inflection) . 


To become a Channel, you must remove the debris 
that blocks or impedes the flow of information. You 
must rid your mind of all of the rubbish accumulated 
throughout your lifetime so that a clean environment 
exists in which to develop those powers latent within 
you. You must overcome your inhibitions, false values, 
uncertainties, indecision and criticism of others. Some 
major considerations are as follows: 

1 : Controlling the mind — To clear the way for the higher 

102 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

mind, you must learn to control and focus the con- 
scious mind. Consider how you seem to have a 
thousand thoughts rushing about at any given 
moment. This shows how you scatter your energies, 
giving only a small percentage of your energy to 
any one idea or action at a time. If you learn to control 
your mental energies and give undivided attention, 
you have the force; the power to achieve any goal, 
the Power of creation. 

2: Removing emotion — Worry, fear, anger, envy, rush 
and noise are as much a poison to your spiritual sys- 
tem as arsenic would be to your body. True spiritual 
qualities entirely eliminate these poisons. Total faith 
leaves no room for worry. Unrestricted love allows 
no room for hate, envy, anger and greed. 

3: Self-examination— As a truth seeker, you should 
continually examine yourself. You must determine 
your ideals and beliefs. You must achieve clear and 
concise determination of what is right and wrong 
for you. Just as you cannot judge another, you can- 
not be judged by any other than yourself. You must 
determine your ambitions and analyze your moti- 
vation. You must determine your goals and define 
them clearly. You cannot complete a journey without 
a specific objective. For example, you wouldn't 
merely go to a certain city to visit a friend. You 
would go to a specific street, a specific building and 
a specific apartment. Not only must you define your 
objectives, you must also place them in priority and 
pursue them accordingly. As you select, prioritize 
and purs\ie your goals, you must adhere to the creed 
"An' it harm none ..." 

4: Possessiveness. — One of the most difficult obstacles 
for many to overcome is possessiveness. Our 
possessions (people and things) rule us while only 
pretending to be our slaves. They demand our time 
and money. They tie us down to a specific place and 
complicate our lives severely. They bring jealousy, 
greed, envy and hate. This does not mean that we 
should deny ourselves our possessions. We are 
meant to possess all things, share all things and to 
have power over all things. But we are not meant to 
have power over one or two things to the exclusion 
of all others. Consider your feelings concerning 
your possessions. Who is the master and who the 
slave? Learn to transform petty possessiveness into 
the great spiritual feeling of sharing and unity. 

5: Love — You should learn to truly love. Many miscon 
ceptions exist concerning this subject. It is too often 
viewed as a rather selfish emotion or as lust. You 

must learn of the higher love; unselfish love. You 
should learn to love well enough to release people 
and things rather than to cling to them. Your love 
should be understanding and forgiving. You need 
to realize that each individual has his own path to 
follow, his own experiences to assimilate, in order 
to fully develop. You must let him tread his own 
path at his own pace. You should give love. You 
should be love. You must learn empathy for all — 
and sympathy for none. 
6: Meditation — Finally, you must master the silence in 
which the higher self speaks. As I discussed in the 
previous lesson, it is through meditation that you 
learn to concentrate and focus your attention on the 
higher level. The daily session of meditation clears 
the cluttered mind and produces the clear channel 
that can be used at will. 

As you continue to work with the six steps out- 
lined above, the channel will gradually begin to clear, 
and bits of information will start to filter through. 
Usually the process is so gradual that you may not 
even detect it at first. Many times the initial clues are 
bits of knowledge that have no consciously known 
source. They may be completely new ideas, concepts 
or realization of new truths. Channel opening can also 
be expressed in what seems to be an improved memory. 
In any case, it is seldom dramatic. You won't suddenly 
"become psychic"! . . . but gradually, over a period of 
time, new truths, new knowledge and new awareness 
become yours. 

The channeling of intuitive information should 
be a normal state of awareness. As you develop, you 
will find that you cannot always turn it on and off at 
will. It is frequently quite involuntary. You may meet 
someone for the first time and realize that you "know" 
things about them. You may sense conditions in their 
past or future. You may "see" things or people connec- 
ted with their lives. At other times you may want to 
know or sense things but find no impressions what- 
soever. In time, as you use your abilities and exercise 
them, you will find that the information is becoming 
more and more available. Eventually you will find that 
you can call down information almost at will. 


One way to help your development is to make a practice 
of listening to those inner urges. For example, suppose 
you have a particular route that you always take 

Lesson Eight: Marriage, Birth, Death and Channeling / 103 

returning home from work. One afternoon, as you reach a certain inter- 
section, you feel the inclination to turn down a certain tree-lined lane. Of 
course the conscious mind begins immediately to argue, "You don't 
have time. The family is expecting you; the lawn must be mown before 
dark; etc., etc.." Ignore the conscious mind and listen to that inner urge. 
Turn down the lane. There is a reason. You may find a beautiful pond or a 
flowered yard or hillside that fills you with the joy of nature and gives 
you a needed spiritual lift. On the other hand, you may not seem to 
notice anything worthwhile. You may take the alternate route home with 
no notable experience. You may never hear of the terrible accident that 
occurred at the intersection two blocks down — at the exact time that you 
would have driven through! Whether apparent or not, THERE IS A 


The Pendulum If you are seeking the answer to a particular question, 
it is often helpful to use an external object as a focus, in order to eliminate 
outside influences and conscious mind distortion. The use of such an 
object does not affect the information in any way. It merely occupies the 
individual's consciousness and focuses awareness on a particular point. 
One such focusing device is the pendulum. This allows you to obtain a 
simple "Yes", "No" or "Not yet determined" answer to the question. 

The pendulum itself should be made of natural mineral products. 
The weight should be attached to a small chain about nine inches long 
(the chain may be of almost any material except animal products). The 
preferred material would be metal such as gold, silver, brass or copper. 
Aluminum is not recommended because the electrical process used in 
its manufacture may be disruptive to your auric field. 

A "YES/NO" answer card, as shown in the illustration (Figure 8.1) 
may also be used. 

To use the pendulum, place the answer-card on a flat surface such as 
a table or desk. Seat yourself comfortably in front of it. Clear your mind 
of all extraneous thought. If you desire, say a small prayer such as the 
Seax-Wica Psalm given in Lesson Two. Ask the gods for protection and 
guidance in receiving true answers. Hold the chain with your right hand 
(left, if left-handed) about seven inches from the weight. Suspend it over 
the center of the answer-card, about half an inch off the surface. Holding 
the pendulum steady, ask your question. Make sure it is one that can be 
answered "Yes" or "No". Do not try to make the pendulum swing. You will 
find that although you try to hold your hand still, the weight will swing 
backwards and forwards along one of the lines on the paper, thus giving 
an answer to your question. You do not need to ask the question aloud; 
you can just think it. 

Should the pendulum swing around in a circle, or not swing at all, 
then either your question was ambiguous — in which case you need to 
rephrase it — or else the answer cannot be given for some reason. 

The pendulum can be used not only to answer questions, but also to 
locate objects and people, in the manner of a dowsing rod. The joy of the 
pendulum, however, is that it can be used from the comfort of your own 

Figure 8.1 

104 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

home. The idea behind this is that the pendulum indi- 
cates on a small scale what is happening on a large scale, 
or at a distance. For any of these things — following a 
trail, finding a lost object, searching for water, or even 
diagnosing an illness — it is as well to use a pendulum 
with a definite point to it. Sit at a table with a map before 
you, of the place to be dowsed. The larger the map's 
scale, the better. Move the pendulum slowly across 
the map, in the same pattern you would follow if you 
were walking on the spot. When you "reach" the site of 
the material for which you are searching, the pendulum 
will indicate it by swinging rapidly in a circle or spinning 
around. When looking for a lost person, or stolen 
property, you can follow a similar procedure. For some- 
thing lost, draw a rough sketch of the area, the house or 

room, where you think it was lost. Again move the pen- 
dulum systematically about, while concentrating your 
thoughts on the missing object. Again it will rotate to 
indicate where the object is. An alternate method is to 
hold the pendulum over the answer-card and, with a 
finger of your other hand, point to the sketch-map and 
ask "Is it here? ... Is it here? ..." etc.. 

To follow a trail, move the pendulum slowly along 
the roads as shown on the map. At each crossroads ask 
the pendulum which is the right road to take. In this 
manner you can easily trace a route taken from point A 
to point B. 

For more on the pendulum, see Practical Color 
Magick by Raymond Buckland (Llewellyn Publications, 

The steps, in learning to psychometrize, 
are easy ones requiring only practice with 
patience. Take eight or ten samples of dif- 
ferent substances: cloth of various types, 
leather, fur, wood, metal, stone, etc.. Sit 
quietly and, taking one object at a time in 
your hands, concentrate on it. Feel its tex- 
ture. Think of its origins. Try to picture the 
tree from which the wood came; the animal 
from which the fur came, and so on . . . 
work at the objects regularly, spending as 

long as you feel comfortable on each object 
but always going right through the com- 
plete set. It may be that you will get very 
definite impressions right away. But if you 
do not, continue as follows. 

After a few weeks of the initial exer- 
cise, place each of the objects in separate 
envelopes. Have all the envelopes the same 
so that, outwardly, there is no way of tell- 
ing one from another. Number them. Go 
through the concentration again regularly, 

this time trying to pick up a clue regarding 
the contents of the envelope. You may 
guess the object itself or you may get an 
impression of its origins — the sort of thing 
on which you were concentrating before. 
Write down your impressions in a notebook, 
against the numbers on the envelopes. 
After a few days, or weeks (depending on 
how often you practice), you may show a 
score something like this: 

























































































































You can see that there is a certain pat- 
tern emerging. By the seventh try (in this 
example) you can get fifty percent correct. 
Others are very close. For instance, the 
two words 'Oak' and 'Bamboo' are fre- 
quently confused; as are 'Snakeskin' and 

Keep on with these sealed evelopes. 
Then introduce others. When you feel 
you are keeping a good, consistent score, 
try your hand at other unsealed objects. A 

friend's ring, for instance. A letter, a photo- 
graph, a watch. As you hold the objects, 
start by thinking of them in themselves. 
Then ask yourself, who has handled them 
most? Where did they come from? When 
were they made? Practice all the time. 
Such an item as a coin has usually passed 
through too many hands to have gathered 
any positive aura. Concentrate more on 
objects of an individual nature. Whenever 
possible, check on the results you achieve 

and keep a written record of them. In this 
way you can watch your progress. 

The above exercises can be done quite 
well in a group. You can even arrange two 
teams and see which is the more accurate. 
Other exercises and tests will suggest 
themselves. Keep trying. Don't be dis- 
couraged . . . and keep those notes. 

A Pocket Guide to the Supernatural 

Raymond Buckland, Ace Books, 1969 

Lesson Eight: Marriage, Birth, Death and Channeling 1 105 

Psychometry All physical material has memory. It is not the memory 
of a conscious awareness, but is the retention of manifested energy with 
which the material has come into contact. Further, if a person touches a 
particular object, a cosmic link is established between the two that will 
exist at least as long as the human lives and oftimes long after. Thus, if 
you touch a chair, another person with developed channeling abilities 
could "read" you when s/he comes in contact with that chair, regardless 
of where you might happen to be at the time. The Channel could "see" 
into your past, present and even future just as easily as if you were 
physically present. 

Psychometry, then, is the reception of impressions from a physical 
object. The impressions may come in the form of feelings, scenes, 
thought forms, color, emotions. They may come singly or in combination. 
Whatever thought, feeling, or sensation you receive should be care- 
fully recorded. 

To practice psychometry, begin with small items such as jewelry, 
that can be easily held in the hand. Something of the nature of a keepsake, 
that has been in contact with its owner for long periods of time, is best. 
The concentration of energy is stronger because of both the physical and 
emotional link that was established. 

As always in using the intuitive process, the mind should be cleared 
before starting. Now, hold the object lightly between the hands. Feel the 
energy or vibrations that emanate from it. What do you feel? Is there a 
coldness; a warmth; a tingling sensation? What color(s) do you sense? 
What scenes come to you? Do you feel any kind of emotion? Again, have 
no expectations; be purely receptive. Feel; listen; look into the third eye. 
Move into any perceptions that you find. Examine them and become one 
with them. Then record them, exactly as received. Don't let your conscious 
mind interfere. Some people find they are better able to get their results 
holding the object in one particular hand, rather than in both hands; 
some hold it to the forehead, over the third eye; some hold it over the 
heart. Experiment. See which is best for you. 


The greatest problem facing the Channel (and sometimes the sub- 
ject) is interpretation. As with dreams, the interpretation is best done by 
the subject. If you are channeling information on yourself, the problem 
is minimized. But if the reading is for someone else, you must be 
extremely careful. The information should be presented exactly as it is 

Much of channeled information deals with the future. This is because 
the past is past. It is what the individual does from this point on that is 
important. Since you are master of your own destiny, you must accept 
the consequences of your own actions. Therefore, nothing is predeter- 
mined. Any information of the future is only in the realm of probability, 
based on current conditions, and may be changed. An indicated disastrous 
relationship can be avoided either through avoidance of the relationship 
itself or through a change of attitudes, concerning the relationship, on 

There is good evidence to show that a pictor- 
ial method is resorted to very largely by the 
spirits — mediums seeing what they describe, 
very often, when the more direct auditory 
method is not resorted to. The spirit presents 
somehow to the mind of the medium a picture, 
which is described and often interpreted by 
the medium. Often this interpretation is quite 
erroneous, resemblinga defective analysis of a 
dream. Because of this the message is not 
recognized, yet the source of the message may 
have been perfectly veridical. 

Let us illustrate this more fully. Suppose 
you desire to tell a Chinese, who speaks not a 
word of English, to get a certain object — a 
watch — from the next room. It would be use- 
less for you to say the word "watch", because 
he would not know what the word meant. 
Probably you would tap your wrist, pretend to 
wind the watch, look at the hands, etc., in try- 
ing to convey to him your meaning. If this 
were not recognized you would have the utmost 
difficulty in telling him to get the watch from 
the next room. 

Now suppose these antics, or somewhat 
similar ones, were resorted to by a spirit in his 
attempt to convey the word "watch ", perhaps 
to remind the sitter of a particular pocket 
watch he used to carry in his vest pocket. The 
spirit might well proceed as follows: 
Medium: 'He taps his stomach and looks at a 
spot over his left side. He seems to wish to 
convey the impression that he suffered much 
from bowel trouble, perhaps a cancer on the 
leftside. Yes, he seems to be taking something 
away from his body; evidently they removed 
some growth. Now he is examining his hand. 
He is looking intently. Now he is doing some- 
thing with his fingers. I can 't see what it is; 
a little movement. Was he connected with 
machinery in life? Now he is pointing to the 
door . . .'etc.. 

Such an interpretation of the facts, while 
describing his actions, is wholly misleading 
as to its interpretation. The symbolism has 
been wholly misconstrued and, inasmuch as 
the subject probably never died of cancer, had 
no bowel trouble, underwent no operation, 
and was never connected with machinery, it 
is highly probable that the message would be 
put down totally to the medium's subconscious 
imagination, or even to guessing or conscious 
fraud! Yet, it will be observed, the message 
was in its inception completely veridical, the 
fault lying in the symbolism, misinterpreted 
by the medium. 

Amazing Secrets of the Psychic World 

Raymond Buckland & Hereward Carrington 
Parker Publishing Co., 1975 

106 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

the part of the persons involved. A physical illness can 
be avoided by correcting the probable cause, such as 
an improper diet, balancing the emotional state, etc.. 
NOTHING HAS TO BE! The channeled information is 
merely stating that, as conditions exist at the moment, 
this is the probable result. If the individual desires a 
different outcome, it is within her or his power to bring 

The Aura The "body" of Wo/Man is actually 
composed of seven distinct elements. The first three 
(solid, liquid and gas) form the physical body. The 
fourth element is called the Etheric body and inter- 
penetrates the physical. Generally the etheric body 
extends beyond the confines of the physical body by 
about an inch. Next is the astral body. It extends several 
inches beyond the etheric body. Then, beyond the 
astral body, are the Mental and Spiritual bodies. Due 
to their elasticity, and the speed at which they function, it 
is impossible to define physical limits for these last 

Although the vibrations of the non-physical bodies 
are too high a rate to be detected by the physical eye, 
the energy patterns that emanate can be seen by the 
adept. These energy patterns are what is known as the 
Aura. Usually the energy of the etheric body is detected, 
or "seen", first because of its denseness. As your percep- 
tions improve you can begin to detect the energy that 
radiates beyond the etheric body. Often it can be seen 
flowing, ebbing and spiralling much like the Northern 
Lights. The colors detected are usually indicative of 
the person's state of being. Thus, a person with a 
deeply spiritual state may exhibit blue and lavender. A 
person deeply in love may show pink, etc. (see Color 
under "Symbolism" in the Dream section of Lesson Seven). 
You should be cautioned about trying to see what 
another person sees. If you and a friend are reading 
auras, don't be surprised if one of you detects blue and 
the other detects yellow. Neither of you is necessarily 
wrong. Individual sensitivities are different and you 
are more sensitive to certain vibrations while your 
friend is more receptive to others. 

Any state of the individual's being causes reactions 
in the aura. Emotional states will primarily affect the 
color. Physical conditions not only affect color, but 
also cause peculiarities in the patterns of the aura, 
such as vortexes, holes and sometimes dark spots. You 
should be careful in your treatment of information 
concerning auras. You may think that someone has a 
physical problem because of what seems to be a defect 

in their aura. Ask him if he has a problem in that par- 
ticular area. But, if he denies it, drop the issue. What 
may appear serious to you at the time, could be just a 
minor irritation that is nearly healed. Remember the 
power of suggestion is strong and could turn out to be 
very damaging to some people. 

Finding lost objects How often have you spent 

minutes, hours or even days, in a frantic search for 
some lost item? Whether you absent-mindedly mis- 
placed it yourself, or whether someone else moved it 
without your knowledge, it's not necessary to waste a 
lot of time and energy searching for it. In the first 
place, if you are filled with panic and fear losing the 
item, it might be that you have a lesson to learn about 
possessiveness. In the second place, if it is truly mis- 
placed neither logic nor emotion is going to be of 
much help. Of course, if you move everything in the 
house (assuming it is in the house), a systematic search 
may eventually locate it. But even though the conscious 
mind can't readily find it, there are aspects of yourself 
that can. All you need do is listen to them. 

First of all, calm down. Close down the conscious 
mind. Rid yourself of emotion. Once you are com- 
pletely calm and at peace, simply follow your inner 
urges. Don't think! Move; walk; be guided from within. I 
once found two keys thrown into the center of an 
overgrown field using this technique. I had not seen 
where the keys were thrown, yet, following my inner 
guidance, I walked to a certain spot, leaned over and 
placed my hand within three inches of the missing 

There are times when the lost remains lost. In- 
variably at these times there is a lesson to be learned. 
Our higher selves sometimes choose this method to 
cause us to consider our placement of values, or to set 
in motion a needed series of experieneces. At other 
times, the "help" may be external. Perhaps our spirit 
guides, in consort with our higher selves, create the 
conditions for that much needed lesson. 

The pendulum of course, is an excellent means of 
discovering that which is lost, as was described above. 
Do not overlook it. 


As an aid to developing, or producing, extra- 
sensory perception, recent studies associated with the 
Department of Defense and the Space Program have 
turned to what is called Sensory Deprivation. The theory 

Lesson Eight: Marriage, Birth, Death and Channeling / 107 

is that our normal living patterns have conditioned us to seek a certain 
degree of sensation (whether mental, physical or emotional) during all 
waking moments. If the waking senses are eliminated and body move- 
ment is restricted, the body relaxes, mental and emotional tensions sub- 
side and the consciousness achieves unparalleled freedom. Laboratory 
studies have used diving tanks, where the submerged test subject was 
kept in a weightless and motionless condition. Documentation of such 
tests reveals that extra-sensory phenomena, including imagery, occur. 


Depriving the physical senses by external means is in no way a new 
idea. For centuries the Arabian Dervishes have dangled from a rope 
around the wrist; Hindus have sat for days, weeks or even months, in a 
Lotus position, and members of the Craft have used a device known as 
the "Witches' Cradle", to separate the consciousness from the physical. 

There are several variations of the Witches' Cradle. Two are illus- 
trated. All perform the same basic function of isolating the person from 
her/his physical environment and make physical movement all but 
impossible. Under these conditions, the consciousness is loosed from 
physical bondage and becomes free to roam beyond the physical 

As illustrated (Figure 8.2) in the first cradle the person is wrapped in 
a mummy-like shroud of leather or cloth. The arms are fastened down in 
straight- jacket fashion. Leather straps hold the body in the iron frame 
while a leather hood shuts out sight and sound. The head is held in place 
by a leather strap or iron band, as shown. The cradle is suspended by a 
single rope so that it can swing and rotate freely to give complete dis- 
orientation with the ground. 

The second variation (Figure 8.3) is suspended by the leather sleeves. 
The leather sheath was cushioned with fur (modern versions use foam 
rubber) for comfort. The crossbar is suspended by a yoke to a single 
rope, again to provide ground disorientation. Notice that in both cases 
the spine is kept straight. Not only did the Cradle produce sensory 
isolation, which aided freeing of the consciousness, it also aided the 
projection of the consciousness beyond the physical body . . . astral 

It is not necessary, nor recommended, that the individual use the 
Cradle, under normal circumstances. Such a device should only be used 
under the close supervision of someone who is completely knowledge- 
able in its use. The essence of its benefits can and should be used, 
however. A procedure to induce the proper conditions for freeing the 
consciousness is outlined in the method of meditation given in Lesson 
Seven. These meditation procedures, if properly and consistently used, 
can also provide deprivation of the senses, comfort of the body and 
elimination of the senses which will free the consciousness. 

Figure 8.2 

: 1 

Figure 8.3 

Based on those in Minnesota Minutescope 


1. Write your own Handfasting Ceremony. 

2. Keep a log of Birth Rites (Wiccaning) and Crossing the Bridge Rites below. 

2. Keep a log of Birth Rites (Wiccaning) and Crossing the Bridge Rites below. 

List the methods you have used to clear your intuitive channel. What were your personal impediments 
(blocks) for channeling? Keep track of channeled information below. 

List some of the means by which you have developed your psychic abilities. What have been the results of 
these techniques used? 


To the layperson it seems almost magickal that anyone 
can actually see into the future; can divine what is going 
to happen. The dictionary (Webster's) defines divination 
as "the art of foretelling future events, or discovering 
things secret or obscure, by the aid of superior beings (the 
gods?), or by certain rites, experiments, observations, 
etc." According to this, then, what we see on television 
or read in the newspaper as the weather "forecast" 
should, more correctly, be referred to as the weather 
"prediction"! Be that as it may, divination is a useful 
tool and has a definite place in the Craft. 

There are a great many ways of seeing into the 
future . . . "seeing into the future"? More correctly: 
being aware of the forces at work that will bring about 
a probable result in the future. We create our own 
reality. Nothing is predetermined; nothing has to be. If 
the individual desires a different outcome, it is within 
her or his power to bring that about. 


As a Witch, how are you able to see into the 
future? Well, we have already dealt with channeling 
and with such a tool as the pendulum. But one of the 
most common, and most popular, tools— used by 
Witches and non- Witches alike — is the Tarot (pro- 
nounced tarrow, to rhyme with "narrow"). The tarot 
belongs to that form of divination known as carto- 
mancy — divining with cards. The tarot cards are the 
oldest known of decks; their exact origin long lost. The 
most popular theory is that they were brought into 
Europe by the Gypsies; probably originating — as did 
the Gypsies themselves — in India. The earliest known 
deck dates from the fourteenth century. 

The tarot deck itself consists of seventy-eight cards, 
in two parts. These parts are called the Minor Arcana 

and the Major Arcana. The Minor Arcana is made up 
of fifty-six of the cards divided, again, into four suits of 
fourteen cards each. It is from this Minor Arcana of the 
tarot that our everyday playing cards stem. The tarot 
suits are SWORDS, PENTACLES (sometimes called 
Coins), WANDS (or Staves) and CUPS. Their modern 
counterparts are Spades, Diamonds, Clubs and Hearts 
respectively. Each suit numbers one (or Ace) through 
Ten with a Page, Knight, Queen and King. At some 
stage in their later development the Knight dropped 
out and the Page became known as the Jack, or Knave. 
The Maj or Arcana, otherwise known as the Trumps 
Major, has twenty-two cards; each an allegorical figure 
of symbolic meaning. These figures are, by many 
occultists, attributed to the twenty-two letters of the 
Hebrew alphabet: 

































17 STAR 


18 MOON 


19 SUN 









112 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Unfortunately the occultists cannot agree on this. 
While MacGregor Mathers, for instance, attributes the 
cards as I have shown, Paul F. Case puts the Fool at the 
beginning, thus moving them all up one:- 







To further complicate the issue, A. E. Waite and 
Paul Case give the number 8 to Strength and 1 1 to Jus- 
tice, while virtually every other writer and deck shows 
8 to be Justice and 11 Strength! 

Many writers on the tarot frighten away would- 
be students with their needlessly veiled and lofty des- 
criptions and interpretations. One such writer says, of 
the Major Arcana, "Their symbolism is a type of 
shorthand for metaphysics and mysticism. Here are 
truths of so subtle and divine an order that to express 
them badly in human language would be a sacrilege. 
Only esoteric symbolism can reveal them to the inner 
spirit of the seeker". He does, however, go on to 
express them in human language — and I must confess 
that I intend to do the same! 

How do the cards work and how are they used? 
As with all tools of divination — the tarot, crystal ball, 
tea leaves, etc. — they are simply a focal point for your 
own psychic powers; a placebo for channeling. A 
good psychic could deal out a deck of blank cards and 
give a reading. So could you, with a little practice. But 
why not start the easy way? There's no reason why 
you shouldn't use these tools, these focal points, if it 
will make things easier. 

There are many possible spreads, or layouts, for 
the cards. Everyone seems to have her or his favorite. 
In this lesson I will examine two or three so that you 
can try them and choose one, or more, that is most 
comfortable for you. 

Most layouts call for a Significator . . . a card to repre- 
sent the person for whom you are reading (and that 
person for whom you are reading — or yourself, if you 
are reading for yourself — is known as the QUERANT). 
Many books suggest specific cards, e.g. Queen of Swords 
if you are reading for an older, dark-haired woman. 
individual. If you read for two different women, both of 
whom just happen to be older and dark-haired, the same 
card will not necessarily be right for both of them. To 
select your Significator, STUDY YOUR QUERANT. 
Look into her eyes; hold her hands; attune yourself to 

her (or him, of course). Then go through all the cards in 
the deck, until you find the one which you feel is right to 
represent her. You may go through the deck several 
times before settling on just the right card, or you may 
pick it out immediately. 

Take that card and give the rest of the deck to the 
Querant. She should handle them and shuffle them, 
concentrating on any specific question or problem she 
may have. After a few moments of this, have her cut 
the cards, with her left hand, to the left, into three 
separate piles: 

~-\ l. 

You pick up the piles: the middle one first, then 
place the right hand pile on top of it, then the remain- 
ing left hand pile on top of them: 

Now spread the cards across the table, face down. 
Have the Querant pick ten (10) cards, one at a time, at 
random from these and place them in a pile, still face 
down. These are the ten you will be using for your 

The first spread, or layout, we will consider is one 
of the most popular, yet is very accurate. It is the 
Ancient Keltic Spread: 


at work I 



Obstacles 2 







Hopes & 






Lesson Nine: Divination 1 113 

Lay the Significator (the card you chose to repre- 
sent the Querant) face up in the center of the table. 
This card shows, or indicates, the "front" that the sub- 
ject puts up. It shows the type of impression that she 
likes other people to have of her. This is then covered 
by the first card the Querant picked, laid face down- 
ward. This is known as "what covers her". Crosswise 
on these two cards is placed the second one she picked. 
This is "what crosses her". The third card is placed 
above — "what crowns her" — and the fourth below — 
"what is beneath her". To the right goes the fifth card — 
"what is behind her" and to the left the sixth— "what is 
before her". The remaining four cards are placed in 
order over on the far right, one above the other: 
seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth— "herself", "her 
house", "her hopes and fears" and "the final out- 
come", respectively. 

The cards are then turned over one at a time as 
you give the individual interpretations — which I will 
deal with below — each being looked at in its particular 

To elaborate on the meanings of the different 
positions: the first card (what covers her) shows the 
general atmosphere that exists around the subject, or 
around the particular question/problem that she has 
asked (not necessarily aloud; it is the question/problem 
she was concentrating on whilst handling the cards 
and shuffling them) . The second card shows what 
forces and influences are working against her. It may even 
show, or indicate, an actual person who is hindering, 
or "crossing" her in some way. Card number three 
shows her ideals; what she is aiming for — though she 
may not get there (that will be indicated in card number 
ten). Number four shows the real woman (or man); 
the Querant's unconscious self; her actual basis. Five 
shows what has already taken place. It could be either 
the immediate past or it could show, in general terms, 
her whole past life. Six, on the other hand, shows what 
is immediately coming into effect; the next six to twelve 
months at most. 

Seven shows more of the subject herself; how 
she will fare generally in life and especially in the 
immediate future. Eight deals with her close friends, 
whether blood relatives or not. Nine is her hopes and 
fears and ten shows the final outcome for her. 

It can be seen that some cards will confirm others. 
There should be similarities, for example, between 
cards four and seven; similarities in two and nine. The 
whole should give some indication of what to expect 
from card ten. Should the majority of the cards be 

from the Major Arcana, then you can be sure that the 
forces involved are powerful ones. Any changes will 
be fairly drastic changes; any setbacks will be severe 
setbacks; any advancements will be very major ad- 


But how do you interpret the cards? There are 
books written on the tarot, most of which offer possible 
interpretations for each card. You might purchase one 
of them (I would recommend one of Eden Gray's: 
either The Tarot Revealed or A Complete Guide To the 
Tarot). Read through the book, to get an idea of the 
traditional interpretations ... then, PUT THE BOOK 
AWAY. Once again let me stress that NO TWO PEOPLE 
ARE ALIKE. If you are reading for two different people 
and the same card happens to come up in the same 
position for both of them, it is highly unlikely that it 
will have the same meaning (the interpretation found 
in the book) for both people. They are each individuals; 
it will mean something different for each of them. 

How, then, do you interpret? Go by your instincts; 
your feelings; your intuition. As you turn over each 
card, think of the position that it occupies. For example: 
position #6 — the immediate future. What, of the illus- 
tration on the card, strikes you most forcibly as you 
turn it face up? Invariably one thing— one small part 
of the overall design — will "hit your eye" first. Think 
of what that object, color or symbol, can mean in 
relation to (in this example) the Querant's immediate 
future. For example, suppose you are using a Rider- 
Waite deck (I will discuss the different decks later) and 
you turn up the "Death" card (See Figure 9. 1) . Does this 
mean Death is in the near future? No! The interpreta- 
tion given in one book is "transformation; change. 
Sometimes followed by or preceding destruction. 
Sometimes birth or renewal." It could mean the death 
of an idea, or a job — perhaps leading to "rebirth" in a 
new job (incidentally, I should mention here that it 
will help immeasurably if you disregard the titles on the 
Major Arcana cards. "Death" is not necessarily death; 
"Justice" is not necesasrily justice; the "Devil" not 
necessarily the devil, and so on) . 

But going by our method, there are far more 
possibilities. You might be struck by the small boat in 
the background and associate it with travel. Or you 
might be impressed by the sun rising (or setting?) be- 
tween the two towers on the right; or the rose on the 
banner; or the bishop-like figure . . . there are so many 

114 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

things which might strike you forcibly. You will find it is a different thing 
each time you read the cards, giving a different — and therefore far more 
personal — reading for each individual. So, don't go by the book . . . use 
your own powers. 

In interpreting, you might keep in mind that the Swords suit is 
usually associated with troubles and misfortunes (also with the element 
of AIR); Cups associated with love and happiness (WATER); Wands 
with enterprise and glory and sex (FIRE); and Pentacles with money 
(EARTH). This does not mean to say, of course, that every Sword card 
(for example) turned up has to reflect troubles and misfortunes! These 
are general associations, so just keep them in mind. 

You should also try the Tree of Life spread, to see how you like it. It, 
also, uses ten cards plus the Significator: 

Figure 9.1 

Lesson Nine: Divination / 115 

1 — Querant's highest intelligence — Ideals 
2— Creative Force 
3 — Life, Wisdom 
4 — Virtues; good qualities 
5 — Conquest 
6— Health 
7 — Love; lust 

8— Arts, Crafts; Procreation 
9 — Imagination; Creativity 
10 — Earthly home 

A very useful layout, especially for a quick read- 
ing, is the Seax-Wica Path spread, which uses eight 
cards (picked by the Querant) and the Significator: 




S- — Significator 

1 — Inner self 

2— Goals (Ideals) 

3— Past 

4 — Family 

5— Health 

6 — Religion 

7 — Friends 

8— Final outcome (future) 

Practice as much as you can. Read for everyone — 
people you know well and people you don't know at 
all. Don't be afraid to say what you see, yet use a little 
discretion in phrasing it. For example, if you should see 
death, or some bad accident approaching, DONT say 
"You're going to die"! Tell the person that, as the forces 
are at present, it would be wise to exercise extreme 
caution in the near future; there is the possibility of an 

accident. And that's all it is — a possibility. We can alter 
what lies ahead. 

Do not read for the same person (or for yourself) 
on too frequent a basis. A good rule is, examine the 
cards used in the reading to see how many of the 
Major Arcana are present. If there are several (four, 
five or more), there are strong forces at work. Things 
are unlikely to change much in the next month, so 
there is no point in doing another reading for that long 
(unless it is to examine a totally different question, of 
course) . If there are few, or none, of the Major Arcana, 
then the forces are light and changing, and it might be 
well to re-examine the situation in about a week. 

There is a tremendous variety of tarot decks 
available. At last count there were close to two hundred 
fifty different ones on the market! The best known is 
the Rider- Waite deck, and it is certainly a good one for 
the beginner (or for the experienced reader). Its 
advantage lies in that it has a different full picture for 
every card; Maj or and Minor Arcana. Many decks have 
no symbolism for the Minor Arcana . . . for the Three 
of Swords, for example, there are simply three swords; 
Four of Swords — four swords, and so on. With the 
Rider- Waite deck there is a whole scene, incorporating 
three swords, on the one card, and then a totally different 
scene incorporating four swords on the next, and so 
on.This obviously gives much more to work with. 

Another fine deck, based on the Rider- Waite, is 
the Morgan-Greer. In fact I, personally, prefer this 
deck to the Waite. For a change of pace — and some 
truly exciting symbolism — I would highly recom- 
mend the Thoth (pronounced "toe-th") deck, which 
was designed by Aleister Crowley. Try many of them. 
Find your own favorite. 


Scrying is a fascinating practice in that it enables 
you to literally "see" the future (or present or past) . 
Almost any reflective surface can be used for scrying 
(pronounced to rhyme with "crying") . A crystal ball 
and a gazing mirror are two of the best. Let's look at the 
crystal ball first. 

The crystal should be without flaw — no scratches 
on its surface or bubbles within (the new acrylic- 
plexiglass "crystals" work quite well, but scratch very 
easily) . Rest the ball on a background of black. A black 
velvet cloth is ideal. This can, in turn, rest on a table in 
front of you or can cover your hand(s) if you wish to 
hold the crystal. This black background is to ensure 

116 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

that you see nothing around the ball to distract you as you gaze into it. 
Initially you should work alone, in a room that is quiet and dark. Your 
temple, of course, is the ideal place. Have just one small light, preferably 
a candle. Place the light so that you do not see it reflected directly in the 
crystal. Burn a pleasant-smelling incense, since it will help you concen- 
trate. Work in a consecrated circle, at least to begin with. Later, if you 
should want to use the crystal elsewhere, you can simply imagine your- 
self surrounded by, and completely encompassed in, white light; though 
even then I would strongly advise casting a small circle about yourself 
with your athame. Start by saying some protective prayer (such as the 
Seax-Wica Psalm), then ask the Lord and the Lady for their guidance and 
their protection. 

Now sit and gaze into the crystal trying to keep your mind blank. This is 
not easy and will take some practice. Do not stare at the ball unblinking; 
this will just cause eyestrain! Gaze — blinking your eyes naturally, as 
necessary. Do not try to imagine anything in the ball. Just try to keep 
your mind blank. After a while (anywhere from two to ten minutes) it 
will seem that the ball is filling with white mist or smoke. It will gradually 
grow more and more dense until the ball seems full of it. Then, again 
gradually, the smoke will thin and fade, leaving behind a picture — 
almost like a miniature television picture. It might be in black-and- 
white but is more likely to be in color. It might be still or it might be 
moving. It might be from the past, present or future. Also, it is very likely 
to be a symbolic picture, requiring some interpretation — much like a 

Initially you have no great control over what you see. You must just 
take what comes. As you become more adept, you may meditate for a 
few moments before gazing on what you wish to see. Then, when you 
start to gaze, clear your mind and try to keep it blank. Most people seem 
capable of success at scrying. If you get nothing the first time you try, 
then try again the next night, and then the next. It may take a week or 
more before you get anything, but keep trying. Do not, however, try for 
more than about ten minutes or so at each attempt. 

If you can't obtain a crystal, it is possible to use a regular convex 
magnifying glass lens. Polished carefully and laid on the black velvet, it 
will work almost as well as the ball. Whichever you use, ball or lens, keep 
it purely for your scrying. Let no one else use it or even handle it. Keep it 
wrapped in a cloth (its black velvet or a piece of black silk) and do not 
permit sunlight to strike it. It is traditional to "charge" the crystal by holding 
it up to be struck by the light of the full moon, once a month. 

A black gazing mirror seems to work better for some people than a 
crystal. It is not difficult to make one for yourself. You need a piece of 
glass, free of flaws and imperfections. Make it opaque by coating one 
side three times with asphaltum. To make the asphaltum stick to the glass, 
first clean the glass well with turpentine, then lay on the asphalt with a 
camel-hair brush. 

A much easier method is simply to spray the back side of the glass 
with a good black enamel paint (it may not seem very magickal, but don't 
forget, the mirror is merely the focal point for your concentration. The 

Lesson Nine: Divination / 117 

actual "images" are proj ected by your powers; they do 
not come from within the mirror, or crystal, itself) . A 
concave glass is the ideal. It is sometimes possible to 
find a convex glass from an old clock-face, in an antique 
store, and simply reverse it so that it is concave. 

Place the glass in a frame. The shape is not im- 
portant: round; oval; rectangular; square. Carve, or 
paint, onto the frame the names of the Lord and the 
Lady, in runes or one of the other magickal alphabets 
(see Lesson Twelve). As you are doing this — indeed, 
throughout the whole operation of making the mirror — 
concentrate your thoughts on the purpose of the mirror 
. . . the projection of scenes from the past, present 
and future. 

Consecrate the mirror in your circle, using the 
consecration ritual given in Lesson Five, naturally sub- 
stituting the word "mirror" for "knife". When not in 
use, keep the mirror wrapped in a black cloth. 

To give you an easy start to scrying, before 
investing in a ball or making a mirror, try it with a glass 
of water. Just take a regular, clear water-glass and fill it 
with water. Gaze into that in the same way as described 
above. It should work quite well. 


The Saxon Wands are very good for obtaining a 
direct, prompt answer to a question. In a way they are 
similar to the Oriental I-Ching, though far less com- 

Seven wands are needed. These are made from 
wood dowel. There should be three, each nine-inches 
in length; and four, each twelve-inches in length. 
One of the twelve-inch wands should be marked, or 
decorated in some way, as the WITAN wand. Actually, 
you can decorate all of the wands with runes and 
symbols, if you wish, but make sure the Witan wand 
stands out from the others. 

Kneeling lay the Witan wand on the ground before 
you; horizontally "across" you. Take the other six 
wands and hold them out over the Witan wand. Close 
your eyes, and holding them between your two hands, 
mix them together while concentrating on your 
question. Keeping the eyes closed, grip the wands in 
your right hand (left hand if left-handed); take hold of 
the tip of one wand with the fingers of the other hand; 
concentrate for a moment longer on your question, 
then open your right hand. All the wands will fall to 
the ground except the one held now by the fingers of 
your left hand. Open your eyes. 

i: If there should be more LONG wands than short 
wands on the ground, then the answer to your 
question is in the affirmative. 

ii: If there are more SHORT wands than long wands 
on the ground (excluding the Witan wand) then 
the answer is in the negative. 

iii: If any wand(s) touch the Witan wand, it means 
the answer will be a very definite one, with strong 
forces at work. 

iv: If any wand(s) are off the ground (resting on 
others), circumstances are such (forces still work- 
ing) that no definite answer can yet be given — 
regardless of (i) or (ii). 

v: If all the wands point towards the Witan wand, 
then you (or the person for whom you are asking) 
will have a definite role to play in the determina- 
tion of the question. 

vi: If none of the wands point towards the Witan 
wand, then the matter will be determined without 
your (the Querant's) interference. 

As with the crystal and the tarot cards, don't let 
anyone else use your wands. They are your personal 
instruments. Keep them wrapped in a black cloth. 


Palmistry, or Cheiromancy (pronounced "kie-ro- 
mansy" and named after Leich de Hamong/Louis 
Hamon, the famous nineteenth century palmist who 
also went under the name of "Cheiro") is another 
popular, yet accurate, way of divining. It was common 
during Medieval times and is known to have existed 
when Greece and Rome were at their height. From the 
scattered information we have of Keltic Europe, there 
is some reason to believe that there, too, the hand was 
considered to reflect its owner. As with other types of 
divination, there is a fixed set of meanings to learn — in 
this case, the map of the hand and the meaning of the 
lines. There is also the need for some carefully applied 

The hand changes throughout your life. The lines 
you see in your palm now are not quite the same as 
were there a year ago, and probably very different 
from five years ago. Although your hand gives an 
outline of your life, it is only a tentative outline. You 
yourself will have the final decision on the course 
your life will take. Whether you want the position or 
not, you are the captain of your soul. 

118 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Palmistry, like a doctor's examination, is strictly a 
diagnostic reading. It can point out the forces that 
operate within yourself, or within another, and it can 
point out the logical results of those forces. You can 
accept them as they are, or begin to change them. As 
with the tarot, be very careful in your phrasing of what 
you see in a person's palm. Some lines may show a 
particular area in which your subject has very serious 
problems. This should be presented as "an area of 
possible weakness and something for which you 
should be particularly watchful". On a few occasions 
you may encounter that particular combination of 
lines which indicates a premature death. If this is the 
case, don't blurt out what you see. Rather, emphasize 
the need for great care in the future to avoid illness, 
accidents, violence, or whatever the rest of the hand 
may seem to imply as possible causes. Do remember: 
palmistry is only diagnostic; it is never a final pro- 
nouncement. As a palmist, your attitude is of great 
importance. Never try to "second guess" your subject 
by adding on-the-spot observations and facts you may 
know beforehand but which are not shown in the 
palm. If you are reading the palm; read the palm and 
only that. Ideally you should know nothing what- 
soever of the person you are reading. Their hands and 
your intuition should be enough. 

Anytime you are meeting someone for the first 
time, you can pick up a tentative and often very useful 
first impression of their personality by unobtrusively 
glancing at the lines of their hand. 


Different palmists have different ways of working, 
for this is a very individual art. Some will explain each 
step to the subject, discussing the reason for every 
observation. Others will merely report what they see. 
The following is based on the former method of 
operation, although any way of reading the palm is 
likely to follow a similar pattern. 

The shape of the hands is useful to note at first, 
although you should mention it last and in the context 
of your other observations. Generally a person with 
long, articulate hands and fingers will tend towards 
the contemplative and the artistic, whilst one with 
short, broad hands and fingers will tend to enjoy 
doing things and enjoying life without particular 
concern for deeper meanings. 

For a right-handed person, the left hand shows 
what she was born with and the course her life would 

have taken had things gone as they were, unchanged, 
from the time she was born. This individual's right 
hand shows what she has done with her life so far. 
Someone who has constantly tried to improve their 
lot and avoided leaning on others is likely to have 
quite a difference between their two palms (for a 
subject who is left-handed, the roles of left and right 
are reversed). It is best to begin with the hand that 
shows what one was born with and what is still in the 
unconscious mind. 

If the lines of the hand are deep and clear they 
indicate a person who experiences and understands 
much of the joy and pain her life will encounter. If, 
however, the lines of the palm are faint and very light, 
their owner will tend to be superficial and colorless. 
She would gain much by getting out and enjoying 

A line which is in the form of a "chain", indicates a 
weakness in that which the line symbolizes. A multitude 
of lines indicate a very complex person. 


The Life line is the major line of the hand. It 
indicates, in general terms, something of the course 
your life will take. As the illustration shows, the Life 
line curves about the thumb. At the very beginning it 
usually is joined with the line of the Head, and the 
point at which the Life and Head lines separate indicates 
the relative time at which you become emotionally in- 
dependent of your parents. If the two lines are never 
in contact at the beginning, a very independent sort of 
person is indicated. 

The Life line is the only one on the hand which 
can be divided into an approximate scale of years and, 
as such, can be used to foretell maj or events to within a 
year or so of their happening. Taking a soft pencil, 
divide your Life line into three equal sectors. The first 
sector (including that portion which is merged with 
the Head line) will count for twenty-five years and can 
be subdivided accordingly as you read a palm. The 
same will apply for the second and third sectors, 
though the third should be a little condensed. 

A deep, clear Life line running smoothly around 
its full length betokens a rich, full life with good health 
throughout. A line which is in the form of a chain 
shows probable poor health. If the line is chained in its 
latter portions, the subject should beware of bad health 
in her later years. 

A parallel to the Life line, on the side of the Mount 

Lesson Nine: Divination 1 119 

of Venus, shows useful luck and natural vitality work- 
ing for the subject. This is always a good sign. 

On most palms you will note that there are a 
number of tiny lines which run from the line of the 
Head to the Life line.Each of these indicates a goal of 
some kind that will be attained. If you work out the 
above time-scale carefully, you should be able to tell, 
within two years, when a major event will happen. 
What will they be? That, unfortunately, is beyond 

About two-thirds of the way down the Life line 
will, at times, be a triangle formed by two short, minor 
lines and a part of the Life line itself. If this triangle 
(which can be of varying size) is present then a talent 
of some sort is possessed — some kind of art from 
which the subject can gain considerable personal 
satisfaction. If the talent is not immediately apparent 
to her, let her search around a little and examine her 
interests. It will be there. 

An angle or sudden change of direction in the 
Life line shows that there will be a change of course in 
the life. Calculate and note the approximate date. Care 
should be taken at this time in life, for the manner of 
living will change radically. Similarly, a branch in the 
line of Life indicates that, at the point in time where the 

branch occurs, the subject's life can take one of two 
maj or courses. It is a time for consideration and careful 

A break in the Life line will mean trouble, and if 
the break occurs in both hands it can be fatal unless 
great care is taken. If, however, a new line begins 
outside the break, or is parallel to the Life line and 
continues unbroken along the Mount of Venus, the 
trouble will not be too drastic. 


Note the relative lengths of the Head and Heart 
lines, for this will tell whether the subject tends towards 
things intellectual or whether she leans on the emotions 
and their very useful adjunct, intuition. For many 
people these lines are nearly equal in length; for others 
there will be more or less difference. Here the palmist 
should use her or his own judgement as to how impor- 
tant this difference will be. 


The line of the Head shows, by its length and 
depth, the intellectual capability of the subject. As I 






220 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

mentioned above, the lines of the Head and Heart 
should always be considered together, for the two can 
give insight into the very important relationship be- 
tween the mind and the emotions. A long, deep and 
clear Head line shows a clear, strong intellect that can 
be of great value to the person possessing it. If the 
Head line is very long but slants downwards rather 
than across, you will have the case of someone who 
has quite a high intelligence but tends to use it for the 
wrong goals . . . s/he may be along the "left hand path". 
Such a person can be quite powerful. Guide them to 
better things if you can, but don't cross them! 

On rare occasions you will meet someone whose 
Heart and Head lines join to form a single deep line 
that cuts directly across the palm. Such a person is 
always an interesting study, for here the head and 
heart are united and few barriers can stand before one 
whose intellect and intuition are so in line. Such an 
individual will probably be a genius, whether or not 
s/he knows it (they usually do!). However, they should 
always keep tight control and close discipline on their 
mind, for here there is but a slight barrier between the 
strong, controlled mind and the uncontrolled chaos of 
mental unbalance. They are like a race car with a very 
powerful engine: magnificent performance is possible, 
but great care must be taken. 


The line of the Heart shows, by its length and 
depth, the strength of your emotional and intuitive 
capabilities. As I mentioned before, it should always 
be considered along with the Head line, as the relation- 
ship between these two is an important one. 

Someone who has a long and deep Heart line is 
likely to feel deeply both the good and the bad, the joy 
and the sorrow, of his or her life. The emotions will be 
important to such a person, and judgement and hunches 
are likely to give variable results. 

It is interesting to note that nowadays many will 
have a stronger Heart line on the left (or unconscious) 
hand than on the right (or conscious) . In such a case 
the Head line will be better developed in the right 
hand. The reason is simple — modern civilization, for 
better or worse, emphasizes the intellect over the 
heart. But, for this same reason, you will invariably 
find that after coming into the Craft and developing 
more from the Craft teachings and philosophies, your 
right-hand Heart line will move back to that same 
strength of the left hand. 


The line of Fate (sometimes called the line of 
Luck) does not occur in everyone's hand. Its length 
and depth will show just how much good fortune you 
may have. For some this line will run strong and deep 
from the wrist to the middle finger. For such a person 
luck seems to come readily and freely, and they will 
seem to do well with no apparent effort. For the great 
majority, however, the Fate line will be weak or non- 
existent . . . any "luck" will only come through hard 

The line of Fate can give you some very valuable 
insights into personality flaws which are not usually 
apparent on the surface. For example, the line may be 
deep and unbroken up to the line of the Heart, then 
break or disappear entirely at that point. A person 
with such lines would let emotions obstruct much of 
the good fortune that would normally come their way. 
Whether or not they realize it, worry, fear, temper and 
the like would be limiting them. A little advice on this 
point can be very valuable indeed. 

Similarly, a Fate line breaking, or terminating, at 
the line of the Head, indicates an individual who gets 
in their own way by being over-cautious and thinking 
things over too much. When they have finally made 
up their mind, the opportunity is past and nothing is 
gained. Each of these problems can be overcome by 
watching for them and correcting them before they 
do harm. 

Someone whose line of Fate starts over on the 
Mount of the Moon will probably have a peaceful and 
pleasing life. The old tradition is that he or she will be 
"happy without trying". If the line starts at the wristlets, 
wealth will be inherited, or a rewarding career gained. 
If the line of Fate branches near the bottom, with one 
branch running over into the Mount of the Moon, 
good fortune will come in the form of a marriage or 
other attachment. 


The Marriage lines occur, appropriately enough, 
above the beginning of the Heart line. The subj ect will 
probably have more than one such line; possibly as 
many as four or five. The so-called Marriage lines do 
not necessarily indicate so many marriages per se. 
They are, rather, the markers of loves that stir the heart 
deeply. They will be sweet or bittersweet episodes 
remembered throughout life. Each individual line will 

Lesson Nine: Divination / 121 

show, by its depth and length, just how deeply some- 
one left their mark. A very approximate time scale can 
be derived by noting whether the Marriage line in 
question is near the Heart line (indicating early in life) 
or near the joint of the finger (later in life). 


The Wristlets at the base of the hand can be a very 
general indication of how long the life will probably 
last. Each complete, well-formed Wristlet shows a 
complete and full twenty years. But the Wristlets will 
change considerably throughout life, and choices and 
way of living will be the final factor in determining just 
how long this life will be. 


The thumb and its base are under the influence of 
Venus. The base, or Mount of Venus, can give an 
interesting picture of the warmth, kindness and affec- 
tion which are in the subject. If the mount is warm, 
rounded, full and firm, she is under Venus' best 
influences: pleasing as a friend, delightful in love, and 
a person whose kindness to others always brings a 
warm response. 

If, however, the Mount of Venus is thin, dry and 
leathery, she is a person who is cold and thin-lipped, 
tolerating little warmth towards others and receiving 
little or nothing in return . . . but don't tell her this! 
Say, instead, that she should loosen up and learn to 
like others. 

Often you will note that Venus' Mount is crossed 
by many vertical and horizontal lines. Here will be a 
person who, for all else that her palm says, is not as 
serene as she appears on the surface. Underneath 
there are cross-currents of emotion which she feels 
deeply, but which she keeps hidden. 


From most ancient times, of course, the Moon has 
been linked with the psychic. And thus has it been in 
palmistry. A triangle on this mount will indicate some 
natural talent in the occult. Any lines which arise here 
will have in them a hint of unconscious magick and of 
its close relation, love between man and woman. 

Lines reaching towards the Mount of the Moon 
from around the edge of the hand will be a prediction 
of journeys by sea or air. 

Finally, the firmness and fullness of this mount 
indicates generally just how well the subject can com- 
bine practicality with imagination. 


As shown in the diagram, each finger is associated 
with an astrological sign and is an indicator of the 
good, or bad, aspects of that sign. At the base of the 
finger is the mount associated with the sign of the 
finger (e.g. Index Finger = Mount of Jupiter) . The full- 
ness or thinness of the mount shows how strongly that 
particular sign affects the individual. 

As the diagram shows, each finger is, in turn, 
divided into three sections to show the relative spiritual, 
intellectual and material development under each of 
the astrological signs: Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo (the Sun) 
and Mercury. If, for example, the lowest digit of the 
small finger (Mercury) is noticably larger and more 
developed than the finger's other two digits, then 
there would be strength especially in management 
and salesmanship. Similar traits can be derived, using 
judgement and intuition with the astrological character- 
istics below, for each of the other signs. 

Index Finger (JUPITER) 

The matriarch/patriarch image; the "boss"; com- 
mander; leader; executive. 

Principle traits of this sign are pride, ambition and 

Middle Finger (SATURN) 

The wise old wo/man, often a personification of old 

age and the very end of life. 

Principle traits of this sign are wisdom, solitude, 

shyness, melancholy and solitary bleakness. 
Third Finger (APOLLO) 

The Sun; all things bright and good. The arts; 


The principle trait of this sign is love of beauty. 
Small Finger (MERCURY) 

Sharpness and quickness of mind; cleverness; 


Principle traits of this sign are buoyancy; friendliness; 

skill in management and commerce. 

Study your own hands and see if you can form 
some tentative conclusions. Remember that every 
sign will have its own good traits and its bad ones. 
Spend some time reading about the above signs in one 
of the recommended books on astrology. But, above 
all, read the palms of others using knowledge backed 

122 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

by intuition, for this is the best way to learn. 

Tea-leaf reading, or Tasseography, is a perennial 
favorite of the divinatory arts. It can be fairly easily 
learned. For best results use China tea, brewed in a pot 
without a strainer, of course. The tea is poured into a 
cup which should have a wide top and small base. Do 
not use a cup with any form of pattern on the inside — 
it could be very confusing! 

The subject should drink the tea but leave suffi- 
cient in the bottom of the cup to distribute the leaves 
around the sides when turned. Ask her to take hold of 
the handle and rotate the cup slowly, three times 
clockwise, allowing the remains of the tea to come up 
to the rim of the cup and so to be distributed. Then she 
is to invert the cup completely on its saucer. 

Taking up the cup from there, you can begin your 
divination. You are going to interpret the various shapes 
and forms made by the tea-leaves on the sides and bottom 
of the cup. To do this, with some sort of accuracy, there 
is a time scale you must remember. The rim of the cup, 
and close to the rim, represents the present and the 
coming two or three weeks. As you move down the 

sides, so you go further into the future. The very bottom 
of the cup is the very far distant future. Your starting 
point is the handle of the cup. This represents the sub- 
ject, so that symbols close to the handle affect her 
directly, while symbols on the opposite side of the cup 
may only have a passing effect. 

If the symbols you see are particularly well defined, 
then she is very lucky. The less well defined, the less 
decisive and more prone to hindrance. Stars denote 
success; triangles fortune; squares mean protection; 
circles mean frustration. Straight lines indicate definite 
plans; wavy lines uncertainty; dotted lines mean a 
journey. Any numbers you see could be indicators of 
years, months, weeks, days or hours. Usually if you see 
them in the upper half of the cup you can think in terms of 
hours or days; in the lower half, weeks, months or years. 
Letters are the initials of people of importance to the 
subject, be they friends, relatives or business associates. 

As with most forms of divination, you should 
interpret what you feel about what you see, rather than 
going by hard and fast "meanings". As a start, however, 
here are the traditional interpretations of some of the 
most common symbols. You may find it interesting to 
compare them to the symbology used in dream inter- 
pretation (Lesson Seven). 

ANCHOR: End of a journey. Safe landing. 
Successful end to a business or personal 
affair. Problem unexpectedly solved. 

ARROW: Disagreement. Antagonism. In- 
structions for a journey. A letter. 

BELL: Good news. A wedding. 

BIRD: News, which could be good or bad. 
Possible journey. Companionship. 

BOAT: Travel. End of a friendship. 

BOTTLE: Celebration. Success. 

BRIDGE: Travel abroad. Partnership. In- 
troduction to new friends or business. 

BROOM: End of a problem. Change of 
jobs. Domesticity. 

BUTTERFLY: Insincerity. 

CAMEL: Long journey. Temporary reloca- 

CAR: Local travel. Introduction to new 
business associates. 

CANDLE: Innovation. Sudden new idea. 

CASTLE: Legacy. Unexpected financial 
luck. Good living. 

CAT: Female friend. Domestic problems. 

CHAIR: Entertainment. Relaxation. 

CHURCH: Marriage. Serious illness (not 

CLOVER: Good fortune. Unexpected suc- 

CROSS: Hardship. Discomfort Misfortune. 

CROWN: Honors. Credit. Promotion. 

CUP: Love. Close friendship. Harmony. 

DAGGER: Danger. Tragedy. Business 

DOG: Friendship. Companionship. 

ELEPHANT: Advice needed, preferably 
from an old friend. 

FAN: Indiscretion. Disloyalty. Infidelity. 

FLAG: Defense necessary. Warning. 

FLOWER: Unhappy love affair. 

GATE: Opportunity. Possibility of advance- 

GUN: Trouble. Argument. Adultery. 

HAMMER: Hard work, which will be 

HAND: Friendship. Help when needed. 

HARP: Contentment. Ease. 

HEART: Love or lover. Confidant. 

HORSE: Work. 

HORSESHOES: Good luck. Start of a new, 
successful enterprise. 

HOUSE: Security. Authority. 

KEY: Opportunity. 

KITE: Exercise caution. Think before act- 

KNIFE: Treachery. Duplicity. Misunder- 

LADDER: Advancement. Opportunities 

MAN: Stranger. Visitor. Help from unex- 
pected source. 

MUSHROOM: Disturbance. Com- 
plications in business. 

PALM TREE: A breathing-space. A rest 
period. Temporary relief. 

PIPE (Smoker's): Thought and concentra- 
tion ahead. Investigate all possibilities. 

SCISSORS: Quarrels, usually domestic. 

SNAKE: An enemy. A personal hurt, or 
an affaire de coeur (love affair). 

TREE: Goal achieved. Comfort. Rest. 

UMBRELLA: Temporary shelter. 

WHEEL: Advancement through effort. 

WINDMILL: Big business dealings. 

A form of tasseography, known as Geomancy, can 
be done using dirt or sand. Mark a circle, about three 

feet in diameter, on the ground and have the subject 
throw a handful of dirt into it. You then interpret the 

Lesson Nine: Divination 1 123 

symbols made by the dirt in the same way that you 
would the tea-leaves. Similarly, on a smaller scale, 
draw a circle on a sheet of paper. Blindfold your 
subject and let her fill the circle with random dots, 
with a felt-tip marker or similar. These dots can then 
be interpreted in the same manner. For both of these 
you would need to make a mark where the subject 
stands/sits, to indicate the equivalent of the cup 


You have had a brief introduction to Numerology 
in Lesson Three. Pythagoras said, "The world is 
built upon the power of numbers". He it was who 
reduced the universal numbers to the nine primary 
ones. Any number, no matter how high, can be so re- 
duced. For example, the number 7,548,327 would be 
7+5+4+8+3+2+7 = 36, in turn further reduced to 
3+6 = 9. In this way all numbers can be reduced to a 
single one and (again as you saw in Lesson Three) 
letters/words also can be so reduced. 

The numbers then have certain occult values 
attached to them and are each associated with one of 
the nine planets. For example, 1 — the letters A,J,S — 
(see Lesson Three) is associated with the Sun. It signifies 
leadership, creativity, positiveness. These values 
and associations will be dealt with fully below. 

Through numerology many things can be dis- 
covered. For instance, the type of job for which you are 
best suited; the geographical location likely to be the 
most harmonious for you; the marriage partner most 
suited to you. 

From Lesson Three you know what your BIRTH 
NUMBER is. This number should always be considered 
when deciding upon dates for important events. It 
represents the influences at the time of your birth. It is 
similar to, and in many ways will correspond with, 
your Left Hand (see Cheiromancy above). It will also 
tie-in, in many ways, with your Natal Horoscope. 

Suppose your Birth Number is 1. Then the sign- 
ing of contracts should be done on dates which also 
reduce to 1. Your planetary sign is the Sun, a Fire sign. 
You would therefore be happiest married to someone 
whose sign is compatible, i.e. another Fire sign or an 
Air sign: Sun, Jupiter, Mars, Uranus or Mercury — 
numbers 1, 3, 9, 4, 5. 

The numbers, their planets and signs, are as 

1: Sun-Fire 
2: Moon — Water 
3: Jupiter — Fire 
4: Uranus — Air 
5: Mercury — Air 

6: Venus — Earth 
7: Neptune — Water 
8: Saturn — Earth 
9: Mars— Fire 

124 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


The single primary number obtained from the 
numerical values of the letters of your name gives you 
your Name Number. You can see, then, that it is very 
much hit-and-miss as to whether your given name 
will agree with your Birth Number. This is why we 
take a new name in the Craft; so that we can have a 
Name Number in perfect balance with our Birth 
Number. Let's look now at the value attached to the 
primary numbers. 

1: SUN— Letters A, J, S 

Very much the driving life force. A leader. Ambitious. 
Tends to be impatient. The explorer. The extrovert. 
Automatically assumes command. Frequently a "big 
brother" or "big sister". Very strong feelings either 
for or against. Would not knowingly hurt anyone 
but might not realize her/his own strength. Can 
stand being praised and is entitled to it. Praise can 
spur to greater things. 

2: MOON— Letters B, K, T 

Sensitive, domestic. Tends to be emotional and 
easily influenced to tears. Has a fertile imagination. 
Very fond of the home. Patriotic. Accepts changes 
in surroundings. Prefers to live near the water. 
Often possesses musical talents and would make a 
very good psychic. 

3: JUPITER— Letters C, L, U 

The investigator; the scientist; the seeker. An interest 
in the material rather than the spiritual. Ideas on 
religion frequently change. Has a great sense of 
humor. Not greatly interested in money. Very trust- 
ing, yet likes to know the "why" and the "how". 

4: URANUS— Letters D, M, V 

Inclined to appear strange and eccentric because 
s/he is usually ahead of her/his time. Very interested 
in the occult; in psychic research. Inclined to anything 
out of the ordinary. Strong intuitive tendencies. Can 
be bitingly sarcastic if crossed. Believes in liberty 
and equality. Can usually predict the probable out- 
come of actions and businesses. 

5: MERCURY— Letters E, N, W 

Active, both physically and mentally. Inquiring, 
exploring. Fond of reading and researching. Good at 
languages. Would make a very good teacher, writer, 
secretary. Makes friends easily. Usually methodical 
and orderly; adept at simplifying systems. 

6: VENUS— Letters F, O, X 

Gentle and refined; pleasant and sociable. Usually 
good looking. Natural peacemaker; able to soothe 
ruffled feelings. Often experiences difficulties in 
financial fields. Excellent as a host or hostess. Friendly 
and agreeable. 

7: NEPTUNE— Letters G, P, Y 

Frequently possesses E.S.P. Extremely "psychic". 
Introvert. Although s/he does not say much, s/he 
usually knows a great deal. Mysterious. Often inter- 
ested in psychology, psychiatry, chemistry and 
botany. Knowledgeable in astrology and all fields of 
the occult. Fond of fishing. Inclined to take from the 
"haves" and give to the "have-nots". 

8: SATURN— Letters H, Q, Z 

Inclined to be cold and pessimistic. Not much sense 
of humor. Often slow getting off the mark but usually 
ends up ahead of the game. Successful, especially 
where money is concerned. Frequently connected 
with mining, real estate and the law. Also with 
cemeteries and pawnshops. Believes that hard 
work never killed anyone. Often prepossessed with 
thoughts of the past. 

9: MARS— Letters I, R 

Very emotional. Can be extremely jealous. Active, 
though rules by the emotions. Tied very much to 
family background. Loyal. Apt to be suspicious of 
strangers. Impulsive. Tends to be afraid of the un- 
known. Often associated with surgery, physical and 
mental illnesses. 

You are all set now to study a friend from the 
Numerological point of view. Suppose your friend is 
named Jane Doe (not very original, perhaps, but it 
serves well for an example). She was born on June 23, 
1947.Sheis planning on moving into a new apartment 
in Trenton, New Jersey, sometime in February 1986. 
What can you tell her and advise her? Take it step by 
step: First of all work out her Birth Number: 

June 23, 1947 = 6+2+3+1 + 9+4+7 =32-5 

Then her Name Number: 

JANE DOE = 1 + 1 + 5+5 + 4+6+5 = 27 = 9 

Armed with these two important numbers, what 
can you say? First of all look at the woman herself — 
number 9. She can be very emotional and very jealous. 
She tends to be impulsive; is tied very much to her 
family background; is suspicious of strangers and afraid 
of the unknown. From these last two facts you know 

Lesson Nine: Divination 1 125 

that it has taken her quite a lot of soul-searching to 
reach the decision to move into a new apartment. At 
the same time, being impulsive she feels that having 
made the decision the sooner she makes the move the 
better. Her new apartment will in some way reflect her 
family background. Perhaps in the way it is decorated, 
perhaps in the type of building it is in. Should she 
decide to have a room-mate, you should suggest 
someone whose Name Number is compatible with 
her fire sign, i.e. someone with the Name Number 1, 3, 
4, 5 or 9. 

Now to look at where she is moving and when. 

2955265 555 159157 = 77 = 14 = 5 

The number of the geographical location is the 
same as her Birth Number. This should be an ideal 
place for her. One which will truly give her the feeling 
of "home". 

She plans to move sometime in February 1986. Feb- 
ruary is the second month: 

2+1 + 9+8+6 = 26 = 8 

You need, then, to add a day which will bring the 
total to 5, to agree with her Birth Number. February 6, 
15 or 24 are, then, the most propitious days: 

2. 6.1986 = 32 = 5 
2.15.1986 = 32 = 5 
2.24.1986 = 32 = 5 

You could even go on to suggest how she might 
decorate the apartment so far as colors are concerned, 
for there is an affinity of colors and numbers: 





5— BLUE 


1 — brown, yellow, gold 6 — all shades of blue 
2 — green, cream, white 7 — light shades of green 
3 — mauve, violet, lilac 
4 — blue, gray 
5 — light shades of any 

and yellow 
8 — dark gray, blue, purple, 

9 — red,crimson, pink 

You would like to give her a record album as a 

house-warming gift? Her taste in music can be taken 
from Numerology. According to Cheiro — one of the 
greatest of Numerologists as well as the foremost 
Palmist — number 1 people like inspiring, martial 
music, as do number 3 and number 9 people. Number 
2 and 7 people prefer wind and string instruments: the 
violin, the cello, harp, guitar, clarinet and flute. Number 
4 people, together with number 8, enthuse over choral 
arrangements, organs and religious music generally. 
Number 5 people like something a little different, be it 
"psychedelic", hard rock or Dixieland. Number 6 
people are the romantics, preferring sweet music with 
lilt and rhythm. 

It is possible to go on and on. You can check your 
health by numerology. You can pick out the most 
effective herbal cures, the potential winner of a horse- 
race or baseball game, and so on and so on. Numerol- 
ogy is a fascinating science and one which can give 
you endless entertainment also. 


Astrology is perhaps one of the most popular of 
the occult sciences; the one most used by "the wo/ 
man in the street". Although staunchly denying any 
serious belief in such matters, nine out of ten persons 
are unable to read a daily newspaper or monthly 
magazine without avidly scanning the horoscopes to 
see what the day /week/month holds in store for them. 
It is useless to point out to these people that the 
majority of these horoscopes are, by virture of their 
generality, completely worthless. In what follows will 
be seen the elements that make a true horoscope a 
very personal thing, applicable only to the one for 
whom it is cast. 

The individual horoscope, or natal chart, — the 
one that interprets the motions of the heavenly bodies 
in terms of the person's life — comes under the awe- 
some-sounding heading of genethliacal astrology. The 
chart is actually a map of how the planets, sun and 
moon, appeared at the moment of birth. 

Each planet has a particular influence on the 
person born and also a particular influence on the 
other planets, depending on proximity. To erect, or 
draw up, this chart for the individual, certain things 
must be known. Firstly, the date of birth — day, month, 
year. Secondly, the -place of birth — geographical loca- 
tion. And thirdly, the time of birth — the actual hour, 
preferably to the nearest minute. Why are all these 

126 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

From the Earth,the sun seems to describe a great circle in its travels. 
This path is called the Ecliptic and the angle that it makes at any moment, 
as it rises above the eastern horizon, is called the Ascendant. This name, 
ASCENDANT, is also given to the sign of the zodiac that is rising at a 
given time. Every four minutes the ascending sign is at a different angle 
over the horizon. It can therefore be seen that to obtain the correct sign 
and ecliptic, at the moment of birth, the time and place of birth must be 
accurately recorded. 

As the sun moves throughout the year, it passes through twelve 
different areas of sky and constellations. These are the Houses of the 
zodiac, and like the hand of a watch, sweep round. The dividing lines 
between the Houses are known as Cusps. The sun takes roughly a month 
to pass through each of the Houses, which are as follows: 

ARIES— March 21 through April 19 
TAURUS— April 20 through May 19 
GEMINI— May 20 through June 20 
CANCER— June 21 through July 22 
LEO— July 23 through August 21 
VIRGO— August 22 through September 22 
LIBRA— September 23 through October 22 
SCORPIO— October 23 through November 21 
SAGITTARIUS— November 22 through December 21 
CAPRICORN— December 22 through January 20 
AQUARIUS— January 21 through February 19 
PISCES— February 20 through March 20 

In fact, these dates do vary from year to year, so it is necessary to check 
the year in question when the date is on, or close to, the cusp. 

In planning this map of the heavens, some help is needed in 
establishing the positions held by the planets at the many different hours 
and minutes that have passed with the years. The astrologer's aids for 
this are the Ephemeris and the Table of Houses. The Ephemeris gives the 
positions of the planets at the different times, while the Table of Houses 
gives the corrections with regard to the place of birth; the geographical 
location. Measurement of time is given in what is known as sidereal time, 
measured by the stars rather than the sun. The stars appear to move 
around the sky at a faster rate than the sun, and this must be allowed for 
in the calculation of sidereal time. 

Working, then, from the Ephemeris, you must first calculate the 
sidereal time (shown as "S.T.") at the moment of birth. If born before 
noon, the necessary hours and minutes will be subtracted from the ST. 
given for noon in the Ephemeris. If born after noon, the hours and 
minutes will be added to the S.T. given in the Ephemeris. And just to 
round things off nicely, an extra ten seconds per hour (known as the 
acceleration on interval) must also be subtracted or added. With a person 
born, for example, in New York, further adjustment would be necessary 
since the ephemerides use G.M.T. as standard (e.g. 5:45 pm in New York 
would be 10:45 pm at G.M.T.) 

Example A person born at 11:45 am on August 31, 1934, in New 

The zodiac as we know it is a combined inven- 
tion of the Egyptians and Babylonians. 
Above: An ancient Egyptian map of the sky, 
the 'Zodiac of Denderah'. 

// "^jri'l'%* fori, 

**.* ft- ' jg 

Astrology originally developed in Mesopota- 
mia and was more concerned with kings and 
peoples than with the destinies of individuals; 
Above: a tablet giving astrological forecasts 
in cuneiform writing, derived from obser- 
vations of the moon. 

From "Man, Myth & Magic" 

Lesson Nine: Divination / 127 

York, would have the S.T. 10 hours 35 mins 54 sees 
(4:45 pm at G.M.T.). The acceleration on interval 
would be 1 times 4% (hours after noon) seconds. The 
S.T. for the moment of birth would then be: 

lOh 35m 54s 
+ 4h 45m 0s 
+ 48s 

15h 21m 42s 

The next step would then be to convert this GMT- 
ST to New York-ST by conversion of the degrees and 
minutes of longitude into minutes and seconds of 
time. This can be done by simply multiplying by four 
and adding if the location is east of Greenwich, or sub- 
tracting if west of Greenwich. In the above example, 
New York is 74° west of Greenwich. Multiply by four 
and subtract from the ST: 

15h 21m 42s 
- 4h 56m 0s 

lOh 25m 42s = local ST for New York 

From longitude the move is a natural one to latti- 
tude. From the Table of Houses can be found the 
ascendants for the local ST just calculated. The lat- 
titude for New York is 40 ° 43TST (north of the Equator) . 
Looking at the Table of Houses for New York, you 
would find: 




m s 


TO, ' 


25 42 



22° 35' Scorpio 

Now, at last, you can start to fill in one of those 
fascinating horoscope blanks. A line may be drawn, 
through the center, connecting the degree of the 
Ascendant, on one side of the chart, with a point 
exactly opposite on the other side. This point opposite 
is called the Descendant. Also in the Table of Houses 
will be found the related medium coeli (M.C.) — its 
opposite point is the imum coeli (I.C.) — the mid-point 
at right-angles to the connected Ascendant and 
Descendant. These lines/points are also marked on 
the chart. The chart is now divided into its four 

The next stage in drawing the "map" is the filling- 
in of the house boundaries. The Ascendant is the start 
of the first house, and from there will be found twelve 
houses (see Figure 9.2). 

The positions of the Sun, Moon and the planets 
are found thus: from the Ephemeris find the positions 
for noon, on the birth date, of Saturn, Neptune, Jupiter, 
Uranus and Pluto. These are the slower planets. These 
positions can be put straight onto the chart. They are 
shown, as are all planets, on the chart and in the tables, 

Figure 9.2 

128 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

by their signs. These traditional signs are: 






The Signs of the Zodiac are shown thus: 



For the faster planets — Sun, Moon, Venus and 
Mercury — a little more calculation must be done to 
allow for their movements between noon and the 
actual birth time. For a birth time after noon, look up 
the planet's motion at noon. From the logarithmic 
tables in the Ephemeris, find the log. of the motion and 
to it add the log. of the interval after noon (a birth time 
of 6:30 pm would give an interval of six and a half 
hours). Then convert the total log. back to degrees. 
You now have the difference in position of the planet 
at noon on the birth date and can add this to the noon 
position the Ephemeris shows. Had the actual birth 
time been before noon, then you would have looked up 
the planet's motion at noon on the day before the actual 
birth date and proceeded as above. Should the planet 

in question be marked "R" in the tables — meaning 
that it is retrograde — then you would subtract the 
movement on interval from the noon position. One 
word of warning: do not forget to convert Greenwich 
ST to local ST when filling in the positions of the 
planets. A chart at this stage may look like Figure 

Before you can attempt to interpret a horoscope, 
you must know what the various positions of the 
planets mean in relation to one another: their Aspects. 
Two planets, one rising and the other setting, 180° 
apart, are said to be in Opposition. This is traditionally a 
bad aspect. Two planets within approximately 10° of 
each other are in Conjunction, which can either be good 
or bad depending on which the planets are. Planets 
90° apart are said to be Square, another bad aspect; 
while 60° apart (Sextile) is a good aspect. Finally, of the 
main aspects, 120° apart is extremely good and goes 
by the name Trine. Obviously, in these positions a 
certain amount of leeway is permissible, and this is 
usually in the order of 10° to 12° for Conjunction or 
Opposition, and roughly 7° for Sextile. These allowances 
are the Orbs. 


Interpretation of a horoscope is the hardest part — 
as it is in any form of divination. The interpretation 
begins with listing the various aspects which appear; 
the relationship of the Sun to the Zodiac; the relation- 
ship of the Moon; the Ascendant's position; rising and 

Figure 9.3 

Lesson Nine: Divination / 129 

setting planets; positions above and below the horizon; 
relationships of the planets to the houses and to the 
Zodiac signs; the Decanates. All these aspects must be 
studied and explained. Examples of what might be 
found are: "Mars Square with Saturn; Jupiter and the 
Sun in Opposition, or Jupiter Sextile with Mercury". 
Mars Square with Saturn would indicate a certain 
amount of callousness due to Mars' ruthlessness and 
impulsiveness, together with Saturn's seclusion and 
introversion. Jupiter and the Sun in Opposition could 
mean a somewhat self-centered person given to 
extravagance, due to the forcefulness and determina- 
tion of the Sun with the expansive wealth of Jupiter. 
Jupiter Sextile with Mercury would be good, showing 
determination and knowledge with judgement. 

The planets themselves have certain qualities: 
Air, Water, Fire and Earth. Traditionally, Gemini, 
Aquarius and Libra are the Air signs; Cancer, Scorpio 
and Pisces are the Water signs; Aries, Leo and Sagit- 
tarius the Fire signs and Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn 
the Earth signs. Air signs are supposedly intellectual, 
enlightened and articulate; Water signs emotional; 
Fire signs zealous and fervent; Earth signs cautious, 
basic and practical. In more detail, the signs — again, by 
tradition, as is almost all interpretation of astrology — 
are associated with particular attributes: ARIES is very 
much a leader or pioneer. There is a certain amount of 
impatience in this sign, due to ambition. TAURUS is 
the hard worker — great strength, and proud of it, 
along with perseverance. GEMINI is adaptable; knows a 
little about a lot of subjects, has a gift for languages, 
diplomacy and tact, but is somewhat superficial. 
CANCER is extremely sensitive, a follower of tradi- 
tion, a great home lover. LEO is the extrovert, full of 
self-confidence, with an abundance of personality, a 
great sense of the dramatic, and a great capacity to 

VIRGO is the critic; tidy and conservative, yet 
always charming and popular. Virgo is the best of 
planners and organizers; intellectual and extremely 
analytical. LIBRA has intuition and foresight, is peace- 
loving and has a great sense of justice. SCORPIO has 
tenacity and determination, great self-control, but a 
rather too fine opinion of the self. At times seems a 
contradiction to her/himself — jealous and demanding. 
SAGITTARIUS knows no fear. Kind and can be gentle, is 
also direct and outspoken. CAPRICORN is ambitious 
and very materialistic, has a fear of inadequacy and 
indigence, and is either greatly depressed or incredibly 
happy. AQUARIUS is a planner, always looking ahead. 

Honest, kind, yet difficult to understand. Independent 
in the extreme, s/he has very good judgement. PISCES 
is sensitive, noble, kind and gentle, yet can be vague 
and inclined to be too optimistic. Self-sacrificing and 
sympathetic, Pisces is an excellent diplomat. 

SATURN is inhibited, persevering, cautious; often 
taciturn, reserved. Saturn is associated with the law, 
mining, printing, dentistry, building and real estate, 
second-hand books, agriculture and death. URANUS 
is excitable and erratic, a little too forceful and inclined 
to be sarcastic. It has an affinity with nature, also 
technical objects. To do with electricians, inventors, 
astrologers. Very much of the occult. NEPTUNE is 
inclined to mysticism, also to individuality. Knows but 
does not say. Can be of very doubtful character, 
capable of murder, rape, etc. Sometimes vague; 
sometimes confused. Associated with eating places, 
bars, prostitution, narcotics, navigation, the ocean, 
nursing, advertising. PLUTO is generally associated 
with children; youth. Leaders, wanting things their 
own way, disliking laws. Pluto is associated with hobbies, 
sports, outdoor life, actors and actresses, politicians. 
JUPITER is the planet of harmony, of education, law, 
morals and religion, faith, good humor. Truth comes 
before anything with Jupiter. Knowledge, the ability 
to self-educate, learning through reading, are all of 
Jupiter. Moneyed people count with this planer- 
bankers, judges and ecclesiastics. 

The SUN is first and foremost a masculine planet, 
full of vitality. It has determination yet much kindness, 
a lot of heart, and is capable of great love. It is an 
authority figure, moving ever forward. The MOON, 
conversely, is a feminine figure; very sensitive, emotional, 
domestic. A lover of water, patriotic and interested 
in public welfare. MERCURY is quick-witted; an 
extremely active mind, good for research, exploration, 
analysis, judgement; good for writers, teachers, orators. 
VENUS is again, of course, feminine; very much of 
love. To do with friendship, physical attraction, feeling, 
peace-making, pleasures; associated with musicians, 
jewelers, actors, dress-makers, artists and nurses. MARS 
is for action, with great energy and courage. May be 
brutal and may be j ealous; frequently the cause of sexual 
problems. Impulsive, loyal, fearful of the unknown; 
associated with soldiers, surgeons, sportspeople and 

Each of the twelve Zodiac signs is spoken of as 
being "ruled" by one of the planets. What this means is 
that there is a close affinity between the two. Where a 

130 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

planet is classed as being "watery" or "fiery", so the 
sign or signs that it rules are of that type. The sign 
Aries is ruled by the planet Mars. Taurus is ruled by 
Venus. Gemini by Mercury; Cancer by the Moon; Leo 
by the Sun; Virgo by Mercury; Libra by Venus; Scorpio 
by Mars; Sagittarius by Jupiter; Capricorn by Saturn- 
Aquarius by Saturn (some astrologers prefer Uranus) 
and Pisces by Jupiter (again some say by Neptune). 
Generally it can be said that a fiery sign would not get 
along well with a water sign, nor would a water sign 
get along with an air sign. An air sign, however, would 
do well with a fire sign, and so on. 

Let's now look at the twelve divisions, the Spheres 
of Influence, on the chart and see what each is concerned 
with. They are numbered on the chart. The first one is 
the Sphere influencing the physical appearance; the 
body. The second deals with money; gaining or losing, 
investing etc. The third Sphere is that of communications 
and transportation, letter-writing and transport. Also 
it deals with relatives and close neighbors. The fourth 
sphere is the one of home and property. It deals with 
the birthplace, with real estate, mines and underground 
places. It also deals with a man's mother or a woman's 
father. Pleasure, love, sex, amusement, education, 
appear in the fifth Sphere. Sensual pleasures, especially, 
are here. In the sixth Sphere you will find domestic 
animals, health and conditions affecting the health. 
Clothing servants and physical comfort are also here. 

The seventh Sphere of Influence shows, in a 
woman's chart, the husband; in a man's chart, the wife. 
Partners, generally, are here. In the eighth Sphere are 
losses, including death. Loss of money and possessions 
is here; also details of wills and legacies. The ninth 
Sphere covers religion, spiritual things, journeys to 
other lands and relatives by marriage. The tenth Sphere 
covers your job, your business affairs, honors, earnings. 
The eleventh Sphere covers your friends and acquain- 
tances, hopes and fears, and wishes. The twelfth 
Sphere of Influence shows any confinements you may 
encounter — prison, deportation, exile. It shows enemies 
and also, strangely, large animals. 

From the above, then, you can really start on 
interpretation. For example — Pisces on the Ascendant. 
This first House deals with physical appearance. 
Pisces — sensitive, noble, kind and gentle — indicates 
that the person will be of short to middle stature, of 
pale complexion, with high cheekbones, light hair and 
eyes. In the sixth House you find the Moon. The sixth 

Sphere, you know, is the one of health and physical 
comfort. The Moon is sensitive, emotional. You could 
say, then, that the person might be prone to emotional 
upsets; nervous breakdowns. They might also enjoy 
serving others, since the House also deals with servants. 
In the ninth House is Jupiter, the planet of harmony. 
He deals, as you have seen, with education and religion. 
The ninth House, in which he appears, is the one 
covering religion and spiritual things. This must signify 
great success for the person in religious affairs; also in 
philosophical and legal affairs, since Jupiter also deals 
with these. The interpretation would follow around, 
taking the Houses one after another. Then the Aspects, 
which you listed, would be interpreted according to 
the association for the various planets. 

It may be seen, from the above, that although 
some very general characteristic might be immediately 
given for a person born at a particular time of year, 
certainly no great and accurate details can be given 
without having more information on both the birth 
time and the birth place, and constructing a natal chart — 
the map of the planets at the time and place of birth. 

I have talked of a natal chart, a horoscope of the 
time of birth, showing what the life will hold in general. 
Similar charts can be made for practically any purpose. 
They can be plotted to show what might be the 
influences for a particular year, or other period of 
time. They can be plotted for countries, or towns, 
rather than for individuals. They can be plotted to 
show the most propitious time for laying the corner- 
stone of a new building; for marriage; money; health; 
business — indeed for practically any purpose. There 
are many thousands of business people who have a 
professional astrologer draw up a chart for the coming 
business year and follow its indications scrupulously. 
They return year after year and seem more than 
satisfied. They take their horoscopes seriously, as they 
should be taken if the astrologer knows her/his job. 

When a daily newspaper's horoscope says that 
Monday morning is going to seem long and wearing 
to all persons born between April 20 and May 20, then, 
although it may turn out to be amazingly accurate, you 
may rest assured that no charts were drawn, no tables 
consulted, no planetary positions interpreted. Yet it is 
this drawing calculating and interpreting which makes 
the subject so interesting. 


Another form of divination, sometimes used by 

Lesson Nine: Divination / 131 

Witches, is scrying into a fire. Make a fire of driftwood, 
on the seashore, after sunset (if you are far from the 
seashore then you can use any old, weathered wood, 
such as from an old barn, or the like) . When the wood 
has been well burned and is beginning to die down, 
lay on it a cedar log, a juniper log and three good 
handsful of sandalwood chips. Let these burn well. 
Then, as the fire again begins to die down, gaze deep 
into the dying embers. In these embers you will see 
scenes of the past, present and future. You may see the 
actual scenes, but it is more likely that you will see 

symbolic scenes that need interpreting. This scrying 
fire is sometimes referred to as the "Fire of Azrael", 
and was described by Dion Fortune in her book The 

Sea Priestess. 

There are many, many forms of divination — far 
too many to include here. An upcoming Llewellyn 
Practical Magick Series title, by me, is Practical Divina- 
tion, and will cover a great many of them, known and 
not so well-known. 


1 . After you have made a personal study of the Tarot, decide how you will spread the cards. What method works 
the best for you? 

What Tarot cards were you initially attracted to? List them, and tell what significance each card has for 

3. On separate paper, make a print of each of your palms. Watch how your hands change from year to year. (To 
make a print, press your hand in silkscreen ink, paint, or other colored substance and press as flat as possible 
on the page.) 

Relate some of your experiences with Cheiromancy. What major observations did you make when you first 
began studying hands, and how accurate were your impressions? 
What did you see in your own hands? 

4. Construct your own natal horoscope. List the basic interpretations of each planet as they seem to fit 
your person. 



Traditionally Witches have a great knowledge of herbs and their 
healing properties. With the present movement back to nature, and the 
desire for survival in this modern age, that knowledge could today stand 
us in very good stead. It could be important that Witches once again be 
the Wise Ones of Herbal Medicine. Although I do not suggest that you 
throw away your Blue Cross/Blue Shield/Medicare, or whatever, I do 
believe that there are many ways in which you can make use of the old 
cures, both for yourself and for others. It is, however, legally necessary 
for me to point out that the information in this lesson is simply my 
opnion, in regard to herbs for health, together with the results of my 
research into the history of their use. I am not engaged in rendering 
professional medical advice. Such advice should be sought from a 
competent professional person. 

Herbal medicine goes back thousands of years. It derives from 
Wo/Man's needs for health and strength; cures for ills and the mending 
of wounds. Many of today's medicines have come from this primitive 
botanical compilation. Some have been discarded for stronger, supposedly 
more certain, synthetic drugs while others are still used, in many parts of 
the world, in their natural form. 

Throughout the ages mysterious healing powers have been attributed 
to certain wild plants, flowers and herbs. So-called "Nature Doctors" 
(Witches) of the past were familiar with these natural remedies. Un- 
fortunately until "science" puts its stamp of approval on such ancient 
herbal remedies, most modern day doctors scoff at the folklore cures 
reported through the centuries. Sometimes, however, doctors rediscover 
these ancient remedies and hail them as the outcome of modern research 
and science! For example, William Withering, an English doctor, isolated 
an ingredient found in the leaves of the foxglove — digitalis; one of the 
most important of heart remedies. Yet for centuries Witches had pre- 
scribed a tea brewed from the foxglove leaves for weak hearts. Dr. 
Cheney, of Stanford University, "discovered", and proved, that raw 
cabbage juice helped heal stomach ulcers — knowledge again carried for 
hundreds of years by the Witches. 

The gathering and preparing of herbs is a specialized work, but one 


Witches bringing a 
Shower of Rain. 

236 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

which anyone of average intelligence may safely under- 
take with proper training. (There are also special 
storehouses and laboratories that cater to the Herbalist 
by supplying crude herbs, tinctures and all kinds of 
preparations. These will be listed later). 

It has been said that the Witch, as a natural healer, 
should be a psychologist, to study the character and 
symptology of the patient. She should also be a student 
of anatomy and physiology, in order that the workings 
of the body be known. In addition, she should be a 
dietician, to study the most suitable diets for the patient; 
and a person of general knowledge about her subject 
and people in general. I would certainly recommend 
that the student study anatomy and physiology to gain 
a working knowledge of what is involved in a cure. 

Before you go collecting herbs, decide on just one 
or two species for each trip out. Most important, find 
the best time of day to collect them. For this refer to 
one of the better herbals, such as Culpeper's (see 
Suggested Reading at the end of this lesson). Having 
selected what plants you require, pick only those parts 
which you will be needing for drying and processing, 

otherwise you will not only be taking home waste mat- 
ter, but you will also be stunting the growth of next 
year's crop. 

Before picking plants, check very carefully for 
their various attributes to make sure you have the 
right one. Many different plants have similarities, 
enough to cause confusion. You cannot spend too 
much time studying illustrations, photographs, etc., to 
learn to recognize the many different species. When 
collecting herbs, make sure you do not damage the 
plants as you pick them. Make them up into small 
bundles. Do not crush the plants, as this will limit the 
amount of goodness you will get from them. 

When selecting plants, always try to refer to them 
by their Latin names, for these never change. If you 
use the common names, you can become greatly 
confused, since most herbs have many different common 
names. Depending on where the herb is found, it 
could have as many as twenty different names by 
which it is known locally. But each plant has only ONE 
Latin name. In the various herbals this is usually printed 
in italics, and may be pronounced as it is read. To "ease 
you in gradually", as it were, throughout this lesson I 

_. : i 

Traditionally Witches always cut their herbs with a small, sickle-shaped knife known as a Boleen. It is possible to make one for yourself. Just follow the same 
general principles given for the athame, in Lesson Three. Don't forget to consecrate it and use it only for cutting herbs. 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism 1 137 

will actually use the most common name followed by 
the Latin. However, remember that PLANTS SHOULD 


Many medicinal preparations have been wasted 
or spoiled simply because the user did not prepare 
them or use them to best advantage. This naturally 
discourages many people from trying herbs again. 
Since most herbs are mild in action, it is important that 
Certain herbs must be prepared right and administered 
correctly in order to derive benefits. For instance, 
Boneset herb (Eupatorium perfoliatum) : a HOT infusion 
should be taken on retiring, to induce perspiration. In 
the morning, the COLD infusion should be taken as a 
mild laxative. Powdered Slippery Elm Bark (Ulmus 
fulva) is soothing to the bowels when taken as an 
enema. It is useless, however, if the bowels are not 
flushed clean before injection of the botanical solution. 
A weak infusion of Hops (Humulus lupulus) removes 
the aromatic properties. A stronger infusion of Hops 
removes the bitter tonic properties. A decoction removes 
the astringent properties. Each operation gives a 
different result. A plant does not yield the same prin- 
ciples by, for example, decoction as by infusion. By 
decoction, the extractive resinous and bitter principles 
are obtained; while by infusion a large quantity of 
aromatic and volatile principles, essences, etc., are 

What are these terms: "decoction", "infusion", 
etc.? They are the ways that herbs are treated after 
collecting them. Comminution; Extraction; Perculation; 
Filtration; Clarification; Digestion; Expression. I will 
take each of these in turn and examine it. 

Comminution is the reduction of herbs to small particles. 
All substances to be used this way must be free from 
all moisture. Herbs containing volatile oils should not 
be subjected to high temperature during the drying 
process. There are machines available for the cutting 
and milling of herbs but the old PESTLE and MORTAR 
are still favorites in the Craft. 

The first operation in the drying of herbs is to cut 
them up into small parts when fresh. Some herbs (e.g. 
Rue/Ruta graveolens, Peppermint/ Mentha piperita, Tansy/ 
Tanacetum vulgare) need to be dried at the lowest temper- 
ature possible. Others (e.g. Yanow/Achillea millefolium, 

Ground Ivy/Nepeta hederacea) should be dried quickly. 

No special drying equipment is needed. Just follow 

the method I give below. 

1 : Select and collect the herb (s) you desire. Collect on 

a dry day. 

2: Tie the herbs in small bundles, in twos, so that the 

piece of string joins the bundles. Hang the bundles 

over a clothes line, by this string. Note: it is important 

that at night and/or whenever the weather gets damp, 

you hang the bundles indoors. If the herbs get damp 

during the drying process they will mildew. 

If you are collecting only leaves or flowers from a 
plant, then put them in a muslin bag to dry. Not too 
many in each bag, otherwise the air will not get through 
them. Generally herbs will take from three days to a 
week to dry. It is important that they are dry. Move the 
bundles around each day so that they get a lot of sun. If 
there is no sun and you have to dry them indoors, 
keep them at a uniform temperature of about 65° to 

3: When the bundles are dry, pass the herbs through 
a meat mincer/grinder. Use coarse cutters first, followed 
by fine ones. If properly dried, the herbs should come 
out in more or less powder form. Put them in cans or 
bottles with screw tops and keep in the dark. They 
may be kept this way for several years without losing 
their natural color or medicinal properties. 

Extraction. The chief methods used in the extraction 
of the active principles of herbs are: 

(a) DECOCTION — applied when the active principles 
consist of extractive matter readily taken from the 
plant but not damaged by boiling water (e.g. Chamomile/ 
Anthemis nobilis, Gentian/ Gentiana lutea, Broom/Spartium 
scoparius) . 

(b) INFUSION— applied to obtain the extracts by 
means of hot water, only in this case boiling water is not 
used. In fact, in some cases even cold water is utilized. 

(c) MACERATION — this is a prolonged infusion 
using alcohol, or dilute alcohol. It consists of steeping 
the material in a closed vessel for a definite period, 
shaking it at intervals. This method is used for the 
extraction of fluid extracts or tinctures. 

Percolation is the most perfect method of obtaining 
the soluble parts of remedies. It consists of allowing 

138 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

menstruum to slowly trickle through a column of 
material in a similar way to the process of coffee 

Filtration is the process by which liquids are separated 
from substances mechanically suspended in them. 
The easiest method is by using filter paper. 

Clarification is the process of clarifying a substance 
after processing, as in the case of honey, syrup, lards, 
etc., and is done by melting and skimming or filtering 
through a suitable material. 

Digestion is a simple process of prolonged macera- 
tion, at a constant temperature of about 100 °F. 

Expression is the method whereby the juices of herbs 
are extracted by pressing them; actually squeezing the 
remedy out of the herb. Two pressures are normally 
used: a simple screw press, similar to a printer's press, 
or a hydraulic press as used in large laboratories. 


To use Herb Simples that have been finely ground 
or chopped, steep a heaped teaspoonful of the herb to 
each cup of hot (notboiling) water for twenty minutes. 
Take one cup before each meal and one on going to 

Roots and Barks. Roots should be simmered for over 
half an hour, to extract their goodness. Do not boil 

Flowers and Leaves should never be boiled. Steep 
them in hot (not boiling) water for twenty minutes, 

keeping them covered so as to keep in the oil which 
might evaporate. 

Powdered Herbs may be mixed with either hot or cold 
water. Use half a teaspoonful of powdered herb to a 
cupful of water, followed by drinking a plain glass of 
water. Herbs take effect quicker if taken in hot water. 

damages the fine oils, etc., contained in the herbs. 

TO MAKE SYRUPS: A simple syrup can be made by 
dissolving three pounds of brown sugar in a pint of 
boiling water. Boil until thick. You may then add this to 
any substance. Malt honey and bees' honey can also 
be used as a syrup if desired. To make a herb syrup, 
simply add the cut herbs, boil to a syrupy consistency, 
strain through a double cheesecloth and bottle. If 
corked, this will keep indefinitely. 

TO MAKE HERB SALVES (ointments) : Use fresh herbs 
whenever possible. However, dried herbs can be used 
if fresh are not available. Be sure the herb is cut up very 
finely and use one to one-and-a-half pounds of cocoa 
fat, lard, or any pure vegetable fat, and four ounces of 
beeswax. Mix together, cover, and place in the hot sun 
(or the oven with a very low heat) for about four 
hours. Strain with a fine sieve or cloth. When set it will 
be firm and ready for use. If you want to put it into 
containers, do so while it is still hot and let it set in the 
containers. Do not re-melt. 

TO MAKE POULTICES : It is best to have the herbs in a 
crushed form. Mix with water and cornmeal to make a 
thick paste. If fresh leaves are used, place them directly 
on the affected part(s). Poultices are very good for 
swellings, enlarged glands, etc. Never re-use a poultice 



One minim (min) 

One ounce (oz) = 437.5 grains 

One fluid drachm (fl. drm) = 60 minims 


One fluid ounce (fl. oz) = 8 fl dm 

One pound (lb) = 16 oz (7,000 grains) 

One pint (O) = 20 fl oz 

One gallon (C) = 8 pints 



One grain (gr) 

One ounce (oz) = 8 dr (480 gr) 

One scruple (ei) = 20 gr 

One pound (lb) = 12 oz (5,760 gr) 

One drachm (dr) = 3 ei (60 gr) 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism / 139 

once used. Always replace with a fresh one. 
The following poultices can be used safely: 

Slippery Elm — Useful to combine with other herbs to 
make a good poultice. 

Lobelia and Slippery Elm — One third part Lobelia and 
two thirds Slippery Elm. Excellent for blood poison- 
ing, boils, etc., also very good for rheumatism. 
Charcoal and Hops — Will quickly remove gallstone 

Charcoal and Smartweed — Good for inflammation of the 
bowels. When using for healing old sores and ulcers, 
add powdered Echinacea, Golden Seal or Myrrh, or a 
small amount of all three. 

Poke Root and Commeal- — Excellent for inflamed breast. 
Burdock Leaf — This poultice is cooling and drying. A 
poultice of the powdered root with salt eases the pain 
of a wound from an animal, such as a dog bite. 
Plantain — Excellent poultice to prevent blood poison- 

Nettle and Wintergreen — For dissolving tumors. 
Carrots and Golden Seal — Applied to old sores, will 
heal rapidly. 

Sage — For inflammation of any type. 
Hyssop — Will remove discoloration from bruises. 

Poultices should be applied as hot as possible and 
be changed as soon as the heat has dissipated. It is use- 
less to re-use the same poultice. 

COMPOSITION POWDER: A composition powder 
is a good medicine for colds, flu, cramps, rheumatism, 
beginning of fevers, etc. Every home should have 
these on hand; they are safe and effective for every- 

one. In fevers and colds, give a cup of tea made from 
the powder every hour until perspiration takes place. 
This will clear the body of toxins and bring the fever 
down. Here are a few selected formulae which are 
very effective: 

4 oz Bayberry 
2 oz Ginger 
1 oz White Pine 
1 dr Cloves 

1 dr Cayenne 

Use all powdered herbs. Steep 1 teaspoonful in water for 15 
minutes, keeping covered. Drink the clear liquid after the 
sediment has been strained. 

2 oz Pulverized Bayberry Bark 
1 oz Pulverized Ginger 

Vz oz Pulverized Pinus Canadensis 
1 dr Cloves 
1 dr Cayenne 

Dose (adult) : one teaspoonful in hot or cold water, sweetened 
if required. 

Less pungent Composition Powder (!): 
1 oz finely powdered Wild Thyme 
1 oz powdered Marjoram 
1 oz finely powdered Pimpernella Saxifrage 
1 oz finely powdered Pleurisy Root 
1 oz powdered Cinnamon. 

Dose: one teaspoonful in the early stages of colds, disordered 
stomach, scarlet fever or similar troubles. 


The following list of Herb Simples is for general 
guidance. Herb Simples include flowers, barks and 
the whole plant, depending on the part(s) generally 
used as a medicine. There are about five hundred 
Herb Simples available and these are generally supplied 
in weight (per ounce or pound) . For list of terms such 
as "Pectoral", "Astringent", see later in this lesson. 

AGRIMONY — A tonic, mildly astringent. Used for coughs, 
relaxed bowels and looseness of the bowels. 

ANGELICA— A stimulant and aromatic. Used for kidneys 
and to induce perspiration. 

ASH LEAVES — Used in gouty conditions, arthritis, etc. 

AVENS HERB— Tonic and styptic. Used in looseness of 
bowels, etc. 

BALM — Cooling in fevers and inducing mild perspiration. 

BALMONY — Anti-bilious, tonic and detergent. Used in 
cases of chronic constipation, indigestion, jaundice and 
worms in children. 

BLACKBERRY LEAVES— A tonic, useful in cases of bowel 

BLACKCURRANT LEAVES— A refrigerant, used in cases 
of sore throat, coughs, catarrh. 

BLADDERWRACK— used in a bath for arthritis and rheu- 
matic conditions. 

BLUE MALLOW — Pectoral. For coughs and colds generally. 

BONESET — Mild laxative, tonic; relieves fever and 

140 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

pains in the bones. 

BORAGE — Useful in chest complaints. 

BROOM — Used in some bladder complaints, especially in 
gall stones. 

BUCHU — A stimulant used in urinary affections and in- 
flammation of the bladder. 

BUCKBEAN — A good tonic, used for liver troubles and 
skin diseases. Also for arthritis, etc. 

BUGLOSS — Expectorant and tonic, used in cases of inflam- 

BURDOCK— Used for purifying the blood. 

BURR MARIGOLD— For gouty conditions. 

GREATER CELANDINE — For eye infections, also cases 
of jaundice. 

CHAMOMILE — Used in cases of nervous hysteria and all 
nervous complaints in women. 

CLEAVERS (sometimes called "Clivers") — A tonic and 
refrigerant. Is cooling in fevers. Used in gravel and 

CLOVES— The oil of cloves is a remedy for sluggish diges- 
tion. Two drops on a teaspoonful of sugar is the best dose. 
As a cure for toothache it is a specific remedy. The area 
should be painted with the oil. 

COLTSFOOT — For all asthmatic complaints. A smoking 
mixture made with it, mixed with other herbs, is useful 
for asthma. 

DAMIANA — A tonic for nervous and debilitated persons; 
also used as a sexual stimulant. 

DANDELION ROOT— Generally dried. The leaves can be 
eaten in salads. The white juice from the stem cures warts 
and warty growths in a short time. The root, baked and 
ground, makes good coffee. 

ELDER LEAVES — Used in urinary troubles and as treat- 
ment for colds. The berries are used with other herbs for 
colds and coughs (dried berries are often used instead 
of currants). 

EYEBRIGHT — Used for weak eyes and as a general tonic 
for the eyes. Frequently used in a compound. 

GOLDEN SEAL — A wonderful catarrh remedy and tonic. 
The tincture should be used with care and should be 
taken in one-drop doses, with water only. 

GROUND IVY— Whilst not really an ivy (the common 
name of which is Alehoof), this is a good remedy for 
rheumatism, indigestion and kidney complaints. 

LUNGWORT — For coughs and all chest affections. 

MARIGOLD — This is another remedy that should be in 

every home. As an ointment it will cure many skin troubles; 

as a tincture it is far better than iodine to hasten the healing 

process. The flowers and leaves can be used in salads. 
MOUSE EAR — A good remedy for whooping cough. 
NETTLES (the well-known stinging nettles) — used for 

purifying the blood. 
PILEWORT — As its name suggests, for the treatment of 

piles. Often used with Witch Hazel. Its common name is 

Lesser Celandine, though it has no relation to the Greater 

PLANTAIN — A cooling herb. Fresh leaves can be used as a 

relief from insect bites, if applied at once. Used a lot with 

other herbs for blood medicines. 
RASPBERRY LEAVES— A very well known-method of 

bringing about easy childbirth. Blackberry and Straw- 
berry leaves have similar properties but Raspberry leaves 

are considered the best. 
SENNA LEAVES — These act in a similar fashion to Senna 

Pods. The leaves are usually taken with ginger to cure 

SLIPPERY ELM — Used as a skin cleanser and tonic. A special 

invalid food is made from the bark, which can be digested 

by the weakest digestive organs and cannot be vomited. 

In soap, it is an excellent skin soother. 
TANSY — The fresh leaves can be used in a salad. The dried 

herb is used for hysteria, morning sickness and for the 

expulsion of worms in children. 
VALERIAN — The root is used to cure insomnia without a 

drugging effect. Also used for curing pains in many parts 

of the body. 
VIOLET — Can also be used in salads. Thought to be a cure 

for cancerous growths of tumors when used with red 

clover heads. 
WITCH HAZEL — Used for checking bleeding piles and 

bleeding from wounds. The prepared liquid is used for 

most things and can certainly be used on all cuts, sprains, 

bruises, etc. 

The above list is a short one but should be of use. 
Again, I strongly recommend that the student study 
one of the better herbals for greater understanding. It 
is obviously impossible to give an all-encompassing 
coverage here to the thousands of herbs that exist. 


You will find the following most useful when 
referring to text books on the subject: 

ALTERATIVE — Producing a healthful change without 

ANODYNE— Relieves pain. 

ANTHELMINTIC — A medicine that expels worms. 
APERIENT — Gently laxative without purging. 
AROMATIC — A stimulant; spicy. 

ASTRINGENT — Causes contraction and arrests discharges. 

ANTIBILIOUS — Acts on the bile, relieving biliousness. 

ANTIMETIC— Stops vomiting. 

ANTILEPTIC— Relieves fits. 

ANTIPERIODIC — Arrests morbid periodic movements. 

ANTHIIIC — Prevents the formation of stones in the urinary 

ANTIRHEUMATIC — Relieves and cures rheumatism. 
ANTISCORBUTIC— Cures and prevents scurvy. 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism 1 141 


ANTISEPTIC — A medicine that aims at stopping purifi- 

ANTISPASMODIC — Relieves and prevents spasms. 

ANTISYPHILITIC — Having effect or curing venereal 

CARMINATIVE— Expels wind from the bowels. 

CATHARTIC — Evacuating from the bowels. 

CEPHALIC — Remedies used in diseases of the head. 

CHOLAGOGUE— Increases the flow of bile. 

CONDIMENT— Improves the flavor of food. 

DEMULCENT — Soothing; relieves inflammation. 

DEOBSTRUENT— Removes obstruction. 

DEPURATIVE— Purifies the blood. 

DETERGENT — Cleansing to boils, ulcers, wounds, etc. 

DIAPHORETIC — Produces perspiration. 

DISCUTIENT— Dissolves and heals tumors. 

DIURETIC — Increases the secretion and flow of urine. 

EMETIC — Produces vomiting. 

EMMENAGOGUE — Promotes menstruation. 

EMOLLIENT — Softens and soothes inflamed parts. 

ESCULENT— Eatable as a food. 

EXANTHEMATOUS— Remedy for skin eruptions and 

EXPECTORANT— Facilitates expectoration (coughing). 

FEBRIFUGE— Abates and reduces fevers. 

HEPATIC — A remedy for diseases of the liver. 

HERPATIC — A remedy for skin diseases of all types. 

LAXATIVE — Promotes bowel action. 

LITHONTRYPTIC— Dissolves calculi in the urinary 

NATURATING — Ripens and brings boils to a head. 

MUCILAGINOUS— Soothing to all inflammation. 

NAUSEANT— Produces vomiting. 

NERVINE — Acts specifically on the nervous system; stops 
nervous excitement. 

OPTHALMICUM— A remedy for eye diseases. 

PARTURIENT— Induces and promotes labor at childbirth. 

PECTORAL — A remedy for chest affections. 


RESOLVENT — Dissolves boils and tumors. 

RUBIFACIENT — Increases circulation and produces red 

SEDATIVE — A nerve tonic; promotes sleep. 

SIALOGOGUE — Increases the secretion of saliva. 

STOMATIC — Strengthens the stomach. Relieves indiges- 

STYPTIC— Arrests bleeding. 

SUDORIFIC — Produces profuse perspiration. 

TONIC — A remedy which is invigorating and strengthening. 

VERMIFUGE — Expels worms from the system. 


Here is a short list of herbs in Materia Medica so 
that you can have at least a few for easy reference until 
obtaining a full herbal. The list, obviously, is far from 
complete and the full medical properties of each herb 
are not given. For a complete picture use one of the 
herbals listed at the end of this lesson. In most cases 

the herbs given can be taken as a tea, or can be 
obtained in pill or tablet form. These are the most com- 
mon herbs, which will prove of value to the beginner. 
All herbs mentioned here are perfectly safe at all 
times, and are NOT poisonous. 


AGRIMONY (agrimonia eupatoria) 
ALL HEAL (stachys sylvatica) 
ANGELICA (angelica atropurpurea) 
DEAD NETTLE (lamium album) 
ASH TREE LEAVES (fraxinus excelsior) 
AVENS (geum urbanum) 
BALM (melissa officinalis) 

BALMONY (chelone glabra) 
BARBERRY (berberis vulgaris) 
BAYBERRY BARK (myrica cerifera) 
BLESSED THISTLE (carduus benedictus) 
BOGBEAN (menyanthes trifoliata) 

BONESET (eupatorium perfoliatum) 
BROOM (spartium scoparius) 

BURDOCK (arctium lappa) 


Alterative, tonic, diuretic 
Antispasmodic, hepatic, nervine 
Aromatic, tonic, stimulant 
Antiseptic, astringent, tonic 
Antifat, diuretic, stringent 
Astringent, tonic, stomachic 
Antispasmodic, nervine, diuretic 

Laxative, tonic, vermifuge 
Removes jaundice 
Astringent, stimulant, vulinary 
Antiscorbutic, hepatic, stomatic 
Antiscorbutic, stomatic 

Cathartic, emetic, vermifuge, laxative 
Diuretic, tonic, diaphoretic 

Antiscorbutic, aromatic, antispas- 
modic, tonic 


Chest diseases, coughs. 

Colic, gout, liver. 

Heart, spleen, kidneys. 

Bruises, sciatica, gout. 

Dissolves fatty tumors, ringworm. 

Heart tonic, promotes healing. 

Acts on liver, restores the skin, 
general healer. 

Constipation, jaundice, indigestion. 

Stops canker; general tonic. 

Gout, arthritis, rheumatism. 

Purifier of blood, skin diseases, giddiness. 

Creates appetite, excites the bile, good 
for gout. 

For asthma, colds, dyspepsia, debility. 

As a poultice for broken bones. Purifies 
the whole system, cures tumors if 
persevered with over a period. 

All kidney troubles, antidote to mercury 
poisoning, useful in all skin com- 

142 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 




CATMINT (nepeta cataria) 


CLEAVERS (galium aparine) 

RED CLOVER (trifolium pratense) 


Aperient, tonic 

Antispasmodic, nervine, sudorific, 

Acrid, alterative, cathartic 

Antiscorbutic, diuretic, refrigerant 

Antiscorbutic, nervine, tonic 

DANDELION (taraxacum leontodon) Antispamodic, nervine, pectoral, 


GARLIC (allium sativum) 

Antispasmodic, nervine, vermifuge 

HEARTSEASE (polygonum perscaria) Balsamic, pectoral, vulnerary 

HOPS (humulus lupulus) Diuretic, pectoral, laxative, tonic 

PENNYROYALfmentfza pulegium) 

RUE (ruta graveolens) 

SCULLCAP (Scutellaria lateriflora) 

SOLOMON'S SEAL (convollaria multi- 
TANSY (tanacetum vulgare) 

VERVAIN (verbena officinalis) 

WOOD SAGE (teucrium canadensis) 

YARROW (achillea millefolium) 

Aromatic, carminative, stimulant 
Diuretic, vermifuge, tonic 
Diuretic, nervine, tonic 
Balsamic, demulcent 
Emmenagogue, vermifuge 
Diuretic, tonic 
Diuretic, tonic 
Astringent, sudorific, tonic 


Constipation, but should not be used all 
the time. Safe for young or old. 

For removing female obstructions, for 
hysteria, giddiness. 

Externally it is good for sluggish tumors. 
As an ointment, good for piles. 

One of the best herbs for skin diseases. 
Improves the complexion, opens the 
pores to remove toxins. 

Best blood cleanser. A tea made from 
the flowers is an excellent tonic for 
children and weak persons. 

Safe remedy for all internal disorders. 
The root, when baked and ground, is 
made into a drink. 

Many virtues. To clear the blood, for 
whooping cough. Will clear consti- 
pation and cleanse the bowels. 

Tasteless, but a powerful blood cleanser. 
Useful for fits, pleurisy, itching. 

Blood cleanser, strengthens the bile. 
A pillow stuffed with hops will cure 

Useful for female complaints. For cool- 
ing the blood of the stomach. 

Very good for female disorders. Best 
when mixed with other herbs. 

Nervous complaints, excitability. Will 
quiet hysterical persons. 

Bruises. Helps circulation. 

Disagreeable to the taste but very use- 
ful in female complaints; kidneys, etc. 

General tonic. For upset stomachs, 
given in large doses. 

Removal of obstructions in liver and 
bladder areas. 

Cleansing of the skin, opening of the 
pores and removing obstructions. 

Herbalism is a long study and it will pay the 
serious student to study all the books listed at the end 
of this lesson, so as to find the physiological actions of 
the various herbs. In true herbalism we do not use 
herbs of a poisonous nature if at all possible. However, 
one herb which can be used to good effect is Rhus 
Toxicodendron (Poison Oak; Poison Ivy). This herb 
tincture should NOT be used internally, but in external 
applications it is excellent for all fibrositis, rheumatism 
and allied pains. A footbath with a few drops of the 

tincture in it will relieve tired feet at once. 

It should be remembered at all times that although 
the previous symptoms of a disease may disappear, 
you must take steps to prevent a recurrence of it. Most 
diseases come on from a long-standing trouble in the 
system and the symptoms of the disease are the body's 
way of expelling waste matter in some form or another. 
Remember that diseases will not grow in healthy tissues, 
therefore take steps to see that correct feeding is under- 
taken in order that the body remains cleansed. 


Lesson Ten: Herbalism / 143 

ALTERATIVES— Agents which tend 
gradually to alter a condition. Altera- 
tives are often combined with botanicals 
listed under "Aromatics", "Bitter 
Tonics" and "Demulcents". Among 
botanicals that may be classed as 
Alteratives are: 

American Spikenard rt. or berries 

Bittersweet twigs 

Black Cohosh rt. 

Blue Flag rt. 

Blue Nettle rt. 

Burdock rt. 

Condurango rt. 

Echinacea rt. 

Guaiac raspings 

Oregon Grape rt. 

Pipsissewa Ivs. 

Poke rt. 

Prickly Ash bk. 

Red Clover fls. 

Sarsaparilla rt 

Sassafras rt. 

Stillingia rt. 

Wild Sarsaparilla rt. 

Yellow Dock rt. 

Yellow Parilla rt. 

ANTHELMINTICS or Vermifuges- 
Medicines capable of destroying or 
expelling worms which inhabit the 
intestinal canal. Anthelmintics should 
only be administered by a physician. 

Areca Nuts 

Balmony hb. 

Kousso fls. 

Male Fern 

Melia Azedarach bk. 

Pomegranate rind, bk. or rt. 

Pumpkin Seed 

Spigelia rt. 

Wormseed hb. 

Wormwood hb. 

ASTRINGENTS— Temporarily tighten, 
contract or increase the firmness of 
the skin or mucous membrane. They 
are often of value to check excessive 
secretions. They are used as external 
washes, gargles, lotions, mouthwashes, 
etc. Astringents may be made very 
strong, using more of the herb and 
boiling longer. They may be "watered 
down" to the strength desired. 


Agrimony hb. 

Alum rt. 

Barberry bk. 

Bayberry bk. 

Beech Drops hb. 

Bearberry lvs. 

Beth rt. 

Black Alder bk. 

Black Cherries 

Black Oak bk. 

Black Willow bk. 

Butternut bk. 

Buttonsnake rt. 

Catechu Gum 

Chocolate rt. 


Congo rt. 

Cranesbill rt. 

Fleabane hb. 

Goldenrod hb. 

Hardhack hb. 

Hawthorne berries 

Heal-all hb. 

Hemlock bk. 

Hickory bk. 

Jambul Seed 

Kola nuts 


Lycopus virginicus 

Maiden Hair Fern 

Mountain Ash bk. 

Pilewort hb. 

Potentilla hb. 

Purple Loosestrife hb. 

Queen of the Meadow hb. 

Rattlesnake rt. 

Red rt. 

Rhatany rt. 

Sage hb. 

Sanicle rt. 

Sampson Snake rt. 

Shepherd's Purse hb. 

Sumbul rt. 

Sumach bk. or rt. 

Tormentil rt. 

Wafer Ash bk. 

Water Avens rt. 

Water Lilly rt. 

White Ash bk. 

White Oak bk. 

Wild Indigo bk. 

Witch Hazel twigs 


Blackberry rt. 
Black Birch lvs. 
German Rue 
Rosa Gallica Petals 
St. John's Wort 
Sweet Fern hb. 

BITTER TONICS— Used for tem- 
porary loss of appetite. They stimulate 

the flow of saliva and gastric juices, 
assisting in the process of digestion. 

Augosura bk. 

Balmony hb. 

Barberry rt. and bk. 

Bayberry lvs. 

Blackberry lvs. 

Black Haw bk. 

Blessed Thistle 

Bogbeab hb. 

Boldo lvs. 

Cascarilla bk. 

Chamomile fls. 

Chiretta hb. 

Columbo rt. 

Condurango rt. 

Dandelion rt. 

Fringe tree bk. 

Gentian rt. 

Goldenseal rt. 

Goldthread rt. 

Hop fls. 

Mugwort hb. 

Quassis chips 

Sabattia-Amer. Century rt. 

Serpentaria rt. 

Turkey Corn rt. 

Wild Cherry bk. 

Wormwood hb. 

Yellow Root rt. (Xanthorrhiza) 

CALMATIVES— Agents used for their 
mild calming effect. Generally taken 
as a warm tea, upon retiring. 

Catnip hb. 
Chamomile fls. 
Fennel seed 
Lindin fls. 

Substances of a fragrant smell that 
produce a peculiar sensation of warmth 
and pungency on the taste buds. 
When swallowed, there is a corres- 
ponding impulse in the stomach which 
is communicated to other parts of 
the body. Aromatics are useful to 
expel gas from the stomach and in- 
testines. They are chiefly used to 
make other medicinal formulae more 

Allspice— unripe fruit 
Anise seed 
Angelica seed 
Capsicum Fruit 
Caraway seed 
Cardamon seed 

144 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Catnip hb. 
Celery seed 
Cinnamon bk. 
Cloves buds 
Coriander seed 
Cumin seed 
Eucalyptus lvs. 
Fennel seed 
Ginger rt. 
Lovage rt. 
Melilot fls. 
Mustard seed 
Peppermint hb. 
Spearmint hb. 
Valerian rt. 
Wild Ginger rt. 

CATHARTICS— Agents which pro- 
mote evacuation from the bowels by 
their action on the alimentary canal. 
Cathartics can be divided into two 
groups: (1) LAXATIVES, or APER- 
IENTS, are agents which are mild or 
feeble in their action. (2) PURGATIVES 
are agents which induce copious evac- 
uation. They are generally used for 
more stubborn conditions in adults, 
or used with other ingredients to mod- 
ify or increase their action. Neither 
laxatives nor purgatives should be used 
when appendicitis is suspected or 
during pregnancy. Cathartics should 
only be used for occasional constipa- 



Barberry bk. 

Blue Flag rt. 

Buckthorn bk. 

Butternut inner bk. 

Cascara bk. 

Cassia fistula 

Castor oil 

Culver's rt. 

Jalap rt. 

Karaya gum 


May apple or Mandrake rt. 

Pysllium seed 

Rhubarb rt. 

Senna (Egyptian) lvs. 

Senna (American) 

Senna pods 

Tamarind pulp 

DEMULCENTS — Substances usually 
of a mucilaginous and bland nature, 

taken internally for their soothing 
and protective-coating properties 
(for external use, see EMOLLIENTS). 
May be used to allay irritation of 
membranes. They have been used 
for coughs due to common colds and 
to relieve minor irritation of the 
throat. The mildest and most sooth- 
ing demulcents are marked with **. 


Arrow rt. 

Cheese Plant hb. 

Coltsfoot hb. 

Comfrey rt.** 

Couch Grass rt. 


Gum Arabic** 

Iceland Moss 

Irish Moss 

Karaya gum 

Licorice rt. 

Marsh mallow rt. and lvs.** 

Okra pods** 


Psyllium seed 

Quince seed 

Sago rt. 

Salep rt. 

Sassafras pith 

Sesame lvs. 

Slippery Elm bk.** 

Solomon's Seal rt. 

Tragacanth gum 

DIAPHORETICS— Agents which tend 
to increase perspiration. They are 
commonly used as an aid in the relief of 
common colds. Diaphoretics act most 
favorably when administered hot, 
before bed. Botanicals marked with ** 
are often referred to as SUDORIFICS— 
agents which cause copious perspir- 

Ague Weed hb.** 

Angelica rt. 

Balm hb. 

Blessed Thistle hb. 

Canada Snake rt. 

Catnip hb. 

Chamomile hb. 

Elder fls. 

Ginger rt.** 

Guaiac raspings 

Hyssop hb.** 

Linden fls. 


Mtn. Mint (Koellia) hb. 


Pleurisy rt. 

Prickly Ash bk. 

Ragwort hb. 

Sassafras bk. or rt. 

Senega rt. 

Serpentaria rt.** 

Spice Bush or Fever Bush twigs 

Thyme hb. 

Water Eryngo rt. 

Wood Sage hb. 

Yarrow hb. 

DIURETICS— A term used for medi- 
cines or beverages which tend to 
increase the secretion of urine. The 
fastest action is generally obtained by 
liquid diuretics taken on an empty 
stomach, during the day. Physical 
exertion retards the effects of diuretics. 
They are often used with demulcents, 
such as Marsh mallow rt., Couch Grass, 
etc., for their soothing qualities when 
irritation is present. 

Bearberry or Uva Ursi lvs. 

Bilberry lvs. 

Broom tops 

Buchu lvs. 

Burdock seeds 

Button Snake rt. 

Canada Fleabane hb. 

Cleavers hb. 

Copaiba Balsam 

Corn Silk 

Cubeb berries 

Dog Grass rt. 

Dwarf Elder bk. 

Elecampane rt. 

Gravel Plant lvs. 

Hair Cap Moss 

Horse Tail Grass 

Jumper Berries 

Kava-Kava rt. 

Matico lvs. 

Pareira Brava rt. 

Parsley rt. 

Princess Pine lvs. 

Seven Barks 

Stone rt. 

Water Eryngo rt. 

White Birch lvs. 

Wild Carrot hb. 

EMOLLIENTS — Agents generally of 
oily or mucilaginous nature, used 
EXTERNALLY for their softening, 
supple or soothing qualities. 

Comfrey rt. 

Flaxseed meal 

Marsh mallow lvs. or rt. 


Quince seed 

Slippery Elm bk. 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism / 145 

EXPECTORANTS— Agents used to 
induce expulsion or loosen phlegm 
of the mucous membranes of the 
bronchial and nasal passages. Expector- 
ants often are combined with demul- 
cents as ingredients in cough (due to 
cold) medicines. Strong acting expec- 
torants are marked with **. 

Asafetida gum 
Balm Gilead buds 
Balsam or Tolu 
Beth rt. 

Benzoin tincture or gum 
Blood rt.** 
Cocillana bk. 
Coltsfoot hb. 
Comfrey hb. 
Elecampane rt. 
Grindelia hb. 
Gum Galbanum 
Horehound hb. 
Ipecac rt.** 
Licorice rt. 
Maidenhair Fern hb. 
Marsh mallow rt. 
Mullein hb. 
Myrrh gum 
Pleurisy rt. 
Senega rt.** 
Skunk Cabbage rt. 
Slippery Elm bk. 
Wild Cherry bk. 
Yerba Santa hb. 

NERVINES— Agents which tend to 
abate, or temporarily relax, non-serious 
nervous irritation, due to excitement, 
strain or fatigue. 

Asafetida gum 
Betony hb. 
Catnip hb. 
Chamomile fls. 
Hop fls. 
Nerve Root 
Passion fls. 
Scullcap hb. 
Skunk Cabbage rt. 
Valerian rt. 
Yarrow hb. 

lants are useful for a temporary "lift" 
when health conditions do not pro- 
hibit caffeine. 

Cocoa beans 
Coffee beans 
Yerba Mate 
Tea lvs. 

Coffee and Guarana are useful 
for simple headaches caused by aggra- 
vation. Cocoa is one of the most nutri- 
tive of all beverages. 

ing beverage. 

Borage hb. 
Burnet hb. 
Licorice rt. 
Melissa hb. 
Pimpernel hb. 
Rasberry fruit 
Tamarind pulp 
Wood Sorrel rt. 

-Generally a cool- 

SEDATIVES— Often used by women 
for the usual minor discomforts inci- 
dental to impending menstruation 
(not for delayed menstruation) . 

Black Cohosh rt. 
Black Haw bk. 
Catnip hb. 
Chamomile fls. 
Cramp bk. 
Motherwort hb. 
Squaw Weed 
Yarrow hb. 

STIMULANTS — To quicken or increase 
various functional actions of the system. 
Stimulants refuse to act in the presence 
of an excess of animal foods and never 
act as quickly on persons who con- 
sume a lot of alcohol. 

Angostura bk. 
Bayberry lvs. 
Black Pepper 
Blood Root 
Boneset hb. 
Camphor gum 
Canada Snake Root 
Capsicum fruit 
Cascarilla bk. 
Cassena lvs. 

Cayenne Pepper 
Cinnamon bk. 
Cocash rt. 
Damiana hb. 
Fever Few hb. 
Fleabane hb. 
Ginger rt. 
Golden Rod hb. 
Horseradish rt. 
Hyssop hb. 
Jaborandi rt. 
Matico lvs. 
Mayweed hb. 
Motherwort hb. 
Paraguay tea 
Pleurisy rt. 
Pennyroyal hb. 
Peppermint hb. 
Prickly Ash bk. 
Quaking Aspen bk. 
Sarsaparilla rt. 
Serpentaria rt. 
Spearmint hb. 
Summer Savory hb. 
Sweet Gum 
Sweet Shrub bk. 
Vervain hb. 
White Pepper 
Yarrow hb. 
Yerba Mate lvs. 
Yellow Root 

VULNERARY— An application for 
minor external wounds. Almost any 
green plant that does not have irrita- 
ting constituents is useful for minor 
wounds, because of its chlorophyll 
content. Applications are generally 
most effective when the fresh herb 
is applied. 

All Heal hb. 

Blood Staunch or Fleabane hb. 
Calendula hb. 
Centauria hb. 
Clown's Woundwort hb. 
Heal-all hb. (Srophularia marilandica) 
Healing Herb or Comfrey hb. and rt. 
Horse Tail Grass 
Live Forever lvs. 
Marsh mallow hb. or rt. 
Plantain lvs. 

Self Heal or Heal All hb. (Prunella 

146 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


Vitamins are manufactured within plants and 
depend to some extent on the health and vigor of the 
plant. The controlling factors are the varieties and the 
conditions under which the plants are grown. Cultivated 
plants depend almost entirely on chemical fertilizers. 
Seaweeds are supplied with almost unlimited elements 
to feed on. Botanicals growing in the wild state generally 
thrive only in virgin soils, or in soils that can supply 
their necessities. When a soil becomes depleted, these 
botanicals move on, (via suckers, creepers, seeds, etc.) 
or are eventually crowded out by neighboring plants. 

Plant vitamins are far easier to digest than vitamins 
and minerals of fish or animal origin. 

VITAMIN A: Needed for night vision and functioning 
of cells of skin and mucous membranes. Vitamin A 
is stored in the body, but under stress and strain, a 
surplus is rapidly dissipated. 

Botanical Sources-Alfalfa herb; Annato seed; Dandelion; 
Lamb's Quarters; Okra pods; Paprika; Parsley 
herb; Watercress. 

VITAMIN B 1 (Thiamine) : Needed for growth and main- 
taining normal appetite. 

Sources-Bladderwrack; Dulse; Fenugreek; Kelp; Okra; 
Wheat Germ. 

VITAMIN B 2 (Riboflavin): Needed for normal growth 
of children. Good nutrition of adults. 

Sources-Bladderwrack; Dulse; Fenugreek; Kelp; Saffron. 

VITAMIN B 12 : Essential for normal development of red 
blood cells. B 12 also acts as a growth factor for 
children and helps put weight on under-weight 

Sources-Alfalfa; Bladderwrack; Dulse; Kelp. 

VITAMIN C: Needed for healthy teeth and gums; 
prevents scurvy. Vitamin C is destroyed by heat, 
cooking, low temperatures and oxidation. This 
vitamin is not stored in the body; a fresh supply 
must be provided daily. 

Sources-Buffalo Berry; Burdock seed; Capsicum; Colts- 
foot; Elder berries; Marigold; Oregano; Paprika; 
Parsley herb; Rose Hips; Watercress. 

VITAMIN D: Needed for building and keeping good 
bones and teeth. Prevents rickets. A limited amount 
is stored in the body. 

Sources-Annato seed; Watercress; Wheat Germ. 

VITAMIN E: Abundant in many plants' seeds. The 
need for Vitamin E has not been fully established, 
but is essential for full and proper nutrition. 

Sources-Alfalfa; Avena Sativa; Bladderwrack; Dandelion 

leaves; Dulse; Kelp; Linseed; Sesame; Watercress; 

Wheat Germ. 
VITAMIN G (B 2 ): Essential in preventing a deficiency 

Sources-Hydrocotyle Asiatica. 
VITAMIN K: Necessary in the physiological process of 

blood clotting. 
Sources-Alfalfa herb; Chestnut leaves; Shepherd's 

VITAMIN P (Rutin) : Believed to be of benefit in strength- 
ening tiny blood vessels. 
Sources-Buckwheat; German Rue; Paprika. 
NIACIN (another B-complex vitamin): Prevents pellagra. 
Sources- Alfalfa leaves; Blueberry leaves; Burdock seed; 

Fenugreek; Parsley herb; Watercress; Wheat Germ. 


In prescribing medicine the following circumstances 
should always be kept in mind: AGE, SEX, TEMPERA- 

AGE For an adult, suppose the dose to be 1 drachm. 


Up to 1 year will require 1/12 (or 5 grains) 
Up to 2 years will require Vs (or 8 grains) 
Up to 3 years will require l M (or 10 grains) 
Up to 4 years will require x k (or 15 grains) 
Up to 7 years will require Vs (or 1 scruple) 
Up to 14 years will require Vz (or x lz drachm) 
Up to 20 years will require % (or 2 scruples) 
Above 20 the full dose — 1 drachm. 
Above 65 the inverse gradation of the above. 

SEX Women require smaller doses than men and the 
state of the uterine system must never be over- 

TEMPERAMENT Stimulants and purgatives more 
readily affect sanguine persons than phlegmatic 
ones; consequently the former require smaller 

HABITS Knowledge of these is essential. Those who 
habitually use stimulants — such as smokers and 
drinkers — require larger doses to affect them, while 
those who habitually use saline purgatives are 
more easily affected. 

CLIMATE Medicines act differently on the same in- 
dividuals in summer and winter, and in countries/ 
regions of different climates. Generally, the warmer 
the climate, the smaller the required dose. 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism / 147 

active remedies operate very violently on some 
individuals due to a peculiarity of the stomach or 
disposition of the body, unconnected with temper- 
ament. This state can be discovered only by acci- 
dent or time. 

In prescribing, you should always so regulate the 
intervals between doses that the next dose may be 
taken before the effect of the first has altogether worn 
off. If this is not done then the cure is "always com- 
mencing but never proceeding". It should always be 
kept in mind, however, that medicines such as Digitalis, 
Opium, etc., are apt to accumulate in the system and 
there will be danger if the doses are too close together. 

The following list of explanations should give 
you some help when reading many textbooks and/or 
writing formulae and prescriptions: 


R Recipe 

F.S.A. Fiat Secondum 




Let it be made or prepared 





Miscae signa da 

Mix the medicine, deliver it with 
instructions in writing to 


Misce fiat mix- 

To form a liquid mixture 









An armful 



A handful 

Pugil j. 

Pubillus or 

A pinch 

Cyat j. 


A glassful 

Coch j. 


A spoonful 



A drop 

No. 1, 2, 3, 


The No. of pieces, written ")., 
jl., jll., JUL," etc. 


or aa 

Of eaach 


Partes oequales 

Equal parts 




As much as suffices 


Quantum libet 

As much as you like 



As much as you like 



A pound 



An ounce 


Drachma or 

A drachma or dram 



A scruple 



A grain 



A pill or pills 


Piot or potassa 






Pulvis factus 














OI or Oi 




Tus urg 



Pro oc 

= part 



Agit. vas 



Aqua Fervens 




Dur dolor 


Ad lib 

Sine mora 
















Ex Aqua 
Anta cibum 
Post cibum 
Tussal urg. 
Hora somni 

Pro. occula 
oe p 

Agitato vase 

Durante dolore 
Ad libitum 


An extract (usually fluid) 

Small paper 

Eye wash 

Mouth wash 



A draught 

An infusion 




One Pint 

In water 

Before meals 

After meals 

When the cough is troublesome 

At bedtime 

As required 

For the eyes 

Equal parts 

To be used as directed 

To be added 

Shake the vessel 


Let there be applied 

Boiling water 


Date or day 

Spoken of 

While the pain lasts 

By degrees 

At pleasure; as you please 

Without delay; urgent 

Annual herb 

Biennial herb 

Perennial herb 

Flowers perfect 


Remember, preparations should NOT be boiled in aluminum 
vessels. Use copper or earthenware or, better still, 
Pyrex®, so as not to contaminate the medicines. Now 
here are some simple recipes you can use for practice 
(or for real!). If you are unable to gather the herbs 
yourself, see the source list at the end of this lesson. 


For loss of appetite and debility: 
Wood Betony— 1 oz 
Barberry bark — 1 oz 
Bogbean — 1 oz 

Boil in half a gallon of water for 15 minutes. 
Sweeten with honey and leave to cool. Then stir in 2 
teaspoonfuls of good Brewers Yeast. Let the whole 
stand for 12 hours. Skim off the top and bottle the 
remainder, do not use for 24 hours. 
Dose: ad. lib. 

148 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

For Diarrhea: 
Equal parts- 

-Cranesbill herb 
Bayberry bark 
Shepherd's Purse 

Mix with 4 pints of water. Simmer for 15-20 
minutes. Sweeten with honey (not sugar). 
Dose: Vz wineglass ad. lib. 


For a cough: 

Blood Root, crushed- 

-3 oz. 

Steep in good vinegar or acetic acid for 2 weeks. 
Strain and add \ r /z lbs of good honey and gently sim- 
mer down to two-thirds the volume. 
Dose: Vz teaspoonful. 

For a hacking, irritating cough: 
Ipecacuan syrup — 1 oz. 
Sassafras (bruised) — 1 oz. 
Aniseed — 2 oz. 
Honey — 4 oz. 
American Valerian 2 oz. 
Black Oats— 2 oz. 
Water — 2 quarts 

Boil the whole for 30 minutes and then add 1 pint 
of spirits of wine. 
Dose: Vz wineglassful when the cough is at its worst. 


For clearing the blood of impure matter. 
Sasaparilla Bruised Decoction: 
Bruised Honduras Sasaparilla — 2 oz. 
Boiling Water — 1 quart 

Simmer for 30 minutes then sweeten with honey. 
Dose: 1 gill, 3 times a day. 

For coughs and all pulmonary complaints. 
Balm of Gilead decoction: 
Balm of Gilead buds — 1 teaspoonful 
Rain water — 1 pint 

Mix and infuse for 30 minutes. 

NOTE: In all decoctions and remedies where 
no preserving agent (such as brandy or honey) 
is used, the remedy must not be kept longer than 
a few days, otherwise it may turn cloudy, indica- 
ting that it is useless as medicine. 

A stimulating gargle: 

Equal parts — Sumach berries 

Simmer for 15 minutes. Strain and add 1 drachm 
of Boracic acid to every pint. 


For removing griping pains and irritation. Excellent 
for children (Vz tablespoonful) . 

Catnip Tea: 

Catnip leaves and flowers — 1 oz. 
Brown sugar — Vz oz. 
Milk — 1 tablespoon 
Boiling Water — 1 pint 

Infuse for 25 minutes then strain. The tea made 
with the Catnip leaves and flowers and water only can 
be used as a very effective enema, to cleanse the 

To increase menstruation; to destroy all types of 

Tansy leaves — 1 oz. 

Brown sugar — 1 tablespoon 

Boiling Water — 1 pint 

Infuse for 30 minutes and strain. 
Dose: Vz wineglassful, occasionally. 

An eye wash, good for granulated eyelids and in- 
flamed eyes: 

Tine. Hydrastis Can — 1 oz. 

Tine. Sanguinaria — 1 dr. 

Boracic acid — Vz dr. 

Shake well until mixed. 
Dose: 10 drops of the compound in Vz tumbler of 
water, as an eye wash. 


For cases of faintness, hysteria, debility and all nervous 

Nerve mixture: 

Tine, of Pimpernel — Vz oz. 

Mint Water (Menths virdis) — IV2 oz. 

Tine. Valerian — 1 dr. 

Comp. Tine. Cardamon — Vz oz. 

Mix well. 
Dose: 2 tablespoonsful, 3 times a day. 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism 1 149 

Cough mixture: 

Syrup of Ipecacuana — 2 dr. 
Syrup of Squills — 2 dr. 
Tine, of Bloodroot — 2 dr. 

Mix well. 
Dose: 1 to IV2 teaspoonsful a day, or when cough is 

Sexual invigorator: 

False Unicorn — V2 oz. 
Tine. St. John's Wort— V2 oz. 
Tine. Damiana — Vz oz. 

Mix well. 
Dose: 30 to 60 drops, every 6 hours. 


For growths of a malignant nature, piles, ringworm, 

Goldenseal ointment: 
Goldenseal root — 2 oz. 
Methylated Spirits — 1 oz. 
Glycerine — 1 oz. 
Water — 1 oz. 

Bruise well the Goldenseal root, then add to the 
other ingredients and mix well. Let the whole stand in 
a warm place, closely corked, for a week. Then press 
out all the liquid and thoroughly incorporate this 
residue with 4 oz. lard, in a liquid state. Pour into 
screw-top jars. 


One of the usual misconceptions that cowans 
(non — Witches) have of the Craft, is that we boil up all 
sorts of evil ingredients in our cauldrons! How did this 
warped belief come about? Well, it was because of the 
many local common names given to ordinary herbs. 
An herb, perhaps because of its suggestive appearance, 
would acquire a picturesque name. The name would 
stick and, before long, be taken at its face value. Dragon's 
Blood is an excellent example. This gum resin was 
given the name because of its reddish-brown color, 

similar to dried blood, and because it comes from such 
plants as Calamus draco, Dracoena draco, Pterocarpus 
draco, etc., named after the constellation Draco the 
Dragon, of the Northern Hemisphere. It is NOT the 
actual dried blood of a dragon, though many people 
believe it is! 

Here are some other herbs, together with their 
local names, so that the next time you come across an 
old recipe calling for, say, the tongue of a horse and the 
eye of a cat, you'll know what was really meant. 


Adder's Mouth 
Adder's Meat 
Adder's Tongue 
Ass's Ear 
Bear's Ear 
Bear's Foot 
Beggar's Tick 
Bird's Eye 
Bird's Tongue 
Black Boy Resin 
Bloody Fingers 
Bull's Eyes 
Bull's Foot 
Calf's Snout 
Cat's Eye 
Cat's Foot 
Cat's Foot/Paw 
Cat's Milk 
Chicken Toe 


Stitch Wort 

Dogstooth Violet 

Stinking Hellbore 
Snail Plant 
False Hellebore 
European Ash 

Marsh Marigold 
Hoary Pea 
Star Scabious 
Canada Snake Root 
Ground Ivy 
Crawley Root 


Stellaria media 
Microstylis ophioglossiodes 
Erythronium Americanum 
Symphytum officinale 
Primula auricula 
Helleborus foetious 
Medicago scuttellata 
Bidens frondosa 
Adonis vernalis 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Xanthorrhoea arborea 
Digitalis purpurea 
Caltha palustris 
Tussilago farfara 
Linaria vulgaris 
Tephrosia virginiana 
Scabiosa stellata 
Asarum canadense 
Nepeta glechoma 
Euphorbia helioscopia 
Corallorhiza ordontorhiza 

150 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 




Cock's Comb 
Cow's Tail 
Crow Foot 
Devil's Milk 
Dog's Tongue 
Donkey's Eyes 
Dove's Foot 
Dragon's Claw 
Dragon's Eye 
Duck's Foot 
Fairy Fingers/Gloves 
Flesh and Blood 
Fox Tail 
Foal's Foot 
Frog's Foot 
Goat's Beard 
Goat's Foot 
Hare's Foot 
Horse Tail 
Horse Tongue 
Hound's Tongue 
Jew's Ear 
Lamb's Tongue 
Lizard's Tail 
Lizard's Tongue 
Mother's Heart 
Mouse Ear 
Mouse Tail 
Negro Head 
Old Man's Beard 
Ox Tongue 
Rabbit's Foot 
Shepherd's Heart 
Snake Head 
Snake Milk 
Snake's Tongue 
Squirrel Ear 
Stag Horn 

Stinking Goose Foot 
Swine Snout 

Unicorn's Horn 
Wolf's Claw 
Wolf's Foot 

Yellow Rattle 
Canada Fleabane 

Cowage Plant 
Crawley Root 

American Mandrake 
Club Moss 

Bulbous Buttercup 
Vegetable Oyster 
Ash Weed 

Scouring Rush 
Hart's Tongue 
Vanilla Leaf 

Fungus on Elder or Elm 
Ribwort Plantain 
Breast Weed 

Shepherd's Purse 
Mouse Blood Wort 
Common Stonecrop 
Vegetable Ivory 
Fringe Tree 
Field Clover 
Shepherd's Purse 
Blooming Spurge 
Adder's Tongue Fern 
White Plantain 
Club Moss 

False Unicorn 
Ly cop odium 
Bugle Weed 

Rhinanthus christagalli 
Erigeron canadense 
Geranium maculatum 
Euphorbia helioscopia 
Conoglossum officinale 
Mucuna pruriens (seeds) 
Geranium sylvaticum 
Corallorrhiza odontorrhiza 
Nephalium loganum 
Podophyllum peltatum 
Digitalis purpurea 
Potentilla tormentilla 
Lycopodium clavatum 
Tussilago farfara 
Ranunculus bulbosus 
Tragopogon porrofolius 
Aegopodium podograria 
Trifolium arvense 
Medicago intertexta 
Equisetum hyemale 
Scolopendrium vulgare 
Liatris odoratissima 
Peziza auricula 
Plantago lancelolata 
Saururus cernuus 
Capsella bursa pastoris 
Hieracium pilosella 
Sedum acre 

Phytelephas macrocarpa 
Chionanthus virginica 
Anchusa officinallis 
Trifolium arvense 
Cabella bursa pastoris 
Chelone glabra 
Euphorbia corollata 
Ophioglossum vulgatum 
Goodyear repens 
Lycopodium clavatum 
Chenopodium foetidum 
Taraxacum dens leonis 
Linaria vulgaris 
Helgonias dioica 
Lycopodium clavatum 
Lycopus virginicus 

Lesson Ten: Herbalism / 151 


Below are listed some sources for herbs and herbal preparations. The list is as up-to-date as I can make it but it 
is always possible that some of the companies listed may have gone out of business. 

45 Washington Street, 
Brooklyn, NY 11201 

300 Massachusetts Avenue, 
Boston, MA 02115 

Hammond, IN 46325 

P.O. Box 5756, 
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 

109 Third Avenue, 
New York, NY 10003 

P.O. Box 77212, 
San Francisco, CA 94107 

480 Station road, 
Quakertown, PA 18951 

7915 S.E. Stark, 
Portland, OR 97215 

35 West 19 Street, 
New York, NY 10011 

Box 88, 
Station N, 
Montreal, Canada H2X 3N2 

Culpeper House, 
21 Bruton Street, 
Berkeley Square, 
London W.l, England 

In Thomas Middleton's play the Witch (1612) the character 
Hecate is made to stuff the mouth and nostrils of an unbaptised 
child before boiling him for his fat(l) . She recounts the materials as 
she uses them: 

Hecate: 'The magickal herbs are down his throat; 
His mouth cramm'd full, 
His ears and nostrils stuff'd; 
I thrust in eleoselinum lately, 
Aconitum, frondes populeas and soot. 
Then slum, acorum vulgare too, 
Pentaphyllon, the blood of the flitter -mouse, 
Solanum somnificum et oleum. ' 

A fearsome concoction it seems — until examined. The 

eleoselinum is nothing more than common parsley; aconitum 
is a hardy herbaceous plant used internally as well as externally in 
the treatment of rheumatism and neuralgia. Frondes populeas are 
the leaf-buds of the poplar; sium is the water parsnip and acorum 
vulgare is calamus, usedfor disorders of the stomach. Pentaphyllon 
is the Greek name for the cinquefoil; a flitter-mouse is, of course, a 
bat. The Solanum family includes such as the potato, bitter-sweet, 
egg-plant and others; somnificum probably indicates one of the night- 
shade species of solanum. The oleum was in all probability the oil 
used to bind these various innocuous ingredients. 

Witchcraft from the Inside 

Raymond Buckland, Llewellyn Publications, 1971 


Tell what some of your personal uses and successes with herbs have been. List what you've tried and what 
results were observed. 

List your personal supply of herbs that you have on hand. What use does each herb have (what medicinal 
value is it reported to contain/ exhibit)? 

3. List your favorite recipes, decoctions, infusions, etc. on this page. 

4. Tell how you gathered your supply of herbs (where and when). list any good suppliers you have found. 

What books, herbals, or other sources have you used in your herbal work? Are there local experts you have 
talked with? What have you learned? 




Do not rush through it. Read and study it carefully. Read it 

several times over. You should become thoroughly familiar with 

its contents. 

Witchcraft is first and foremost a religion. Worship of the Lord and the 
Lady is therefore the prime concern of the Witch. Magick is secondary to 
that worship. 

Yet magick does play a part in most, if not all, religions (in Roman 
Catholicism, for example, transubstantiation is pure magick) . As in other 
religions, then, so in Witchcraft we find magick— but, I reiterate, as a 
secondary aspect. 

In itself, magick is a practice. If all you want to do is to work magick, 
then you don't need to become a Witch to do it. Anyone can do 
magick ... or, at least, can attempt to do it. Such a person is a Magician. 

There are many different forms of magick — dozens; perhaps even 
hundreds. Some can be very dangerous: in Ceremonial Magick, for 
example; when the Magician is conjuring and working with various 
entities, most of whom are decidedly antagonistic towards the Magician. 
Some traditions of the Craft do tend to lean towards this aspect of 
Ceremonial Magick in their workings, for whatever reason, and do in 
fact conjure various beings. But this can be dangerous. Not only that, but 
to my mind it is totally unnecessary. It is a little like trying to hook-up a 
1,000 volt power line to run a transistor radio! Why take the risk when a 
simple little battery will do the job just as well and without the danger? 
The magick I will deal with in this book, although quite as effective as any 
other, is SAFE . . . you cannot get hurt. 

But what, exactly, is "Magick"? It is one of those words that have 
different connotations for different people. First of all I am not talking 
about stage "magic" — conjuring, or prestidigitation. Pulling rabbits out 
of hats and sawing young ladies in half is pure illusion. Indeed, to dif- 
ferentiate between this and other true magick, that of Witchcraft and the 
occult world is spelled with a final "k" — Magick — the old spelling. Magick 


What is Witchcraft but the human control of 
natural forces through a supernatural power? 
. . . With fasting and incantation, with con- 
juring, men snare that power and use it — 
without actually knowing what it is that they 
use. So Witchcraft is the science of that power, 
within whose cult all mysteries merge and 

Witches Still Live 
Theda Kenyon 

Never do Magick "just to see if it works " — it 
probably won't — or just to prove to someone 
that it does. Do it only when there is a real 
need. It is hard work when you do it properly. 

256 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Illustration 1 

Illustration 2 

Primitive Man works magically by imagining 
what he wants. He sits and 'sees' himself 
hunting an animal. He 'sees' himself attack it 
and kill it. He 'sees' himself then with food. 
Sometimes, to help him see these things, he 
draws pictures. He paints a picture, or carves 
a model, of himself hunting and killing. All of 
this is part of what is called 'sympathetic' 
magic . . . To help YOU 'see', or visualize, 
there are some exercises you can do. The first 
is easy. 

Take a picture from a magazine — let's say 
it is of a house. Look at it carefully, Study it. 
See all the details of the house and of the rest of 
the picture. See the shape of the roof; the 
windows and where they are. See the door(s) 
and the front steps, if there are any. See the 
garden and the fence, if there is one. See the 
roadway outside the house, and any people 
who might be in the picture. 

Now tear the picture in half. Take one of 
the halves and lay it on a sheet of white paper. 
Look at it. Visualize the missing half of 
the picture. See it whole. See all the details 
as you remember them. You can then check 
with the other half of the picture to see if 
you're correct (see Illustration 1). 

You can do this sort of exercise with 
more and more complicated pictures, till you 
are able to visualize all details easily (see 
Illustration 2) . 



\'l I' \'x I,' , 

Now take a picture of the person (this can 
be used for healing, among other things) . . . 
You need to study it till you can see him or her, 
in all detail, without the picture being there. 
You need to be able to see, to visualize, him or 
her doing what you want them to do . . . See 
it — concentrate on it. 

Illustration 3 

The Everyday Practice of Voodoo 

Boko Gede, CBE Books, CA 1984 

Lesson Eleven: Magick / 157 

done for good purposes is labeled "White Magick"; that done for evil 
purposes, "Black Magick". These terms have no racial connotations. 
They come from the early Persian concepts of Good and Evil. Zoroaster 
(Zarathustra) decided that of all the many, until then, good spirits or 
devi, there was actually only one who was aZZ-good. This was Ahura- 
Mazda— the Sun; the Light. Now if you have an all-good deity then 
you need an all-evil opposite (you can't have white unless you have 
black as a contrast), so the role was given to Ahriman— the Darkness. 
The other minor devi became "devils". This concept of all-good/all-bad 
was picked up later in Mithraism and then moved west into Christianity. 
So from Persia do we get the basic ideas for White Magick and Black 

Since anyone can do magick, there can be White Magicians and 
Black Magicians — those trying to help others and those trying to harm 
them. By virtue of the Craft belief in retribution, of course, you cannot 
have a "Black Witch"; it would be a contradiction in terms. 

Aleister Crowley defined magick as "the art or science of causing 
change to occur in conformity with Will". In other words, making some- 
thing happen that you want to happen. How do we make these things 
happen? By using the "power" (for want of a better word) that each of us 
has within. Sometimes we must supplement that power by calling on the 
gods, but for most things we can produce all that we need ourselves. 


To be able to produce power, though, we must be in good shape. A 
sick tree bears little fruit. Keep yourself in good physical condition. You 
don't have to run five or ten miles a day, or have to lift weights to do this. 
Just see to it that you do not get grossly overweight (or underweight, for 
that matter) . Watch your diet. Cut down on the junk food and try to keep 
a "balanced" diet; though what is balanced for one person may not be so 
for another. Try to stick to natural foods. Avoid sugar (aptly known as 
"the white death"!) and bleached flour. Eat plenty of vegetables and 
fruit. I don't suggest you become a vegetarian, but don't overindulge in 
meat. You'll know if you are in good shape because youll feel good. 

Cleanliness, before working magick, is important. It is good practice 
to cleanse the inner body by fasting. Eat and drink nothing but water, 
honey and whole wheat bread for twenty-four hours beforehand. No 
alcohol or nicotine; no sexual activity (this latter is especially important 
when preparing for sex-magick, see below). Before the ritual, bathe in 
water to which has been added a tablespoonful of salt; preferably sea salt 
(this can be purchased at most supermarkets or at health food stores). 


What sort of magick is done? Mainly works of 
healing, though not always. A few examples 
might be in order. Any one of them, looked at 
separately, could be dismissed with the word 
"coincidence". Coincidence, however, is a 
very handy word and much used whenever 
something appears unusual, incredible, or at 
all difficult to understand. When a large number 
of examples are produced, 'coincidence' itself 
becomes a little strained. Witches have done 
sufficient to prove to themselves that it is not 
coincidence. Whether anyone believes them 
or not is unimportant — they believe. 

Witchcraft from the Inside 

Raymond Buckland, Llewellyn Publications, 
St. Paul, MN1971 

The Circle itself is important. When magick is to be done, the Circle 
must be constructed with more care than might otherwise be the case. 
Dimensions may be as given in the earlier lesson, but the Circle must be 
very carefully cast and consecrated at the Erecting the Temple. Make sure 

158 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

the point of the sword, or athame, follows the line of the circle exactly. 
The person casting the Circle should direct as much personal energy 
down through the instrument and into the Circle as possible. Give a 
good, thorough sprinkling and censing. Magick is done at the Esbat Circle, 
of course, so the Esbat and/or Full/New Moon ceremony will be conducted, 
followed by the Cakes and Ale. At this latter the coven will discuss fully 
what work (magick) is to be done and exactly how it is to be done. Then — 
just before actually starting the work— let the Priest/ess once more go 
around the Circle with sword or athame, to reinforce it (second sprinkling 
and censing not necessary, however). A few moments should then be 
spent meditating on the whole picture of what is to be done. As you will 
see, below, in the actual working of the magick you will be concentrating 
on the end result but for now, right at the start, meditate on all that is to be 


At no time during the working of magick should the Circle be 
broken. At other times it is possible to leave the Circle and return, 
though this should always be done with care — and no more than 
absolutely necessary — in the following manner: 

Leaving the Circle 

Wih athame in hand, standing in the East, make a motion as though 
cutting across the lines of the Circle, first on your right and then on your 
left (Figure 11.1 A and B) . You may then walk out of the Circle, between 
the lines. If you like you can imagine that you have cut a gateway, or 
doorway, in the East, through which to pass. 

Some Wiccans start the cut at the ground on one side and come up 
to their full height, over in a curve, and then down all the way to the 
ground again on the other side, as though cutting out a large, complete 
doorway. This is not really necessary since the very act of cutting across 
the lines of the consecrated Circle, with the athame, is sufficient to 
open it. 


When you return to the Circle, walk back in through that same 
Eastern gateway and "close" it behind you by "reconnecting" the lines of 
the Circle. Three circles were originally cast — one with the sword; one 
with the salted water; one with the censer. So you have three lines to 
reconnect. You do this by moving your blade backwards and forwards 
along the lines (Figure 11. 1C). Incidentally, this is why the blade of the 
athame is double-edged — so that it will "cut" in either direction, in this 
and similar magickal actions. 

To finish, you "seal" the break by raising your athame and moving 
the blade to describe a pentagram. Start at the top and bring down to the 

Old woodcut of "Robin Goodf ellow" and a 
Circle of dancing Witches, raising power. 

Figure 11.1 A 

Figure 11.1B 

Figure 11.1C 

Lesson Eleven: Magick 1 159 

bottom left. Then move it up and diagonally across to the right; straight 
across to the left; diagonally down to the bottom right, and finally, back 
up to the top where you started (Figure 11.1D). Then kiss the blade of 
your athame and return to your place. 

Normally once the Circle starts no one should leave it until the 
Clearing the Temple. The Circle should not, therefore, be broken unless 
absolutely necessary (such as when someone has to go to the bathroom!). If 
the person cutting out is to be gone for some time, then s/he should do 
steps A and B (above), pass through, then do step C to temporarily close 
the Circle whilst gone. On returning, s/he will then need to cut through 
again (at the same spot; steps A and B), pass through and close as usual 
with step C, followed by step D to seal it. 



Figure 11.1D 



We all have power within our bodies. It is this same power that can 
be used for healing; that can be seen as the aura; that can move inanimate 
objects; that lets you see things in a crystal ball or in the tarot cards. It is a 
very awesome power, and when used as you are about to learn, one 
which can change your very life. 

When working in a coven, the power can be drawn off from the 
individuals and — contained by the confines of the consecrated Circle — 
blended together to form one massive instrument to "cause change to 
occur in conformity with Will". Needless to say, the wills of all the coven 
members must be directed towards the same end. Whether from a group 
or from an individual Witch, the power generates and collects in the 
form of a cone, over the Circle. Once sufficient power has been pro- 
duced, then this Cone of Power can be directed. 

Whenever you are working magick, make sure that you are not 
going to be disturbed. You are going to be putting all your energies, all 
your concentration into the work you are doing. You cannot do this if, at 
the back of your mind, you are worrying that someone will discover you, 
that the neighbors will complain about noise, that the telephone will ring 
(take it off the hook), or that you will, in some way, be interrupted. 


There are several ways of building up the power within your body, 
before releasing it. I will start by looking at the most common method: 
that of dancing and chanting. Dancing and chanting are found univer- 
sally, in ancient civilizations, and even in primitive societies today: the 
Amerindian, the African, the Australian, and many more. 

In his book, Witchcraft Today, Gerald Gardner gives an example of 
how music — in this case a simple drum beat — can affect the mind: "They 
told me they could make me fighting mad. I did not believe it, so they got 
me to sit, fixed in a chair so that I could not get out. Then one sat in front 


/ X 



160 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

of me playing a little drum; not a tune, just a steady 
tom-tom-tom. We were laughing and talking at first ... it 
seemed a long time, although I could see the clock and 
knew it was not. The tom-tom-tom went on and I felt 
silly; they were watching me and grinning and those 
grins made me angry. I did realize that the tom-tomming 
seemed to be a little quicker and my heart seemed to 
be beating very hard. I felt flashes of heat, I was angry 
at their silly grins. Suddenly I felt furiously angry and 
wanted to pull loose out of the chair; I tugged out and 
would have gone for them, but as soon as I started 
moving they changed their beat and I was not angry 
any longer." 

By dancing around in a circle, especially to a 
regular beat or the rhythm of a chant, you can set the 
blood coursing through the veins. As the dance, and 
the beat, quickens, so does your heart-beat. You feel 
hotter; you get excited . . . the power builds. Most 
Circle dances, then, start fairly slowly and gradually 
build up, faster and faster, to a climax. 

As part of a coven, you can dance around (deosil, 
of course) holding hands, or you can dance individually. 
But joining hands does join the energies and help 
build up everyone's power together, evenly. Actual 
steps of the dances and examples of suitable music are 
to be found in Appendix D. 

What to chant as you dance? You want something 
simple and something rhythmic. By simple I mean not 
only non-complex but also intelligible. No mumbo- 
jumbo! Some covens dance around chanting strange 
words that no one knows the meaning of. How can 
you put feeling into what you're saying if you don't 
know what you're saying?! You are working magick to 
bring money? . . . then chant about bringing money. 
Why not something like "Lord and Lady, we're your 
Witches. Make us happy; bring us riches" ? It may 
seem mundane and non-mystical but it's a lot easier to 
put feeling into that (and to remember the words) 
than it is into something like ". . . Lamach, lamach, 
bacharous, carbahaji, sabalyos, barylos . . ." Not only 
is it simple and more intelligible, but it is rhythmic. 
There is a definite beat to it that you can put to a dance 
step. As you've seen from Gerald Gardner's experi- 
ment, the beat is important; it can really affect you. 

So there are no set words, no ready-made chants 
(no "Turn to page 27, chant number 33") for you. 
Magick must suit the individual, or the individual 
coven. Let the coven sit down together, either during 
the Cakes and Ale or as a separate, pre-Esbat, "business" 
meeting, and work out exactly what you want to say; 

which words you will all feel comfortable with. Solitary 
Witches will have to do this alone, of course. 



Feeling . . . perhaps the strongest single element 
in the practice of magick. To produce the power, you 
must feel strongly about what you are trying to do. 
Let's say a coven is trying to relocate an old man who 
needs to get out of a high crime neighborhood. Every 
member of the coven must: 

(a) feel strongly that it is right for the old man to 
move, and 

(b) know where they are trying to move him. 
The coven — or the individual, if a Solitary — must 

care about the old man as much as if he were their own 
father. They must really want to help him. This is why 
it is easier to do magick for yourself — and there is 
absolutely no reason why you shouldn't do magick for 
yourself than to do it for someone else. The person 
who will have the strongest feelings about the case, 
the strongest desire for its success, is the person 
primarily involved in the case . . . and that is the best 
person to do the magick for it. 

Get a clear picture in your mind of what you want 
done. Think, especially, of the end result. For example, 
supposing you want to write a best-selling novel. Don't 
think of yourself doing the actual writing of the novel. 
Rather, think of the novel having already been written 
(by you, of course), accepted and published and see, 
in your mind, the finished book. See it in its dust-jacket 
(or as a paperback) in the bookstores; see your name 
on it; see people buying it; see it on the best-seller list; 
see yourself at autograph parties. Get this picture/ 
these pictures clear in your mind and concentrate 
your energy to that end. See a stream of white light, as 
it were (or however you might want to picture the 
flow of energy), coming from you — directed by you — 
and leading to that end result. 


In the example used earlier, don't see the old man 
moving out of his present neighborhood; see him living 
happily in a new neighborhood. This is one of the 
secrets of successful magick — the visualization of the 
end result. 

Lesson Eleven: Magick 1 161 


In Ceremonial Magick there is a tool much used, 
known as the Wand (or Magick Wand). Several tradi- 
tions of the Craft (e.g. Gardnerian, Alexandrian, Huson) 
have borrowed this Wand — and other tools — from 
Ceremonial Magick, yet I feel the tool itself is un- 
necessary. We of the Craft have our own tool that can 
do all that the Magician's Wand can do ... it is the 
athame. The Wand is seen as a projection, or extension, 
of the Magician's arm; a storage cell and projector of 
his power. The athame is all that too, so why bother 
with the Wand? 

If you should need to reinforce the power you are 
going to raise; if you perhaps feel (and this might 
especially be true of a Solitary) that you may not be 
able to produce enough power for what you want to 
accomplish, then you can "draw down" power from 
the gods, to aid you. As you complete your dancing, 
and just before releasing the power (see below), draw 
your athame and hold it, with both hands, above your 
head. Call upon the Lord and Lady, by whichever 
names you use, either silently or by actually calling 
their names aloud, and feel a surge of energy come 
down your arms, from the athame, and into your 
body. Then swing the athame down, to point out and 
away from you, and release the power. 


Your aim is to build up the power to as high a 
point as possible and then to release it to cause the 
change/work the magick. Think of it as similar to a 
child's air rifle: he pumps up the gun — the more pumps 
he gives it, the stronger will be the force — then aims it 
and releases the power by squeezing the trigger. You 
are "pumping up" your power by dancing and chanting. 
Now to aim and squeeze the trigger. 

Make sure you have pumped up to maximum. 
Dance faster and faster and chant faster and louder, till 
you feel you are ready to burst. Then, stop dancing and 
drop to your knees (or flat on the floor, or however 
you feel best. You will find this by experimentation) . If 
necessary, draw down the power. Take aim: get that 
picture in your mind and focus it. You will feel the 
power within you as you focus; you will feel the power 
trying to burst out. Hold it as long as you can, keeping 
that picture in mind. When you feel you just cannot 
hold it any more, release it — let it burst out of you as 
you SHOUT the Key Word. If you are working for 
money, then shout "MONEY!" If for love, "LOVE!" If 

for a new job, "JOB!" 

In your earlier deliberations, during Cakes and 
Ale, decide what is to be the Key Word. This is the 
release; the squeezing of the trigger. And SHOUT it 
out! Don't be self-conscious; don't worry about the 
neighbors; don't think "What will people think?" . . . 
just shout it out and release all that accumulated power. 
Obviously not everyone in a coven will release at the 
same time. That's all right. Each person releases as s/he is 
ready. Afterwards you will probably collapse, completely 
exhausted . . . but you will feel good! Take your time 
recovering. Have a glass of wine (or fruit juice) and 
relax before Clearing the Temple. 

In some traditions the power is directed by the 
coveners into the Priest/ess who, in turn, does the 
actual releasing and directing. This can be quite effective, 
though I have found that it takes a strong Priest/ess to 
properly handle the accumulation of power and the 
direction, so I do not generally recommend this 


It is important to know when to do your magick. In 
an earlier lesson I talked about the phases of the Moon. 
The Moon is your clock and your calendar for working 
magick. If the Moon is waxing, then that is the time for 
constructive magick — and the best time is as close to 
the Full Moon as possible. If it is waning, then that is 
the time for destructive magick — and the best time is as 
close to the New Moon as possible. 

Constructive magick is that which is for increase. 
For example, moving an old man from a bad neighbor- 
hood to a good one is definitely going to increase his 
happiness. Love magick is constructive, as is the 
acquisition of a new job, wealth, success, health. 

Destructive magick is usually concerned with the 
ending of things: a love affair; a bad habit; a way of 

Consider the problem carefully and decide on 
the best way to work. For example, if you want to be rid 
of an old girl/boy-friend and get a new one, do you 
work to end the one or to start the other? Or do you do 
both? The answer can be summed up with "THINK 
POSITIVE". In other words, as much as possible, work 
for the constructive aspect. If you concentrate on get- 
ting a new girl/boy-friend then that will probably take 
care of the old one automatically. When in doubt, 
work at the WAXING Moon. 


162 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

do any magick that will harm anyone in any way what- 
soever, or interfere with their free will. If in doubt; 
don't do it. 

It is often a good idea, especially when working 
on something very important (of course you shouldn't 
be wasting your time and effort on anything unimpor- 
tant anyway), such as a healing, to work at it over a 
period of time. For example, you could do the work 
once a week throughout the Moon's phase. Let's say 
that the New Moon falls on July 30th and the Full 
Moon on August 15th. Then you could start your 
magick on August 1st, repeat it on the 8th and do a final 
working on the night of the Full Moon itself, the 15th. 

Days of the week can play a part too. For example, 
Friday is always associated with Venus who, in turn, is 
associated with love. So do love magick on a Friday, if 
at all possible. The correlation of days and planets, 
with their governing of properties, is as follows. 
Choose your day for working magick based on these. 

MONDAY Moon Merchandise; dreams; theft 

TUESDAY Mars Matrimony; war; enemies; prison 

WEDNESDAY Mercury Debt; fear; loss 

THURSDAY Jupiter Honor; riches; clothing; desires 

FRIDAY Venus Love; friendship; strangers 

SATURDAY Saturn Life; building; doctrine; protection 

SUNDAY Sun Fortune; hope; money 


Many Witches and covens work Cord Magick. 
For this you will need a cord, or cingulum as it is some- 
times called, that is nine feet long (three times three; 
the perennial magick number) and is red in color (the 
color of blood; the life force) . It is best to make your 
own by taking three lengths of red silk (or wool, nylon, 
whatever you prefer — though natural materials are 
preferred) and yourself plaiting them into one. As you 
plait, concentrate on putting yourself — your energies 
into it so that it becomes another part of you. Like your 
athame, no one else should ever use your cord but 
you. Tie a knot at each end to keep it from unraveling. 
Make sure it is nine feet long. 

Consecrate the cord, when done. Use the consecra- 
tion given in Lesson Five, but using the words "Here 
do I present my Cord for your approval . . . would that 
it henceforth may serve me as a tool, in thy service." 
Some traditions use their cords tied about their robes 
and wear them all the time at Circles. I would suggest 
you keep yours for strictly magickal use, since it is a 
purely magickal instrument. When not in use, keep it 
wrapped in a piece of clean white linen or silk. 

One magickal use of the cord is as a "storage cell" 

for the power. Rather than dancing around and working 
as a group, the coven will work as individuals, sitting 
and chanting, holding the cord in hand (the same is 
obviously done by the Solitary) . As the power starts to 
build, each covener will — taking her own time and ig- 
noring, or mentally separating herself from, the others — 
pause from time to time to tie a knot in her cord. The 
first knot is tied at one end, with the words "By knot of 
one, the spell's begun." She will then go back to chant- 
ing — oftimes swaying from side to side, or back and 
forth — until she feels it is time to tie another knot. This 
is tied in the opposite end with the words: "By knot of 
two, it cometh true". Then back to the chanting. As she 
chants, she also pictures what she wants . . . she "takes 
aim", as I put it in Releasing the Power, above. So it goes 
on; chanting and picturing, then tying a knot. As the 
power builds, more knots are tied until there are nine 
knots in the cord. They are tied in a particular pattern 
and with appropriate words. The first knot, as I have 
said, is tied at one end; the second at the other end. 
The third is tied in the middle. The fourth is halfway 
between the first and third; the fifth halfway between 
the second and third. Here is the pattern of tying, 
together with the appropriate words: 

By knot of ONE, the spell's begun 
By knot of TWO, it cometh true 
By knot of THREE, so mote it be 
By knot of FOUR, this power I store 
By knot of FIVE, the spell's alive 
By knot of SIX, this spell I fix 
By knot of SEVEN, events 111 leaven 
By knot of EIGHT, it will be Fate 
By knot of NINE, what's done is mine 

At the tying of the last (ninth) knot, all the energy 
is directed into the cord and its knots, with a final 
visualization of the object of the work. The power has 
been raised and is now "stored" in these knots in the 
cord. There are old woodcuts, from the Middle Ages, 
which show Witches selling knotted cords to sailors. 
They were supposed to have tied-up winds in the 
cords so that if the sailor needed a wind for his ship he 
just untied a knot and got it — one knot for a light 
breeze, two for a strong wind and three for a gale! 

Why would you want to store a spell? For some 
magick, the time for it to happen is important. Suppose, 
for example, that you want something constructive to 
happen but the most propitious time for it to do so 
happens to be close to the New Moon. Do you do your 
constructive magick during the Waxing Moon? No. 
You do it early on, at the Full Moon, using a cord*. 

jL • 

a, 1 * 

* 1 0. ». 

t, « « a «, 

« — *i — » * a *- 

* — -* fc 9 , * Q. * 

A to fc ft * 4* J. • 

*This is not to say that all magick is instantaneous, of course. It is not. But the closer to the event you can work the climax of your magick, the better; similar to the example of working 
weekly from New to Full Moon. 

Lesson Eleven: Magick / 163 

Now the power is there, properly raised, but stored for 

You have nine knots. Although they are all tied in 
one ritual, these must be released one at a time — one a 
day — for nine consecutive days. Release them in the 
same order in which they were tied, NOT the reverse 
order. In other words, on the first day untie the knot 
that was first tied (at one end); on the second day, the 
second knot tied (at the other end); and so on. In this 
fashion, the last knot untied, on the ninth day, is the 
ninth knot that was tied at the climax of the tying ritual — 
the time of greatest power. Each day, before you 
actually untie, do your concentration on what is to 
happen, rocking and again building power. Then, as 
you release the knot, release the power also with a 

Another use of the cords is in dancing, to raise 
power. Each Witch holds the two ends of her cord, 
with the center looped through that of the person 
opposite her in the Circle: 

Instead of holding hands to dance around, the coven is 
connected with the intertwining cords like the spokes 
of a great wheel. 


In an earlier part of this book I spoke of early Wo/ 
Man's sympathetic magick; the construction of clay 
models of the animals to be hunted and then the 
attacking of these clay figures. Examples similar to this 
can be found throughout history: circa 1200 BCE an 
Egyptian treasury official used a wax figure in a con- 
spiracy against Ramses III; King Nectanebo II (350 
BCE) fought all his battles ahead of time using wax 
figures. For hundreds, if not thousands, of years people 
of all races and religions have done this same sort of 
sympathetic magick using candles rather than clay or 
wax effigies. Not only are candles used to represent 
people, but also to represent things: love, money, 
attraction, discord, etc. By burning different types of 
candles and manipulating them in various ways, much 
magick can be done. 

The candles can be of any sort, it is the color that is 
important. For this the following tables are important: 


Sun Sign 













Birth Date 

January 20-February 18 
February 19-March 20 
March 21-April 19 
April 20-May 20 
May 21-June 21 
June 22-July 22 
July 23-August 22 
August 23-September 22 
September 23-October 22 
October 23-November 21 
November 22-December 21 
December 22- January 19 

Primary Color 








































Purity, Truth, Sincerity 

Strength, Health, Vigor, Sexual Love 

Tranquility, Understanding, Patience, Health 

Impulsiveness, Depression, Changeability 

Finance, Fertility, Luck 

Attraction, Persuasion, Charm, Confidence 

Hesitation, Uncertainty, Neutrality 

Honor, Love, Morality 

Evil, Loss, Discord, Confusion 

Tension, Ambition, Business Progress, Power 

Cancellation, Neutrality, Stalemate 

Encouragement, Adaptability, Stimulation, Attraction 

Sickness, Cowardice, Anger, Jealousy, Discord 

164 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 














Candle magick can be done on your regular altar, but 
since many rituals require that the candles be left set- 
up for a period, it might be a good idea to use a supple- 
mentary altar. This could be a card table, coffee table, 
box, top of a chest of drawers — almost anything. You 
will have a white altar candle (with God and Goddess 
figures on either side, if you wish) . In front of this will 
be your censer, water and salt. These are the basics. 

Now let's look at a typical candleburning ritual. 
The one "To Win the Love of Another" makes a good 
example. On one side (the left) of the altar place the can- 
dle representing the Petitioner (either yourself or the 
person for whom you are doing the ritual). On the 
other side of the altar place a candle to represent the 
one you wish to attract. 

Here let me interject to say that you should NEVER 
try to interfere with another's free will. Therefore you 
must not perform such a ritual as this, aimed at a 
specific person. For the second candle, use one for the 
type of person you wish to attract. For example, you 
might use a pink candle if you desire someone loving 
and affectionate; a red one for someone energetic and 
sexually strong. Or you could use a Cancer (sun sign) 
candle for someone sensitive and home-loving; a Leo 
candle for a forceful leader; a Virgo candle for some- 
one analytical and painstaking. With any of these, of 
course, you cannot find just one or two colors to 
signify all that you might want in a lover, so you might 
prefer just to go with a plain white candle. Whichever 
you use, you can elaborate on your desires when you 
"dress" it (see below). For the Petitioner's candle (on 
the left), go by TABLE 1, according to birth date. 

The candles of the two principles must be "dressed" 
before use. This is done by anointing them all over 
with oil. If you cannot obtain special candle-anointing oil 
then ordinary olive oil will do. Rub the candles from 
the center outwards (see Figure 11.2), concentrating 
your thoughts on the person represented as you do so. 
See yourself (or the Petitioner) as you rub the first candle. 
Mentally name it; saying that it represents you (her/ 
him) . For the second candle you will not be using a 
name, of course, but concentrate your mind on the 
attributes you wish for in the unknown person you 
want to attract. 


Next to each of these ASTRAL candles stand a 
RED candle. From TABLE 2 you can see that Red = 
Strength, health, vigor, sexual love. These red OFFER- 
ATORY candles, then, will ensure that you are both 
attracted to one another for those reasons you already 
have in mind. 

Now for the actual attraction part. Beside your 
own Astral candle stand a GOLD candle. Again from 
TABLE 2, you can see that Gold (or Yellow) is for 
attraction, persuasion, charm, confidence. So by your 
charm and confidence you are going to attract the person 
you want; to persuade her or him to come to you. 

Your altar is now set up like the diagram on the 
following page. 

The ritual is started by drawing a circle about you 
and the altar, with your athame, and consecrating it as 
usual. Now meditate for a moment on what you want 
to achieve. 

Light the candle representing the Petitioner and 

"Here is ... (Petitioner's Name) ... This candle is her/ 
him. This flame burns as does her/his spirit. " 

Lesson Eleven: Magick I 165 

God | 


Altar Candle • 



n — » 

\_J Goddess 







Red #2 


Altar Diagram 

Light RED #1 and say: 

"The love of ...(Name)... is great and is here 
shown. It is a good strong love and sought by 
many. " 

Light ASTRAL candle of the love desired and say: 

"This is the heart of another; one whom s/he will 
love and desire. I picture her/him before me. " 

Light RED #2 and say: 

"The love s/he has for ...(Petitioner's Name)... 
grows with this flame. It bums as does the light 
and is forever drawn towards her/him. Great is 
the love that each has for the other. " 

Light GOLD candle and say: 

"Here draws the one towards the other. Such is 

their love that all feel its attraction. This candle 

burns and draws them ever near. Powerful is 

the persuasion. 

Ever does he feel the pull; 

The thought of her is constant. 

His days are long with yearning for her, 

His nights are filled with desire. 

To be as one, together, is all that he would wish. 

To be as one, forever, is his immediate need. 

For no rest shall he find until 

Beside her he does lie. 

Her every wish hell move to fill 

To serve, to live — not die. 

He cannot fight a pull so strong 
Nor would he think to fight; 
He wishes but to ride the stream 
To her, at journey's end. 
Where the sun goes up 
Shall her love be by her; 
Where the sun goes down 
There will he be. " 

Sit for a moment before extinguishing the candles 
(which should be blown out, not pinched out) . Repeat 
the ritual every day, moving the ASTRAL and RED #2 
candles one inch towards the Petitioner each time. Continue 
daily until ASTRAL and RED #2 finally touch the 

You should be able to see the sympathetic qualities 
of the above ritual. This is typical of candleburning 
magick. There is obviously insufficient room in this 
lesson to give you all possible rituals. You can make up 
your own or you may prefer to turn to my book: 
Practical Candleburning Rituals (Llewellyn Publications, 
1982), which contains rituals for nearly thirty different 

Candleburning magick can be done by a whole 
coven, with one or more speaking the words and 
doing the lighting and moving (where necessary) of 
the candles. 


There is probably more interest in so-called "love 
philtres" and "potions" than in any other form of 
magick. The vast maj ority of these, however, belong in 
the realm of fiction. But there are rituals that do 

166 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

work. One of the best known and most effective is the one involving the 
use of "POPPETS". These Poppets represent the lovers. As with any 
sympathetic magick, what is done to the poppets is done to the lovers. 

A Poppet is a specially prepared, cloth doll. It is a simple rough 
figure cut from two pieces of cloth (Figure 11.3). Whilst cutting the cloth, 
you should be concentrating on the person it represents. It may then be 
worked on further by embroidering it with the facial features; special 
characteristics (e.g. beard and moustache; long flowing hair). Even 
astrological signs of the person may be put on. If you are not too good at 
embroidery, then put these on with a magic-marker or pen. Now sew 
around the figure leaving just the top open (Figure 11.4). The figure 
should then be stuffed with appropriate herbs, again while the actual 
person is being concentrated upon. Such herbs as verbena, vervain, 
feverfew, artemesia, yarrow, valerian, motherwort, rosebuds, elder or 
damiana can be used. These are the herbs governed by Venus. The top 
may then be sewn up. 

Two figures are prepared in this way; one representing the male 
and the other the female. All of this preparation, of course, should take 
place in the Circle, and can be done by the individual or by the 
whole coven. 

Since you are seeking your "ideal mate" then, as with candleburning 
(above), make the second figure with all the qualities that you seek. It is 
nameless but again can display physical desires (e.g. long blonde hair) 
and be made with all attributes in mind. Remember, this is strong 
magick. It is for a permanent relationship so do not use it just to obtain a 
partner for a brief affaire. 

When ready lay the poppets on the altar, one at the left hand end of 
your sword, or athame, and one at the right hand end. They should be in 
front of the weapon. Also on the altar lay a piece of red ribbon, twenty- 
one inches in length. 

Petitioner: "O mighty God and Goddess, 
Hear now my plea to you. 
My plea for true love for ...(Name)... and for her desire." 

Petitioner takes up one of the Poppets and, dipping her fingers into the 
salted water, sprinkles it all over. She then passes it through the smoke of 
the incense, turning it so that all parts get well censed. While doing this 

she says: 

Petitioner: "I name this Poppet ...(Petitioner's Name)... 
It is her in every way. 
As she lives, so lives this Poppet. 
Aught that I do to it, I do to her." 

Petitioner replaces the Poppet and picks up the other one. Sprinkling 
and censing it, she says: 

Two cloth outlines 

Figure 11.3 

Leave open to stuff 

Sewn around 

Embroidered {or 

painted) with 

identifying astrological 

Sun, Moon and 

Rising Sign symbols 

Petitioner: "This Poppet is her desired mate 
In every way. 

Figure 11.4 

Lesson Eleven: Magick / 167 

As he lives, so lives this Poppet. 
Aught that I do to it, I do to to him." 

Petitioner replaces Poppet, then kneels before the altar 
with one hand resting lightly on each Poppet. With 
eyes closed, she pictures the two represented people 
slowly coming together, meeting kissing and embracing. 
As she does this — which should not be hurried — she 
should slowly move the two Poppets along the length 
of the sword towards one another until they eventually 
meet. At this point she may open her eyes, and holding 
the Poppets together, face to face, say: 

Petitioner: "Thus may they be drawn 
One to the other, 
Strongly and truly. 
To be together always 
As One. 

No more shall they be separated; 
No more alone, 
But ever fast together 
As One." 

The Poppets should now be laid together in the center 
of the altar, with the sword resting across on top of 
them. For the next ten minutes or so, the Petitioner (if 
Solitary) or the whole coven may start to dance around 
and work magick, in the usual way, directed to the end 
of bringing the two people together. 

As an alternative, the Petitioner/Coven may simply 
sit in meditation and concentrate on seeing the two 
people together — happy, laughing, enjoying one 
another's company and obviously in love. 

This ritual should be performed on a Friday, 
during the Waxing Moon, and repeated on the following 
two Fridays. If the calendar is such that it is impossible 
to get three Fridays in the waxing phase of the Moon, 
then do it on a Friday, Wednesday and Friday. Always 
aim to have the final Friday ritual as close to the Full 
Moon as possible. Between rituals, if the altar cannot 
be left set up with the two Poppets on it (lying under 
the sword), then they should be taken (kept together, 
face to face) and wrapped in a clean, white cloth and 
put somewhere where they will not be disturbed. 

On the final Friday, after the above ritual has been 
performed, continue as follows: 

Petitioner: "Now may the Lord and the Lady 
Bind these two together, 
As I do bind them here." 

She takes up the Poppets and 
binds the red ribbon several 
times around the two, tying 
the ends together about them. 

Petitioner: "Now are they for- 
ever one, 

Even as the Gods 

May each truly be- 
come a part of the 

That, separated, they 
would seem in- 

So Mote It Be!" 

The bound Poppets are placed beneath the sword 
again and left for a few moments while the Petitioner 
meditates (no dancing or chanting this time). 

After completion of the ritual, the Poppets should 
be wrapped in the clean, white cloth and kept carefully 
where they will never be unbound. 


This is one of the most potent forms of magick, for 
here we are dealing very much with the life forces. Dr. 
Jonn Mumford, in Sexual Occultism, states that the most 
important psycho-physiological event, in the life of a 
human, is the orgasm. Sex Magick is the art of using 
the orgasm— indeed, the whole sexual experience— 
for magickal purposes. Successful sex magick involves 
an interplay of four factors: (i) all aspects of extrasensory 
perception are heightened during sexual excitation; 
(ii) immediately before, during and after climax the 
mind is in a state of hypersensitivity; (iii) consistency 
of peak sexual sensations facilitates access to the 
unconscious realms; (iv) during orgasm many people 
have experienced timelessness and a total dissolution 
of the ego, accompanied by subjective sensations of 
being "absorbed by" their partner. 

The sex act is obviously the best possible, and 
most natural, way of generating the power we need for 
magick. The whole copulation process follows the 
pattern of starting slowly and gradually building up, 
getting faster and faster, until the final explosion of the 
climax. Within the Circle this can be done by a single 
couple, by a whole coven, or by a Solitary Witch, as 
you will see. 

168 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Start out as usual with a short meditation on what 
you want to achieve. Then take up positions with 
males and females, in pairs, kneeling facing one another 
(I will deal with the Solitary in a moment). With eyes 
closed, allow your hands to pass slowly over your 
partner's body, stroking and caressing. This should 
not be hurried and the object, of course, is to bring 
about sexual arousal. When ready, the man should sit 
cross-legged with the woman sitting on top of him, 
facing him, and with his penis inside her. Now a gentle 
rocking backwards and forwards should take place. 
The man should try to keep his erection yet not climax. 
At this point the concentration should move to the 
object of the magick (which will also help in delaying 
orgasm); the "taking aim" part. Get the required 
picture in your mind and focus on it. Work on it, 
generating the power within you — you will certainly 
feel it building — and holding off the orgasm just as 
long as you possibly can. When the man feels he can 
hold off no longer, he should allow himself to fall 
backwards so that he is lying flat on the floor. As he 
climaxes he should release the power — actually see it, 
in your mind's eye, flashing away from you in a line of 
white light. The woman should strive for orgasm at the 
same time, if necessary stimulating her clitoris with 
her fingers to achieve it. At completion she may fall 
(gently!) forwards to lie on her partner — still united — 
for several minutes. 

If the male has difficulty controlling ejaculation, it 
may be better for him to lay flat on his back at the out- 
set (after the caressing stage) and for the woman to 
kneel astride him and move as he indicates. 

As Jonn Mumford puts it: "If one considers the 
achievement of orgasm as analogous to launching a 
rocket to hit the Moon (i.e. the climax), then it is an 
unequivocal fact that so far as the neural pathways of 
the nervous system are concerned, the method by 
which the sexual skyrocket is launched is of absolutely 
no consequence. All the nervous system is concerned 
with is that contact explosion in inner space. The firing 
modality, be it masturbation, homosexuality or hetero- 
sexuality, is irrelevent. Only the end result (orgasm) is 
important and any form of sexual behavior is but a 
means to an end." So, for the Solitary Witch the answer is 
masturbation; remembering to hold off the orgasm 
just as long as possible. The longer it can be held off, 
the more power is generated. 

Of course there are alternatives for couples. It 
might be that the woman has her period; that the 

couple are of the same sex; that there is some other 
strong reason why actual intercourse cannot be indulged 
in (and let's try to lose the Victorian continence so 
many of us became imbued with from early Christian 
propaganda). One alternative is mutual masturbation. 
Another is oral sex. To once again quote Dr. Mumford: 
"Any repugnance to oral sex among Westerners is due 
to widespread confusion about the difference between 
bodily secretions (waste products no longer needed) 
and sexual secretions (fluids rich in nutrients) . . . 
biochemistry has discovered that fresh semen con- 
tains liberal quantities of calcium, iron, phosphorous 
and Vitamin C*." Oral sex can be especially suitable, 
of course, when all chances of pregnancy must be 

I have already emphasized the importance of 
bodily cleanliness for magick. Where sex magick is to 
be worked, it is especially important. 

Sex Magick can also be very useful as an adjunct 
to such things as divination and astral projection. If 
being used as a means of charging a cingulum, then 
the tying of the knots should be done with the woman 
tying the first, the man the second, and so on. When 
the ninth knot has been tied, then the cord should be 
wrapped around, tying the couple together as they 
approach orgasm. 

One final word on Sex Magick. It is only one of 
many ways to work magick. If you feel it is not for you, 
then don't use it. It's as simple as that. No one is saying 
you have to use Sex Magick if you are a Witch; you 
don't. Also, if you want to use it but feel you couldn't in 
a full coven situation, then do it only on an individual 
basis. The important thing — as in all of Witchcraft — is 
that you should feel comfortable with what you are 
doing. You should not be coerced into anything. 


This is used to prevent someone from giving 
away a secret. It is again a form of sympathetic magick. 
A clay or wax effigy may be used, or a cloth Poppet. In 
ritual it is named for the person it represents. Then, 
with appropriate words, the Witch takes a needle 
threaded with a twenty-one inch length of red silk, 
and sews up the mouth of the figure. She finishes off 
by winding the thread all around the body of the 
figure. The concentration is on the fact that the person 
is unable to speak on the forbidden subject — whatever 
the secret may be that is being safeguarded. At the end 

* The Tantric facial pack par excellence is liberal quantities of fresh, warm semen upon the skin, with special attention to the oily areas of the forehead and nose. As the semen dries, it 
closes the pores with an astringent action and tightens the wrinkles, feeds the skin cells and thus leaves the face rejuvenated and smooth. 

Lesson Eleven: Magick 1 169 

of the ritual the Poppet is stored away in a safe place, 
wrapped in a piece of white cloth. So long as the 
thread remains in place, the person represented is 


It is possible for the nicest person to have enemies. 
Some people may be jealous of you; misunderstand 
you; just dislike the way you do your hair! Many people 
have said to me: "I don't need protection. I don't have 
any enemies." But there are the above-type "enemies" 
that you wouldn't even know about. They may well be 
as sweet as pie to you, to your face, but be bitterly 
jealous, or whatever, behind your back. How do you 
protect yourself against their negativity? How do you 
protect yourself in case some warped individual decides 
to work magick against you? You don't want to hurt 
them, but you certainly want to protect yourself. 

The best way is with a "Witch's Bottle". This is an 
ancient defense, known throughout folklore. It is made 
on an individual basis. The idea is to protect yourself 
and, at the same time, send back whatever is being sent 
at you. You should never be the originator of harm, 
nor seek revenge, but you certainly can protect 

To make a Witch's Bottle, take a regular jar such as 
a 6 oz instant-coffee jar. Half fill it with sharp objects: 
broken glass, old razor blades, rusty nails and screws, 
pins, needles, etc. When the jar is half filled with these 
objects, urinate in it to fill it. If a woman is preparing 
her bottle, she should also try to get some menstrual 
blood into it. Now put the top on the jar and seal it with 
tape. It should then be buried in the ground, at least 
twelve inches deep, in an isolated spot where it can 
remain undisturbed. If you live in a city, then it will be 
worth a trip out of town to find some remote spot to 
bury it. 

So long as the bottle remains buried and un- 
broken, it will protect you from any evil directed 
against you. This applies whether the evil is directed 
by an individual or by a group of people. Not only will 
it protect you, but it will also reflect back that evil on 
the sender (s). So the more s/he tries to harm you, the 
more s/he will be harmed her/himself. 

Such a bottle should last almost indefinitely, but 
to be on the safe side I'd suggest redoing the ritual 
once a year. With the present rate of housing develop- 
ment you never know when your bottle may be dug 
up or inadvertently smashed. 


As you can see there are many, many ways of 
working magick, far more than I can contain in this 
one lesson. I have not discussed the magick of healing, 
but will look at that in Lesson 13. 

Don't be afraid to experiment, but do play it safe. 
None of the magick I have recommended is of the type 
that involves conjuring up some unknown and un- 
predictable entity. AVOID THAT TYPE OF MAGICK. 
That is where you can end up in deep trouble. Wiccan 
magick is just as powerful (perhaps more so) as any 
other type, when properly done. 

Let me recap the basic form of ritual for the 
working of magick: 

• Cast the Circle carefully. If it is a regular Esbat 
meeting, reinforce the Circle before starting the 

• Never break the Circle whilst working magick. 
Your power will leak out and who knows what 
might be attracted in. 

• Discuss what is to be done and ensure that every- 
one is quite clear on how it is to be done. Decide on 
the exact wording of any chants and on the key 
word for releasing the power. 

• Start with a short meditation in which you see the 
whole story — the changing pattern from the pres- 
ent situation to the final (desired) situation. 

• Work up the power by any of the following, or a 
combination of them: 

dance, chant, cords, sex, candleburning, pop- 

• Take aim — see the finished product. 

• Release the power. 

This has been an important lesson. Please study it 
well. You are getting closer to the time when you will 
be practicing all that you have learned. Perhaps this 
would be a good point at which to start a full review of 
all that I have discussed so far. Go back and re-read 
your lessons. 

170 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


In both the text of this and the next lesson, and in 
the examination questions, I use examples of "love 
magick". Please always remember that love magick 
directed at a specific individual should never be done, 
for to do so would be to interfere with that person's 
free will. You would be forcing them to do something 

they would not normally do and may not wish to do. 
The only sort of love magick permissible is that aimed 
non-specifically ... to bring "someone" to you, with- 
out knowing exactly who it will be. But far better to just 
work on yourself, to make yourself generally more 
attractive, than to try to change someone else. 


1. What Magickal methods proved to be most effective for you? 

2. Relate some of your experiences, aftereffects, from working Magick. 

3. Write out some of the chants that have worked well in your magickal endeavors. 

Draw a poppet that you will use in a ritual. What will you stuff it with. See Charms, Spells and Formulas by Ray 
Malbrough (Llewellyn) for more on poppets. 

5 . Draw your altar arrangements for candle magick. What color candles do you use for specific workings? Keep 
a log of the dates on which you have performed rituals and the results. Watch for patterns in planetary 
influences, colors, days of the week, etc. 

6. Illustrate and explain how you construct your Circle for Magick work. 

7. Explain your procedure for Drawing Down the Power. 

Lesson Twelve: The Power of the Written Word / 177 

their own form of alphabet. It was known as Ogam 
Bethluisnion. It was an extremely simple form and was 
used more for carving into wood and stone than for 
general writing. With a center line, it lent itself especially 
to carving along the edge of a stone or a piece of 

b I f s n h d t c % e* ia 

~i — n — in mi i 

j u in nil inn v 


ae m ff ng st r a o u e *' 

Jfc / //f //////////f/ | | | m mi [in 

Ogam Bethluisnion 


Many magickal orders, past and present, have 
leaned heavily on an ancient Egyptian background. 
For them, of course, the Egyptian hieroglyphs are 
ideal as a magickal alphabet. Sir Wallis Budge's book, 
Egyptian Language, is a useful reference work here. 
Below is a basic Egyptian alphabet: 

J 5 id V e i <=> 99 



fe* |t 



K L M 







C3S3 j) 6f %ZZ> © 
Sh Th Kh 

Egyptian Heiroglyphs 

Going back to where I started, with the magicians 
of the Middle Ages, we find a variety of magickal 
alphabets. These have been culled from various ancient 
grimoires (from the Old French for "grammar") — the 
magician's book of rituals — extant in the libraries and 
private collections of Europe and America. 


The Theban Script (also known as "Honorian") 
was a popular alphabet and is used extensively by 
Gardnerian Witches, among others. It has been referred 
to — quite incorrectly — as "The Witches' Runes" (it is 
not runic at all, in fact) and as "The Witches' Alpha- 









































Symbol designating n 
thi end of a stntact £_ 






This was used almost exclusively by the Cere- 
monial Magicians, though occasionally you may find 
an individual Witch using it on a talisman. 

















r c j 


7 A t<> S 

O, Q 

S T U, V W X Y 

Passing the River 

1 78 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


Also known as "Celestial" this is another alphabet 
used almost exclusively by Ceremonial magicians. 


A *$ 

I, J K L 

M N O, Q P R 

D U f I ID ^ T 

S T U, V W X Y Z 



Sometimes called "Language of the Magi". Again, 
used almost exclusively by Ceremonial magicians. 

m w m rr tu -fti- y n 



I, J K L M N O, Q P R 

^ A* sK AA * K Y 

S T U, V W X Y Z 



The Pecti-Wita (more on this Scottish tradition in 
Lesson 15) have two interesting forms of magickal 
writing. One is a variation on runes and the other is 
based on the old and very decorative Pictish script. 
Both are presented here for the first time ever. 

As with other runes, the Pictish ones are made up 
entirely of sraight lines. The way they are put together, 
however, requires some study. Basically they are used 

with phonetic spelling. That means, spelling a word the 
way that it sounds. The English language has a ridiculous 
number of words spelled nothing like the way they are 
pronounced. For example, bough (the limb of a tree), 
cough, through, though, thought ... all have the ough 
spelling, yet all are pronounced differently! Spelling 
those words phonetically they would be: bow, coff, 
throo or thru, thoe and thot. This is the basis of Pecti-Wita 
runes; things are spelled as they are pronounced. 
Now with the examples just given, through could be 
either throo or thru, so let's look at the pronunciation of 
vowel sounds. "A" can be a as in hat, or a as in hate. "E" 
can be e as in let or e as in sleep. "I" can be i as in lit or i as 
in light. "O" can be o as in dot or o as in vote. "U" can be u 
as in cup or u as in lute. By putting the bar over the letter 
(a, e,T, o, u) we can indicate the hard sound and so 
differentiate from the soft sound. This is how it is 
indicated in the Pictish runes: 

A= X 
E= < 




i= A 





u= v 



We can go a step further with these runes. Vowels 

are pronounced differently when put with an "R"(ar, 

er, ir, etc.) or with another vowel and "R" (air, ear, ere, 

our, etc). To indicate these, then, the symbol ^ is 

used over the vowel: 


^\= ar, ae, air; 

<£_ = er, ere, ear, eir; 

^ = ir, ire; 


<^> = or, ore, our, ow; 

\/= ur, ure. 

If this sounds complicated, bear with me. You will 
find that, with a little practice, it is really quite easy. [A 
point to remember if you just can 't get it no matter how 
hard you try, then just go ahead and spell out the 
words substituting rune for letter without regard for 
phonetics. But do give it a good try first, please.] 


In the last lesson I dealt with the power of the 
spoken word; how, through chant and rhyme, a Cone 
of Power can be raised to work magick. Now I'd like to 
look at the power of the written word. 

At the time of the Middle Ages, when thousands 
were being murdered on the charge of Witchcraft, 
there were many (including high dignitaries of the 
Christian Church) who engaged in the practice of 
magick quite openly and unrestrained. The reason 
they were able to work so freely lies in the word 
"practice". Witchcraft was a religion and hence a rival 
to Christianity. But magick, of the ceremonial or ritual 
variety, was only a practice and therefore no cause for 
concern by the Church. It was also, by virtue of its 
nature, a very expensive and learned practice and 
consequently only available to the select few. That 
select few consisted of a high percentage of ecclesiastics 
who not only had the time to devote to its pursuit but 
who also invariably had access to the necessary funds. 
Bishops, Archbishops, even Popes were known to 
practice the "Art Magick". Gerbert the Bishop, who 
later became Pope Sylvester II, was regarded as a great 
magician. Other practitioners included Pope Leo III, 
Pope Honorius III, Pope Urban V; Nicephorus, Patri- 
arch of Constantinople; Rudolf II, the German Emperor; 
Charles V of France; the Cardinals Cusa and Cajetan; 
Bernard de Mirandole, Bishop of Caserta; Udalric de 
Fronsperg, Bishop of Trent and many others. 

Each of the magicians worked alone and jealously 
guarded his methods of operation. They guarded them 
not from the Church authorities, but from other 
magicians. To protect their works from prying eyes, 
they utilized secret alphabets. Many of these alphabets 
are known today and are used not only by magicians 
but also by Witches and other occult practitioners. 
Why would Witches be interested in using these forms 
of writing? Some, perhaps, for that same secrecy, but 
the majority for another very good reason . . . one way 

to put power into an object is to write appropriate words on it 
whilst directing your energies into the writing. 

When you write in ordinary, everyday English 
script, you invariably do not concentrate. You are so 
accustomed to writing that you can almost let your 
mind wander. Your hand almost guides itself as it 
scribbles away. Compare this to writing in a strange 
alphabet that you do not know well. Then you have to 
concentrate; you have to keep your mind on what you 
are doing. So it is in this way — by utilizing an uncom- 
mon form of writing — that you can direct your energies, 
your power, into what you are working on. 


Magicians would use the above method for 
charging (with power) everything they needed: their 
sword, censer, wand, athame, bell, trumpet, trident, 
etc. They would even write Words of Power on their 
robes and on a parchment hat. You have already done 
something similar when making your athame, by 
carving the handle or etching the blade with your 
name or your Magickal Monogram. This helped put 
your own personal power into the instrument. 

The word Rune means "mystery" or "secret", in 
Early English and related languages. It is certainly 
heavily charged with overtones and for good reason. 
Runes were never a strictly utilitarian script. From 
their earliest adaption into Germanic usage they served 
for divinatory and ritual uses. 

There are more variations of runes to be found 
than any other alphabet, it seems. There are three 
main types: Germanic, Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon. 
They each, in turn, have any number of subdivisions/ 
variations (see following page) . 


The early Kelts and their priests, the Druids, had 


176 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

n !► * fc < X » N i I<> 



z s t b e m I 

Germanic Runes 


J o 


Futharkhn i a. s t b m I R 



Looking first at the GERMANIC, there are 
basically twenty-four different runes employed, 
though variations can be found in different 
areas. A common name for the Germanic 
runes isfuthark, after the first six letters ('th' 
is one letter: J> ).In the SCANDINAVIAN 
(Danish and Swedish-Norwegian, or Norse) 
are found sixteen runes, again with (innumer- 
able) variations. 

The ANGLO-SAXON runes vary in 
number, anywhere from twenty-eight to thirty- 
one. In fact by the ninth Century, in North- 
umbria, we find thirty-three runes. A common 
name for the Anglo-Saxon runes is futhorc, 
again from the first six letters. 

A 'Celtic' form of runes is sometimes 
employed by Gardnerian and Celtic covens. 
The 'Saxon' runes are the ones favored by the 

The Tree, 
The Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft 

Raymond Buckland 
Samuel Weiser, New York 1974 

f u t/t & r k h n / 4 s t b m / R 

Scandinavian Runes 




f l\ F P fc h X ? 

v n \> p i* k x p 

t n V F fc h x p" 

\ i + \ c r r 
+ i 4> $ c r i 
ill i 




Ruthwell - 




m I 

n 3 

Anglo-Saxon Runes 


en k 

9 st 


abc de f g h i,j k 1 mno.qpr s t u vw x 

y z ng gh ea ae oe th 

Seax-Wica Runes 

Lesson Twelve: The Power of the Written Word / 179 

A final note on the vowels. As in Hebrew, the 
vowel is written above the line, in Pictish runes, rather 
than with the consonants. Much like this: Th e v°w e l h 
wrHt e n a b°v e th e lin e . (Phonetically this would be: 
Th e v° e l % rH e n a b u v th e l T n). 

Here are 

the complete Pecti-Wita Runes: 


-x X 



E — 





I — 



IR, IRE — /\ 






-V V 

ur, ure — y 

B — 




s-i 7 










F — 

























Z ~\ 

You will notice that there is no "C", "Q" or "X". 
The reason is the use of the phonetic spelling. In the 
English language "C" is either pronounced the same 
as an "S" (as in cease) or the same as a "K" (as in escape), 
so there is really no need for the "C". Similarly, "Q" is 
pronounced "kw" (e.g. quick = kwik) and "X" is pro- 
nounced "eks" (e.g.eksaktli), so they are unnecessary. 
Single runes are given for "ch", "sh", "th", "gh" and 
"ng". Here are one or two examples of phonetic 
spellings using these: 



CHOOSE — ^ ^J 7 

COME— ^ V/ 

Hopefully you can see that this is really not too diffi- 
cult and can actually be a lot of fun. A few more examples 
might help: 

Phonetically: Thes ar eksampls of how 

Pecti-Wita Runes: \? X \X hY^X 2 k 

Phonetically: the Pekti-Wita runs ar 

Pecti-Wita Runes: fr* T^Vf^ t'f\X 


Phonetically: usd. As u kan se, tha kan 

Pecti-Wita Runes: XA. X K A X & £7 


Phonetically: aktuali luk 



Pecti-Wita Runes: KP" A 4 £ 

Phonetically: atraktif. 

Pecti-Wita Runes: P"b L^2 

Some Pecti-Witans go just one step further by 
running all the words together and using a "+ " to indicate 

x < 

F/++U 7 A^X + XX etc. 

(these or any other ones); KEEP THEM UPRIGHT. 

180 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

The Picts were better known for their elaborate "swirl" 
style of writing. This is much more straightforward 
than the above runes in that it is not done phonetically, 
and the vowels are kept on a level with the con- 
sonants. It is simply a matter of substituting the Pictish 
symbol for the letter. The symbols are rather elaborate, 
however, and you need to be careful in doing them to 
avoid confusion. Again single symbols are included 
for "ch", "sh", "th", "gh" and "ng". 

A- @ 

K- \f> 



L- y 

V- If) 



w— \$ 



x— *b 

e — (§r 




p- p 

z— © 




H- 6 ) 

R-J 3 

SH— | 

I- fl 


TH— n 

J- e) 


NG — ^ 

Here are 

a few examples 

of using the Pictish 






O F 

» «§» ^ o 





Lesson Twelve: The Power of the Written Word / 181 


A talisman is a man-made object endowed with 
magickal powers, especially for averting evil from, or 
bringing good luck to, its owner. In this sense a rosary, 
crucifix, St. Christopher medal, etc., is a talisman. But, 
as you know, the most powerful magick is that done by 
the person affected. In the same way, the most power- 
ful talisman is one actually made by the person who 
needs it. A talisman made by one person for another 
can never be as strong as a personally made one. 

According to the magickal order, the Hermetic 
Order of the Golden Dawn, a talisman is "a magickal 
figure charged with the Force which it is intended to 
represent". It is so charged by (i) inscription, and (ii) 
consecration. It can be of any shape, but let's first look 
at the material of the talisman. 

A talisman can be of virtually any material — 
paper, silver, copper, lead, stone — but traditionally 
some substances are more appropriate than others, 
and their use will imbue the talisman with more 
power. For example, as you know, the days of the 
week are each ruled by a planet: Sunday — SUN, 
Monday— MOON, Tuesday— MARS, Wednesday— 
MERCURY, Thursday— JUPITER, Friday— VENUS, 
Saturday — SATURN. Now each of these planets is, in 
turn, associated with a metal: Sun — GOLD, Moon — 
SILVER, Mars— IRON, Mercury— MERCURY, Jupiter— 
TIN, Venus— COPPER, Saturn— LEAD. 

From the table of correspondences given in the 
last lesson (for Candleburning) you know what prop- 
erties are governed by the days of the week and can 
therefore correlate those properties with the metals: 

SUNDAY— Sun / GOLD I Fortune, hope, money 
MONDAY— Moon / SILVER / Merchandise, dreams, theft 
TUESDAY — Mars / IRON I Matrimony, war, enemies, prison 
WEDNESDAY— Mercury / MERCURY I Debt, fear, loss 
THURSDAY— Jupiter / TIN I Honor, riches, clothing, desires 
FRIDAY— Venus / COPPER / Love, friendship, strangers 
SATURDAY— Saturn / LEAD I Life, building, doctrine, protection 

So, for example, knowing that Friday is associated 
with love (ruled by Venus) and that the metal is copper, 
you now know that a love talisman, for greatest effect, 
should be made of copper. 

Mercury gives a bit of a problem in that it is a liquid 
metal. It could be used by containing it in a miniature 
bottle, or similar, of some other metal, but it is more 
usual — and a lot easier — to substitute either gold, silver 

or parchment (these days aluminum is also sometimes 
substituted for mercury). Gold, silver and parchment 
can similarly be used in place of any of the other 
metals if they are unobtainable but, obviously, the 
specific metal would be the best to use. It's not always 
easy to find just the right piece of the correct metal, but 
don't give up too easily. Handicraft/hobby stores are 
great for many of them (copper especially) . I have also 
seen some very creative talismans. For instance: en- 
graved on a silver dollar or half-dollar, when silver 
was called for; on a copper penny or even on a flat- 
tened copper kitchen measuring-spoon, when copper 
was called for. 

Having chosen your metal, what should you 
inscribe on it? There are many talismanic designs 
shown in occult books, taken from such old grimoires 
as The Greater and. Lesser Keys of Solomon, The Black Pullet, 
Le Dragon Rouge and similar. But just copying these 
designs, without knowing their meanings or signifi- 
cance, and without personalizing them, is completely 
useless. You need to work specifically for yourself and 
specifically for your problem. The most common form 
a talisman takes is a metal disc worn on a chain as a 
pendant. On one side of the disc you place the personal- 
ization, and on the other side the objective. Let me 
give you an example. 

Jane Doe wants to get married. She already has a 
boyfriend, so love is not what she is seeking. Looking 
at the Table of Correspondences, you see that Mars 
rules matrimony. That's what she needs; a talisman to 
bring matrimony. The metal for Mars is iron. Jane can 
either obtain an iron disc and engrave on that, or she 
can opt for the easier gold, silver or parchment. 

One side she is going to personalize. She will do 
this by putting her name and date of birth on it. To be 
more specific, she should use her Craft name (in either 
runes or one of the other magickal alphabets). She 
could also add her Magickal Monogram; also her 
astrological Sun Sign, Rising Sign (Ascendant) and 
Moon Sign, plus ruling planets. These can all be 
arranged on the disc as shown in figure 12.1. However, 
there is no special pattern that has to be followed; any- 
thing that is aesthetically pleasing will do. An alterna- 
tive is shown in figure 12.2. 

As each of the symbols is engraved, or written, 
Jane should concentrate on herself; seeing herself as 
she best likes herself — charming, happy, self-confident. 

On the reverse side of the talisman she should 
put symbols traditionally associated with marriage: 
wedding bells, flowers, rings, hearts, etc. Or she could 

182 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

place a sigil, constructed from numerological squares as follows. 

From numerology you know that the numerological value of the 
word "matrimony" is 4+1 + 2+9+9+4+6+5+7 = 47 = 11 = 2 (see 
Lesson Three). We now construct a Magick Square containing all the 
numbers 1 through 9 (Figure 12.3). Now, starting at the first letter (M= 4), 
draw a small circle, to indicate the start, and then draw a line to the 
second letter/number (A = 1 ) . Follow on to 2 and then to 9. There are two 
9s in the word so stop-and-start there with small triangles: — [XJ — 
Continue through to the last letter and draw another small circle to indi- 
cate the end. 

At square 2, the numerological total (47 = 11 = 2), draw a large 
square. The finished figure will look like figure 12.4. Transferred off the 
squares it will look like figure 12.5. What you see in 12.5, then, is the sigil 
for Matrimony. This is what Jane must inscribe on the reverse of her 
talisman. As she does so, she should concentrate her thoughts on the 
marriage itself: see herself as a bride; see herself and her husband 
exchanging rings; see the Handfasting ritual taking place, etc. Such a 
sigil would be far more potent than the traditional bells, hearts and 

Incidentally, the Magickal Square used has the numbers arranged 
in such a way that, no matter whether you add them across or down, each 
line totals the same. Then the numerological total of the three columns' 
total equals 9 again (Figure 12.6). 

The day associated with matrimony was Tuesday. Then that is the 
day on which Jane should make her talisman. She should also consecrate 
it on a Tuesday . . . consecration is the secondary requirement for charging 
the talisman. She doesn't have to do it on the same Tuesday, but both days 
should be during the waxing phase of the Moon. The consecration she 
would do would be as given in Lesson 4. 

Whatever the purpose of the talisman, follow the same procedure: 
(a) find the day and the metal associated with your desire, (b) personalize 
one side of the appropriate piece of metal, (c) take the key word and, 
from the Magick Square, find the appropriate sigil, (d) inscribe the sigil 
on the reverse, concentrating as necessary, (e) consecrate the talisman. 

Once the talisman has been made, wear it on your person for three 
days and nights. This can be done either by fastening it to a chain and 
hanging it around your neck, or by carrying it in a small bag made of silk, 
hung around your neck. After the three days you do not need to wear it 
constantly, but can simply carry it in your pocket or purse. You should, 
however, sleep with it under your pillow each night. 

At each New Moon, clean the talisman with a good metal cleaner 
(for a parchment talisman, just rub over it lightly with a gum eraser) . For 
copper I would recommend washing with salt and vinegar, and then 
rinsing in clear water. At each Full Moon, hold out the talisman in the 
palm of your hand and expose it to the unrestricted light of the Moon. By 
"unrestricted" I mean not through the glass of a window. Either open the 
window or take it outside. Expose it for about five minutes on each side 
while concentrating your thoughts on the original purpose of the talis- 
man (if it should happen to be cloudy, so that you don't actually see the 
Moon itself, that is all right). 


Figure 12.1 

Figure 12.2 










Figure 12.3 


Figure 12.4 

Figure 12.5 

■■ IS 

■■ 15 

= 15 

15 15 15 = 45 

45 ... 4+5+9 
Figure 12.6 










Lesson Twelve: The Power of the Written Word 1 183 

A talisman can also be made in the form of a ring. 
Usually such a form has the Objective as the main 
engraving, with the Personalization around the edge. 
It should be made following the same procedure out- 
lined above. 


The difference between a talisman and an amulet 
is that while a talisman is human-made, an amulet is 
natural. A bear's claw, a rabbit's foot, a four-leaf clover; 
these are all amulets. One that is considered very 
much a Witch's amulet is a stone with a natural hole 
through it . . . obviously tying-in with fertility; the hole 
being symbolic of the vagina. So you cannot make an 
amulet; you can only adopt one. If you take an amulet 
and then engrave and consecrate it, as above, then it 
becomes a talisman (or, if you prefer, a "talismanic 


Music is the source of many types of enjoyment. 
There is the deep satisfaction that comes from creating 
music by voice or instrument, as well as the pleasure 
that may be found in listening. Many people protest 
that they are not musical. It's true that those who un- 
derstand music can be of most value, but persons 
without musical education can still learn to sing for 
their own pleasure and to enjoy beautiful songs and 
stirring rhythms. Simple melody and clearly defined 
rhythm is characteristic of folk music. Most of the 
songs and the music of the Craft have non-complex 
melodies and obvious rhythms. Song and dance is 
traditionally associated with Witchcraft. In fact, the 
waltz was originally derived from an old Witch dance 
known as La Volta. 

Most singing can be done in the Circle, however 
the Clearing the Temple is usually performed before any 
general dancing or games take place, with the exception 
of course, of dancing for the raising of power when 
working magick. Let's look at power-raising dancing 
first, then. 


In Lesson Eleven I talked about rhythm and a 
steady beat and said that "as a coven you can dance 
around, deosil, holding hands or you can dance in- 
dividually ..." The simplest dance consists of the 

group holding hands, facing inwards, and moving 
clockwise around the Circle with a regular left-right- 
left step . . . but as each foot hits the ground, bend the 
knee a little. You'll find that this gives more of a bounce, a 
rhythm, to your movement around the Circle. A more 
popular Craft step is the "double step", which includes a 
slight rocking movement back onto the rear leg and 
forward again before advancing. The actual movements 
would be as follows: 


Start with the left foot forward to 1 then follow 

the right foot forward to 2 (still behind the left). 
Then left foot forward to 3 

and right foot forward to 4 (Now ahead of the left). 
Now left foot forward to 5 
and right foot forward to 6 and so on. 

It may look a little complicated at first but really 
it's not. Try it. You'll be surprised how easily you'll pick 
it up. 

Other easy steps are the left, hop, right, hop, left, 
hop, right, hop, etc. If you have difficulty with any step 
then just do what comes naturally and fits in with the 
music, chant or rhythm. The main thing is that your 
steps should come automatically so that you can con- 
centrate your thoughts on the actual magick. 

An alternate to holding hands, with arms out- 
stretched, is to lock arms around waists or around 
shoulders, giving a very tight, close circle. Another 
way to j oin together is with arms bent at the elbow and 
linked — left arm under the arm of the person to your 

Covens can also dance individually, as the Solitary 
Witch must. This can be a straightforward movement 
around the Circle, deosil, using one of the above steps, 
or it can be a gradual progression spinning as you go 
(again spin deosil). The spin can be at a constant rate, 
or it can start slowly and gradually build up speed. 

184 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

CAUTION: Mind you don't get dizzy and either fall on 
the candles or break the Circle. 

To sum up I would say: THE SIMPLER THE 

If you are chanting as you dance, don't be afraid to 
stamp the floor, hard, on the beat. It will both help you 
keep the rhythm and help build the power. As for 
singing, as with all Craft singing, don't worry if you are 
not too musical. If you don't always hit the right notes 
it doesn't matter . . . it's the feeling that counts. 


Fun dancing — in or out of the Circle; not being 
done for magick — includes all of the above and also 
elaborations on them. "Paired Spinning" can be fun. 
This is where two Witches stand back-to-back and link 
arms at the elbows. They then go spinning round and 
round the Circle, sometimes one bending forward to 
lift the other off the ground. 

A popular dance is the 
Lufu (an old Anglo-Saxon 
word meaning "love"). It is 
often done at the start of a 
meeting, especially if there 
are several covens celeb- 
rating a Sabbat together. 
Sometimes referred to as 
the "Meeting Dance", it 
consists of a leader (not 
necessarily the Priest/ess; 
anyone can start it) leading The "Lufu", or 

a chain of Witches, joined Meeting Dance 

up alternately male-female. The leader takes the chain 
in a twisting dance around in a large circle and then 
gradually moves in towards the center, in a spiral. 
When the center is reached, the leader doubles back 
round and starts to work out again. As each person 
now passes those going the other way, they kiss. The 
line continues on until it has unwound again and 
everyone has kissed everyone else. 


If the coven includes instrumentalists that is fine. 
But if it doesn't, don't worry. Get a drum or tambourine; 
a bongo drum is good, or something like an Amerindian 
or Haitian drum or a Bodhran (Scottish/Irish hand- 
drum). The old name for a Witch's drum, incidentally, 

was tabor (pronounced "tay-ber"). A drum can actually 
be made fairly simply. 

Just beating out a rhythm is sufficient, especially 
for power-raising. Guitars, dulcimers, recorders, flutes, 
harmonicas, pan-pipes, even rattles such as maracas, 
are all good coven instruments. There are several 
good books of Craft and Pagan music available these 
days. In Appendix D I include some for you to try. 


After the religious part of the Sabbat comes the 
fun and merriment. Along with singing and dancing 
there are, traditionally, games. Some can be played 
before the Circle is opened up and others need more 
room. A few are detailed here. You probably know 
many more yourself. 

THE CANDLE GAME— All Witches but one sit in a 
circle, facing inwards. The chosen one stands outside 
this circle. A candle is lit. If the one outside the circle is 
a woman then the candle is now passed back and forth 
about the circle by the men. It does not have to be 
passed in any special direction; it can move around or 
back and forth across the circle of Witches. The 
woman runs around trying to blow out the flame, over 
the heads and shoulders of those forming the circle. 
When she is successful, she and the male who was 
holding it at the time will kiss and then change places. 
Then the women will pass the candle around, with the 
man running around trying to blow it out. 

WITCHES' WHISPERS— Everyone sits in a circle. One 
person starts by asking a question. Any occult-type 
question will do, though it should be one that calls for 
an answer of several words, rather than just a "yes" or 
"no" (e.g. "When is the best time to consecrate a talis- 
man?") . The person to the left of the questioner thinks 
of an answer and whispers it in the ear of the person to 
their left. That person, in turn, must whisper those 
same words (exactly as s/he thinks s/he heard them) 
to the next person and so on round the circle, each 
person passing on exactly what they think they heard 
whether or not it seems to make sense. When it gets 
back to the questioner, s/he repeats the question out 
loud and follows up with the answer that arrived. 
Invariably the answer gets so garbled in the process of 
being whispered from one to another, that it is 
extremely distorted and very humorous. You shouldn't 

Lesson Twelve: The Power of the Written Word 1 185 

consciously try to alter what you receive; you will find that it becomes I I 

slightly garbled all by itself! An alternate is not to bother with a question | \ 

but have someone start passing around one simple statement. When it [_ 

gets back to the originator, they can repeat the original followed by what Sent 
was finally received. 


PSYCHIC GAMES — Games to test psychic abilities are very popular. For 
example, form two lines with the coven sitting in couples, back-to-back. 
Each person has a piece of paper and a pencil. One line are Senders and 
the other line Receivers. Each of the Senders thinks of an object and 
draws a simple picture of it on her paper (simple is best: e.g. car, house, 
moon) . She then concentrates on it. The Receivers each try to pick up 
what their respective partners are sending and draw it on their piece of 
paper. Do this three times, then switch so that the original Senders are 
now Recievers and vice versa. You'll be amazed at how similar many of 
the pictures are (See Figure 12.7) 


There are many outdoor games that can be adopted for coven use. 
One is to suspend a barrel hoop (or make a large hoop of cardboard) on a 
rope, from a tree and to set it swinging. The Witches then take turns trying 
to throw a spear through the hoop, from various distances. Another 
popular pastime is target archery. 

An interesting "game" is dowsing. Let someone hide a quarter 
somewhere in/on the ground (or in the house, if inside) . Tape another 
quarter to a forked stick, as a "witness", and try to find the hidden one. 
Several people can search at the same time. Pendulums can also be used 
(see Lesson Eight) . The quarter goes to the one who finds it, of course. 

I'm sure you can come up with many more exciting and fun games 
yourself. The point is that Sabbats should be fun. They are a time for 
celebration. The religious side is very important, of course, but follow it 
with fun, games, good food and drink; wine and ale . . . which brings 
me to: 






It's simpler to just go to the store and buy the necessary edibles for 
the next coven meeting, but it can be a lot of fun making them. Below are 
some simple recipes for wine, beer, bread and even cakes for the Cakes 
and Ale rite. 

Figure 12.7 

COWSLIP WINE — Boil two pounds of white sugar with five quarts of 
water and, while boiling, pour over a quart of the yellow part of fresh 
cowslip flowers. Leave for twenty-four hours then strain and add two 
tablespoonsful of yeast spread on a piece of toast. Leave, covered, for ten 
days, stirring two or three times each day for the first four days. Then 
strain and bottle. 

BEE WINE — Into a syrup solution of two tablespoonsful of sugar to a pint 

186 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

of water, put a very small pinch of tartaric acid and a 
piece of yeast the size of a dime. Start it off at blood 
heat and stand the glass jar in a warm room near the 
window and leave it to work. In a day or so the yeast 
will begin to grow and collect bubbles so that the lump 
floats up and down (like a bee; hence the name). 
Fermentation will proceed until the liquid is converted 
into a sweet wine, which you may flavor by adding 
fruit juice. Do not let it work too long or it will become 
sour and eventually turn to vinegar. 

TOMATO WINE— Take the stalks off some sound, ripe 
tomatoes and cut them in pieces with a stainless steel 
knife. Then mash them well and let them drain through a 
hair-sieve. Season the juice with a little salt and sugar 
to taste, then nearly fill a jar with it. Cover fairly closely, 
leaving a small hole for the fermentation to work 
through, and leave until the process has ended. Pour 
off the clear liquid into bottles, cork them tightly and 
keep for some time before using. 

DANDELION WINE— The flowers must be freshly 
picked and the petals stripped from them. Put a gallon 
of these petals into a tub and pour a gallon of freshly- 
boiled water over them. Leave, covered, for ten to 
twelve days, stirring now and then. Then strain the 
liquid into a preserving pan and add three to four 
pounds of sugar, according to taste. Also add the 
thinly pared rind of one orange and one lemon, plus 
the rest of these two fruits cut in pieces but without 
any trace of the white pith or the pits. Boil gently 
together for twenty minutes then remove from heat. 
After it has cooled to luke-warm, put in a tablespoonful 
of brewer's yeast and a quarter of an ounce of com- 
pressed yeast spread on a piece of toast. Cover again 
and leave for a couple of days. Then put into a cask, 
bung it down and bottle after two months or more. 

APPLE BEER — Pour four gallons of boiling water over 
four pounds of grated apples in a pan and stir each day 
for two weeks. Then strain and add two pounds of 
sugar, two ounces of root ginger and a level teaspoon- 
ful each of cinnamon stick and whole cloves. Pour into 
a cask and bung tightly at once. In six weeks it will be 
ready to bottle. 

HONEY BEER — Boil an ounce of ground ginger with 
half a gallon of water for half an hour, then put it into a 
pan with a pound of white sugar, two ounces of lime 
juice, four ounces of clear-run honey, the juice of three 

lemons and another half-gallon of cold water. When 
the mixture is just luke-warm, add a large teaspoonful 
of yeast spread on a piece of toast. Leave for twelve 
hours and then strain through muslin. After giving it 
an hour or two to settle, carefully bottle it. 

MEAD — Dissolve four pounds of honey in a gallon of 
water and add an ounce of hops, half an ounce of root 
ginger and the pared rind of two lemons. Boil this for 
three-quarters of an hour, pour it into a cask to the 
brim and, when it is still luke-warm, add an ounce of 
yeast. Leave the mead to ferment and when this has 
ended, put in a quarter of an ounce of isinglass (obtain- 
able from wine-making supply stores) and bung the 
cask tightly. In six months it should be bottled. 

The above Mead recipe is a simple bee-keeper's 
one. The fact that mead was originally a very important 
and complicated drink is shown in The Closet Of Sir 
Kenelm Digby, first published in 1669, where no less 
than twenty-six recipes are given for it. Here, now, is a 
recipe for Sack Mead. If made properly (and this is 
somewhat more ambitious than the above recipes) it 
is the equal of any mead found in Tudor times. 

SACK MEAD — Requirements: a wooden vessel in 
which to mix the honey and water and carry out the 
fermentation for one month in a constant temperature 
of about 60 °F. Secondly, a vessel such as a small barrel 
in which to place the fermented liquor to mature for a 
matter of two to three years before being drunk. Thirdly, 
a smaller container (such as a glass jar) with adequate 
seal, into which to put a certain amount of the original 
fermented liquor. This will be used from time to time 
to top up the liquor in the barrel. In the course of two 
to three years in the barrel, the liquor shrinks and it is 
necessary to have a sufficient amount of surplus liquor 
to keep the barrel full and so exclude air. This surplus 
liquor should be put aside at the beginning, after the 
first month's fermentation, and should be about 10% 
of the whole. As the sealed glass container is emptied 
progressively, by topping up the barrel, what is left in 
the container must be put into a smaller vessel so that 
this reserve is always able to fill the container in which 
it is kept. If it is left half-filled it will probably vinegrate 
and would then spoil the liquor in the barrel. 

Having provided the vessels, it is now necessary 
to have ready five and a half pounds of good quality 
honey to every gallon of warm water with which it is to 
be mixed. Mix the two together until the honey is 

Lesson Twelve: The Power of the Written Word / 187 

dissolved. Obtain a good quality wine yeast (e.g. a 
Sauterne, Sherry or Malaga) and prepare your yeast 
before mixing the honey and water. This preparation 
is done by putting the yeast in a small glass vessel 
and adding small quantities progressively (over 
several days) of a weak solution of honey and water, 
and keeping the yeast in a warm temperature of 
about 60°F until the yeast has started to ferment. 
When it has started to ferment, add this to the dis- 
solved honey and water when the latter is at about 
70°F. Cover the fermenting vessel with a loose cover 
and cloth so that air can reach the fermenting honey 
and water mixture without allowing insects and dust 
to penetrate. 

After about a week, the liquor should be ferment- 
ing, and at the end of a month the fermentation should 
have ceased. The liquor should be strained off care- 
fully, leaving all lees aside, and placed in the barrel 
which should then be firmly sealed and only opened 
occasionally to top up, as explained. 

There is, usually, a considerable danger of vinegra- 
tion if the honey is not sterilized in the first instance. 
Therefore, at the risk of a certain amount of loss of 
quality, it is the usual practice to boil the honey and 
water in the first instance for about fifteen minutes. 
This kills any wild ferments and ensures a relatively 
sterile "must", to which to add the yeast. The barrel 
and the original fermenting vessel should also have 
been sterilized. 

The whole point about using wine yeasts is that 
they give a much higher alcohol content than the 
ordinary brewer's or baker's yeasts. 

LOCUST BEER — Gather the long black locust pods 
and break them into pieces. Place a layer in a keg or 
crock. Add ripened persimmons or sliced apples. 
Cover with boiling water. Add two cups of molasses. 
Let set for three or four days before using, for best 

NETTLE BEER — Only young nettles should be used for 
this. Two gallons of them must be washed well and put 
into a pan with two gallons of water, half an ounce of 
bruised ginger root, four pounds of malt, two ounces 
of hops and four ounces of sasaparilla. Boil for a quar- 
ter of an hour and then strain over a pound and a half 
of castor sugar. Stir until the sugar dissolves, then add 
an ounce of creamed yeast. When the beer starts to fer- 
ment, put it into bottles and cork these and tie down 

with string. This beer needs no keeping. 


ACORN BREAD— Need: 2 cups milk, 2 tablespoons oil 
or butter, 2 teaspoons salt, 2 tablespoons dry yeast, 4% 
cups acorn flour (see below), x k cup honey, Vs cup 
lukewarm water. 

Best acorns to use: white, burr and chestnut oaks. 
Collect in the fall when ripe. 

To make acorn flour: remove shells. Boil the acorns 
whole for at least two hours, changing the water each 
time it becomes light brown in color. After this boiling 
the acorns should be dark brown in color. Roast in 
350° oven for one hour. Chop them finely, then grind 
in a flour or food grinder. Dry again in the oven for 
another half hour. Put through the grinder again at 
least twice. 

Scald the milk. Stir in the oil or butter, honey and 
salt. Pour into a large bowl and let cool to lukewarm. 
Meanwhile dissolve yeast in the lukewarm water. 
When milk mixture is lukewarm, add yeast. Gradually 
stir in the acorn flour. Cover the bowl with a towel and 
let rise for two hours in a warm place. Knead for ten 
minutes. Roll out like thick pastry. Roll up in the man- 
ner of a jelly-roll. Shape into two loaves and place in 
greased bread pans. Let rise, covered, for another two 
hours. Bake for forty minutes in an oven preheated to 
375°. Remove from the oven and brush the tops of the 
loaves with oil or melted butter. 

INDIAN HOMINY BREAD— Need: 2 cups cooked grits, 
2 beaten eggs, 2 tablespoons melted butter, 2 tea- 
spoons salt, Vz cup milk. 

Add milk, butter and eggs to warm grits. Pour in 
greased pan. Bake at 375° for thirty minutes. Serve 
hot. (Note: thin cakes of this mixture may also be fried 
on a hot griddle) . 

INDIAN PUMPKIN BREAD— Need: 1 cup cornmeal, V2 
cup pumpkin (cooked), water enough to moisten 

Mix the ingredients and work until the dough is 
easy to handle. Form into flat cakes. Cakes may be 
baked in a greased pan (as biscuits) or fried quickly 
over an open fire. 

IRISH OATCAKES— Need: 3 cups oatmeal, 1 stick butter, 
V2 teaspoon salt, x k cup water, V2 teaspoon baking soda. 

188 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Preheat oven to 350°. Mix together 2 cups of oat- 
meal with the salt and baking soda. Melt the butter and 
add the water. Stir the butter and water mixture into 
the oat mixture and blend until you have a dough. 
Sprinkle your work surface with the remaining oat- 
meal and turn the dough onto it. Flatten the dough 
with your hands and roll with rolling-pin until about 
x k inch thick. Use a very small cookie-cutter or cut into 
small squares and place on an ungreased baking sheet. 
Bake in the oven for about twenty minutes, then lower 
the heat to 300° and toast until light brown. 

SCOTCH OATCAKES— (My personal favorite) Need: 
Va cup butter or margarine, 1 cup oat flour, x k cup bran, 
1 egg, 1 cup milk, x k teaspoon salt, tyi teaspoon baking 
powder, x k teaspoon cream of tartar. (A sweeter version 
can be made by also adding x k teaspoon vanilla, V2 
teaspoon cinnamon, 6 teaspoons sugar). 

Cut the butter into the oat flour and bran. Add the 
remaining ingredients and mix thoroughly. Preheat 
oven to 425°. Drop the batter, by well-rounded table- 
spoonsful, onto a greased cookie sheet (or, for neater 
cakes, drop into greased muffin pans). Bake 12 to 15 
minutes or until lightly browned. Serve with butter 
(and jelly, if desired). 

CORN BREAD— Need: 2 cups white meal (coarse 
ground), 1 cup flour, milk, 1 tablespoon sugar, 4 tea- 
spoons baking powder, 1 egg, 1 teaspoon salt. 

Combine all dry ingredients, then add egg and 
enough sweet milk to make thin batter. Pour in hot, 
well-greased, bread pans. Bake in a hot oven until 

ACORN COOKIES— Need: V2 cup oil, Vz cup honey, 2 
beaten eggs, 2 cups acorn flour (see "Acorn Bread" 
above), V2 teaspoon almond extract, cup dried, chopped 

Blend the oil and honey; beat in the eggs. Add the 
almond extract, acorn flour and the chopped acorns. 
Drop this batter by teaspoonsful onto a lightly oiled 
cookie-sheet or shallow baking pan. Bake in a 375° 
oven for fifteen minutes. 


In both this and the previous lesson I used examples 
of "love" magick and talismans. Please always remem- 
ber that love magick directed at a specific individual 
should never be done, for to do so would be to inter- 
fere with that person's free will. You would be forcing 
them to do something they would not normally do 
and may not wish to do. The only sort of love magick 
permissable is that aimed non-specifically ... to bring 
"someone" to you, without knowing exactly who it 
will be. But far better to just work on yourself, to make 
yourself generally more attractive, than to try to change 
someone else. 

1. Write your name in the different styles of Runes. Practice writing a special sentence in a favorite magickal 
writing style. 

Decide what you want to make a talisman for. Determine what metal, what planetary influence, and what 
inscription you will use. Illustrate your talisman below. 

3. Describe your special amulet. Where and how did you find it? What do you think that it will be best 
used for? 

4. List any favorite recipes for foods and beverages which have been a success. 

5. List the Coven games you have tried and their results. 


It is necessary for me to reiterate what I said at the start of Lesson 
Ten: the information on healing practices in this lesson is simply my 
opinion, together with the results of my research. I am not engaged in 
rendering medical advice. Such advice should be sought from a competent 
professional person. 

In Lesson Ten you studied the use of herbs in the healing process 
and learned that Witches have long been considered community healers. In 
this lesson you will see some of the other forms of healing used in the 
Craft, plus less obvious applications of herbs. 


I briefly touched on the aura in an earlier lesson. To recapitulate, the 
aura is the electrical magnetic energy that emanates from the human 
body. Our bodies, of course, vibrate. Animals and plants do the same, for 
all things radiate energy: a chair, a house, a tree, a flower, a bird. Everything 
is vibration. So everything gives off an aura. This aura can most easily be 
seen in humans, however (possibly due to brain activity) . 

The aura is sometimes referred to as the odic force. In Christian art, 
from the fifth to the sixteenth centuries, it was often depicted around the 
heads of people believed to possess great spiritual power. There it was 
referred to as a halo or gloria. It also appeared as a ring of flames around 
the heads of Moslem prophets. The headdresses of priests, kings and 
queens symbolize the aura. 

There are references to the aura in the Christian Bible. In sculpture, 
there is an excellent example in that of Michaelangelo's figure of Moses, 
which shows him with horns. This has mystified many. The reason for 
the horns is that in translation the word for "horns" was confused with 
the very similar word for "rays", so in fact Moses was thought of as 
"having rays coming from his head" . . . the aura. 


In auric healing, you set out to change the condition of a person by 


In 1858 Baron Karl von Reichenbach, an indus- 
trial chemist, claimed to have discovered certain 
radiations coming from magnets, crystals, plants 
and animals, which could be seen and felt by certain 
people (sensitives). In 1911 Dr. Walter Kilner, 
of St. Thomas' Hospital, London, devised ways 
of showing these radiations. One way was by 
looking through a dilute solution of a dye called 
DICYANIN (a product of coal-tar) and the other 
was by first looking at a bright light through a 
strong alcoholic solution then looking at the sub- 
ject. This latter method, however, proved to be 
very dangerous, causing damage to the eyes. 
Kilner did perfect his dicyanin method and pro- 
duced what is known as the "Kilner Screen". 

But the aura is best seen without artificial 
aid. Have your subject stand against a DARK 
background and look, directing your gaze at the 
position of the subject's third eye (between and a 
little above the eyebrows). You may find it help- 
ful to squint slightly at first. You will become 
aware of the aura around her/his head though, at 
first, when you try to move your gaze to look 
directly at it . . . it will disappear! Don't worry. 
You will eventually be able to study it directly 
but, to start with, just keep your focus on that 
third eye and look at the aura peripherally. If you 
have no success with the subject against a dark 
background, then try a light background; some 
have success with the one, some with the other. 

The aura will be most obvious around the head, 
unless the body is naked in which case it will be 
seen clearly all around. The entire aura is called 
the Aureole; the head aura is the Nimbus. You 
may notice that to the person's left there is 
generally orange color and to their righ t a bluish 
color. If you move your hands towards the body 
you will feel warmth on their left and coolness on 
their right. Interestingly a bar magnet gives cor- 
responding sensations, with the North end cool 
and blue and the South end warm and orange. 

The aura can be felt. If you stand in front of 
your subject, with your hands extended on either 
side of his head, and the palms in towards him, 
you can feel it. Gradually move your hands in 
towards the head. As you approach (perhaps 
about four to six inches away) you will feel a tin- 
gling sensation, or a warmth, or a feeling of pre- 
ssure building up. Move your hands in and out 
and get that sensation. 
Practical Color Magick-Raymond Buckland, 

Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN 1983 

194 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

visualizing a specific color light around them. These 
colors are chosen according to the patient's problem. 
For example, when dealing with the nervous system 
you would use violet and lavender to obtain a sooth- 
ing effect. To invigorate, you'd use grass green. To 
inspire, yellows and oranges. 

When dealing with disorders of the blood and 
organs of the body, use clear, dark blues to soothe, grass 
green to invigorate and bright red to stimulate. 

When dealing with cases of fever, high blood pressure 
or hysteria, use blue. 

For cases of chill or lack of sufficient bodily warmth, 
concentrate on red. 

So, for example, if a person is complaining of feel- 
ing hot, has a fever and is sweating profusely, you can 
help immeasurably by concentrating on seeing her 
completely surrounded by, and absorbed in, a blue 
light. If she has a stomach pain, then direct a soothing 
light-green color there. For someone with a nervous 
headache, see their head surrounded by violet or 
lavender light. For a bleeding, direct clear dark-blue 
light to the cut. Keep up these visualizations for as 
long as you can. I give more specifics below, in Color 


Pranic healing is done by sending Prana (the "vital 
force") from your body to the diseased or affected 
parts, stimulating the cells and tissues to normal activity 
and allowing the waste material to leave the system. It 
involves the use of passes and the laying-on of hands. 
What is Prana? It is the vital force which underlies all 
physical action of the body. It causes circulation of the 
blood, movement of the cells and all motions upon 
which the life of the physical body depends. It is a 
force that is sent forth from the nervous system, by an 
effort of the will, when you direct healing (review 
Lesson One, regarding Prof. Otto Rahn and Dr. Harold 

You receive Prana from the food you eat, the 
water you drink and from the air you breathe. All 
forms of force and energy rise from the same primal 
cause, and it is your willingness to increase your own 
supply, AND SHARE IT, that makes you "gifted" in 
healing. Everyone, then, actually possesses the "gift" 
of healing. 

How can you increase your Prana? By deep breathing. 
VISUALIZE energy and strength flowing into your 
body as you breathe in. FEEL it. Feel it going into all 

parts of your body. Feel it travel along your arms and 
down your legs. VISUALIZE the love of the Lady and 
the Lord entering you. 

Correct breathing sets up an equilibrium between 
positive and negative currents. It calms your nervous 
system and regulates and slows your heart activity, 
reducing your blood pressure and stimulating your 
digestion. Before doing any Pranic healing, do the 
following deep breathing exercises: 

1. (a) Slowly breathe in, through the nose, to a mental 

count of eight, 
(b) Slowly exhale, through the nose, to a count 
of eight. 

2. (c) Slowly breathe in, through the nose, to a count 

of eight. 

(d) Hold your breath for a count of four. 

(e) Slowly exhale, through the mouth, for a count 
of eight. 

In (d), as you hold your breath, feel the love, 
energy, strength and power you have inhaled circulate 
throughout your body. 

In (e), breathe out all the negativity within you. 
Do "1" once, then do "2" three times. 

Now you are ready to start your healing. This is 
best done in the Circle. However, if that cannot be — if 
the patient is unable to come to you, perhaps through 
being in a hospital or being bedridden at home — then 
at least draw a circle about him {and the bed, if necessary), 
with your athame, and fill that circle with white light 
before starting. 

Have the patient lie on his back with his head 
towards the east, if possible. His feet should be together 
and his arms at his sides. He does not have to be naked, 
but it is certainly better if he can be (better, in fact, if 
you both are) . He should close his eyes and concen- 
trate on seeing himself encompassed in a ball of white 
light. You kneel tc the left of his legs, if you are right- 
handed; to his right if left-handed (see Figure 13.1). 
Reaching forwards, extend your arms and hold your 
hands with the palms inwards, at the top of his head, 
about an inch away from actual contact (Figure 13.2). Take 
a deep breath then, holding that breath, bring the 
hands smoothly down the length of the body, one 
hand on either side, not quite touching the skin the 
whole way. As you come away from his feet, breathe 
out and shake your hands vigorously as though you were 
shaking water off them. You are, in actuality, shaking 

Lesson Thirteen: Healing 1 195 

off the negativity that you have drawn from him. Repeat this process 
AT LEAST SEVEN TIMES, preferably more. 

Now sit quietly for a moment, seeing the patient surrounded in 
white light. When you have got your breath (you will find this can be 
quite exhausting), then repeat the breathing exercises given above — "1" 
once and "2" three times. Now for actual contact. 

Now lay your hands, gently, one on each side of his head, thumbs 
resting on his temples. Concentrate (eyes closed if you wish), sending all 
your energies into him; all the goodness and love of the Lady and the 
Lord channeled through you into him, to make him well. When you have 
done this for a while, again sit back and relax, picturing him in the 
white light. 

Then once again do your deep breathing followed by placing your 
hands over/on his heart and, again, directing the Pranic force into him. 

After again resting and doing the breathing, lay your hands on the 
specific area of problem (e.g. stomach; leg; shoulder) and direct your 
energies. A final period of rest for you, and picturing him within the 
white ball of light, completes the process. 

Do not be surprised if you feel physically drained after such a heal- 
ing. This will generally be the case. Ignore those who say that if you feel 
drained you are doing it wrong. On the contrary, feeling exhausted is a 
good sign that you have done well. 


It is possible to heal a person without them actually being physically 
present in the Circle. This can be done by using one of the methods 
given in lesson eleven (dancing, chanting, cords, sex), taking the power 
raised and directing it into the person who is sick. Candle magick is 
especially effective (see Practical Candleburning Rituals, Raymond Buckland, 
Llewellyn Publications) . Both auric and pranic healing can also be done 
using a good, clear photograph of the person. See also Color Healing and 
Pop-pets, below. 

Figure 13.1 

Figure 13.2 


I deal extensively with this subj ect in my book Practical Color Magick 
(Llewellyn Publications, 1983) so will give just a brief outline here. Light 
is radiant energy traveling in the form of waves. The rate of vibration can 
be measured in units known as Angstrom units (A), measuring one ten- 
millionth of a millimeter. For example, the color violet has a wavelength 
varying from 4000 to 4500A; indigo from 4500 to 4700; blue 4700 to 
5100; green 5100 to 5600; yellow 5600 to 5900; orange 5900 to 6200 and 
red 6200 to 6700A. Your body selects, from the sunlight, whatever colors 
needed for balance, the vibrations being absorbed into you. The principle 
of healing with color (Chromopathy or Chromotherapy; Chromopathy from 
the Greek: fcroma-color; pathos-suftering) is to give the ailing body an 
extra dose of any color(s) lacking. One of the joys of chromopathy is its 
practicability. It is something anyone can do with no danger, being the 
use of a natural element. The application can be done in a variety of ways, 
as you will see. Basically, the red end of the spectrum stimulates while 

196 / Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

the blue end calms. 

Here is a look at the specific colors of the spec- 
trum one by one to see what their properties are. 

RED : A warming, invigorating color, excellent 

for the treatment of blood diseases. 
Anaemic people need the color red, as 
do those with liver infections. 

ORANGE: Not quite as harsh as red yet contains 
many of its properties. It is especially 
good for the respiratory system; for 
those who suffer from asthma and 
bronchitis; also as a tonic and a laxative. 

YELLOW: Excellent for the bowels and intestines. 
It is a mild sedative; helps remove fears 
of all kinds and gives a mental uplift. It 
is good for indigestion and heartburn, 
for constipation and piles, also for 
menstrual problems. 

GREEN: This is the great healer. It is neutral for 

other colors and can be a general tonic 
and revitalizer. When in doubt; use 
green. Excellent for heart troubles; 
neuralgic headaches; ulcers; colds in 
the head and boils. 

BLUE: An antiseptic and cooling agent. Excel- 

lent for use on all inflammations in- 
cluding those of internal organs. Good 
on cuts and burns; also for rheumatism. 

INDIGO: A slight narcotic. Will remove the fears 

of the mind and reassure those afraid 
of the dark. Good for emotional dis- 
orders; deafness; especially good for 
the eyes, even for cataracts. 

VIOLET: Good for mental disorders; for the 

nervous system; for baldness and for 
female complaints. 


It is the COLOR that is important, so anything 
that will produce colored light will serve your needs. 
This could be colored glass, plastic or even cellophane. 
You don't even have to wait for sunshine. Any light 
will do, including artificial light. If you have a window 
that gets a lot of sunshine then certainly make use of 
that. Tape a sheet of colored glass, plastic or even 
tissue paper over the window and have the patient sit 
in front of it so that the colored light falls directly on 
her/him. Make sure it falls on the troubled area (e.g. for 
an upset stomach, direct yellow light on the stomach 

area). Concentrate the light on the area for at least 
thirty minutes each day. Two periods of thirty minutes 
(one in the morning and another in the evening) 
would be better. You will notice a definite improve- 
ment almost from the start. 

If you don't have a convenient sunny window, 
then a good substitute is a photographic slide projector. 
In fact, in many ways it is better than the window since 
you can focus on particular areas. From photo supply 
stores you can obtain empty cardboard slide mounts. 
Into these put small rectangles of colored plastic or 
acetate, so that you have a set of slides of the seven 
primary colors. 


You can turn ordinary water into potent medicine 
by charging it with colored light. Fill a clear bottle with 
water and tape a sheet of colored paper or acetate 
around it (if you can get a colored bottle of the ap- 
propriate color, all the better) . Then stand the bottle in 
the window for six to eight hours. Even if the sun is not 
shining directly on the bottle, it will still charge the 
water. Then, a wineglassful of the water, taken three 
times a day, will have a similar effect to the half-hour of 
colored light application. 

If you are feeling "down", or listless, a glassful of 
red-charged water each morning will pep you up. 
Similarly, if you have trouble sleeping at night, a glass- 
ful of indigo-charged water before bed will relax you 
and help you fall asleep. All of the colors can be used, 
as in the color chart above. Such treatment is called 


Color can also be used to do absent healing. Again 
you utilize a photograph (the basic sympathetic magick 
principle of 'like attracts like") . This is known as Grapho- 
chromopathy. Make sure that there is no one other than 
the patient in the photograph and also make sure that the 
afflicted part of the person (e.g. leg; stomach) is in the 
picture. Place the photograph under the appropriate 
colored light and leave it there. A low wattage bulb is best 
for this; perhaps something like a nightlight bulb. You 
will find it easier to put the colored sheet over the front 
of the photograph than to try to wrap it around the light 
bulb. The best way is to put the photo in a frame 
together with the colored acetate and then to stand the 
frame in front of the light bulb, or the window. Give it 
the light treatment for at least three hours a day. 

Lesson Thirteen: Healing 1 197 


You can take six different books dealing with 
precious and semi-precious stones and their occult 
properties and find six different opinions as to which 
do what. The reason for this is that the stones are 
usually corresponded with astrological planets and 
signs. The trouble there is (as W. B. Crow explains in 
Precious Stones: Their Occult Power and Hidden Significance) 
that "there are different scales of correspondences 
and under one circumstance one scale should be 
applied, whilst under another a different scale holds 
good ... no natural object is pure Sun, pure Moon or 
pure Saturn". 

The safest way to use stones for healing, then, is in 
the manner of the ancient Druids: go by the COLOR of 
the stone and apply the same principles used in Color 
Healing above. 

For example, you know that yellow is good for 
intestinal and bowel disorders and menstrual problems. 
For these problems, then, wear a yellow stone such as 

yellow diamond, jasper, topaz, beryl, quartz, amber, 
etc. The stone should be placed on the afflicted area 
for at least an hour each day and should be worn, in the 
form of a pendant or ring, for the rest of the day, 
continuing until the cure is affected. 

In 640 BCE Necheps wore a jasper around his neck 
to cure his queasy stomach. In 1969 Barbara Anton (a 
graduate Gemologist from the Gemological Institute 
of New York) advised a friend, who had suffered from 
irregular menstrual periods for years, to wear a yellow 
jasper pendant. So long as she wore it, her periods came 
regularly on a twenty-eight day cycle. 

Any good book on gems and minerals will give 
you full descriptions of the many varieties of stones 
available in the full spectrum of color. Rubies, emeralds, 
sapphires are obvious examples of red, green and 
blue, but there are many other equally effective yet far 
less expensive stones available. Here are a few stones, 
together with the colors in which they can be obtained, 
plus some of the ancient beliefs regarding their 

AGATE (brown) : Said to help harden 
gums and protect vision. 

AMBER (Yellow; orange) : Improves 
poor eyesight; deafness; dysentery 
and throat afflictions; hay fever; 

AMETHYST (purple to blue-violet): 
Antidote for drunkenness (!); gives 
peace of mind. 

BERYL (green; yellow; blue; white): 
Liver complaints; diaphragm. 

BLOODSTONE (green and red): 
Hemorrhages; nose-bleeds. 

CARNELIAN (red): Hemorrhages; 
nose-bleeds; purifies the blood. 

CHRYSOLITE (olive green; brown; 
yellow; red): Fevers; nightmares. 

CORAL (red; white) : Stops bleeding; 
helps in digestive disorders; epi- 
lepsy in children; ulcers; scars; 
sore eyes. 

DIAMOND (white; blue; yellow): 
Coughs; mucus; lymph system; 

toothache; insomnia; convul- 

EMERALD (green): eye diseases (a 
traditional eyewash was made by 
simply steeping an emerald in 
water); general healing. 

GARNET (red) : Anaemia; blood dis- 

JADE (green) : Kidney diseases; stom- 
ach pains; blood purifier; muscle 
strengthener; urinary problems; 
eye diseases (eyewash, as with 

JASPER (yellow; green): Stomach 
problems; nervousness. 

LAPIS (deep blue to azure; violet- 
blue; green-blue) Lapis lazuli; 
Lapis Unguis: Eye problems; helps 
attune to higher spiritual vibra- 
tions; vitality; strength. Lapis ligur- 
ius: Cholera; rheumatism. 

MOONSTONE (light blue; resembles 
Opal): "Watery" disturbances; 

dropsy; gives strength. 

OPAL (red to yellow; black; dark 
green): Heart; eyes; bubonic 
plague (!); gives protection and 

PEARL (white): Soothing; dissipates 

RUBY (red) : Pain; tuberculosis; colic; 
boils; ulcers; poison; eye troubles; 

SARDONYX (red; brownish red; 
black): Mental and emotional ef- 
fects; banishes grief; brings happi- 

SAPPHIRE (blue violet): Eyes; boils; 
rheumatism; colic. 

TOPAZ (yellow to white; green; blue; 
red) : Vision; hemorrhages; bleed- 

TURQUOISE (blue; blue-green; green): 
Vision; promotes youth. 

198 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


In Lesson Eleven you learned how to construct a Poppet. There I 
discussed its use for love magick. But the Poppet can also be used for 
healing purposes — in fact that is probably its primary use. 

The same construction method is used: two outlines cut from cloth, 
sewn together and marked with identifying symbols and characteristics 
(all whilst concentrating your thoughts on the person it represents). 
However, this time you should stuff the Poppet with the herb appropriate 
for the person's ailment. That information you learned in Lesson Ten. If 
ever in doubt as to what to use, stuff the Poppet with Calendula (also 
called Marigold, Marybud, Holibud — Calendula officinalis), which is a 

Identifying symbols 

Incision, as received 
by person in surgery 

Stuffed with the appropriate 
healing herbs 


You should name the Poppet (as in the love-magick example), 
sprinkling and censing it, then lay it on the altar. 

Should you be working for someone who has had surgery, then 
make an incision in the Poppet in the appropriate place. Then, taking it 
up from the altar, concentrate on the healing and direct your power into 
the patient as you sew up the incision. 

You can do Auric and/or Pranic healing using the Poppet in lieu of 
the actual person. Once you have named and consecrated the Poppet, 
then anything you do to it, of course, you do to that person. 


Yes, meditation can be a way of healing. Always remember that we 
create our own realities — whether consciously or (more often) uncon- 
sciously. So long as we are going to do this, we might just as well create 
an enjoyable and healthy reality. In your daily meditation, see yourself 
fit and well. If you are sick, see yourself completely recovered. Remember 

We are all a part of Nature, 
not apart from it. 

Raymond Buckland 

Everyone is familiar, if only from fiction, with 
the wax figure stuck with pins. Such a figure 
is typical of sympathetic magick and is actually 
one of the oldest forms of it. The same basic 
principles — sticking in pins to injure the 
victim— can be applied to work good. For 
example, a man may be suffering from a 
terrible back-ache. The Witch could take some 
wax, or clay, and fashion a figure to represent 
the man. It would not have to be an exact like- 
ness, in fact it could be quite a crude 'ginger- 
bread man ' type figure. But all the while it was 
being molded she would keep a clear picture of 
the man in her mind. If she had a photograph 
of him which she could lay beside her on 
which to concentrate, all the better. When the 
figure was finished then she would stick three 
or four pins in its back — or wherever the pain 
happened to be. When sticking in the pins she 
would try not to think of the pain he was 
experiencing, for at this point she would be 
merely placing them preparatory to doing 
the healing. 

The next step would be to actually name 
the figure for the recipient. This would be done 
by sprinkling and censing it and saying words 
to the effect 'Here lies John Doe, who seeks 
relief from pain. All that I do to him here is 
done also to his person'. The Witch would 
then concentrate as hard as she could on the 
man, seeing him as being fit and well, without 
the back-ache. One by one she would then 
draw out the pins thinking, and perhaps even 
saying words to the effect, that she was draw- 
ing the pain out of his body. 

Witchcraft Ancient and Modern 

Raymond Buckland, HC Publications, NY 



Gather fresh mint (I prefer Catmint — Nepeta 
Cataria) and loosely fill a large jar with it. 
Pour in an unscented vegetable oil to fill the 
jar. Cover tightly and let stand for 24 hours, 
turning the jar to stand upside down every 8 
hours. Strain the oil carefully through cheese- 
cloth, squeezing well. Refill the jar with fresh 
mint and pour the same oil back in. Let stand 
another 24 hours, turning every 8 hours. 
Repeat this process over at least a three-day 
period. The oil resulting from the final squeez- 
ing is a good anointing oil with the fragrance 
of the mint. 

Lesson Thirteen: Healing / 199 

(from Lesson Eleven) : "Don't see a thing working . . . 
see it finished. " 

Meditation and Biofeedback have been tested 
experimentally by scientists and proven to be beneficial 
in reducing blood pressure, muscle tension, control of 
pain and increased sense of well-being. The principle 
of biofeedback is that a person who is provided with 
immediate knowledge of her/his internal body pro- 
cesses can learn to control some that normally operate 
involuntarily. The subject aims to achieve complete 
relaxation and can watch herself do this through a 
feedback meter wired to various parts of her body 
(biofeedback instruments, of varying complexity and 
price, are available from any number of sources) . She 
tries to induce an extremely calm yet alert state of con- 
sciousness that is characterized by distinct patterns of 
brain activity called "Alpha Rhythms". When she 
manages to produce alpha rhythms for a period often 
seconds, then the alpha state has been achieved. 

Below is a candleburning ritual for meditation. 
You can use this as a lead-in to creatively visualizing 
yourself (or someone else) cured of an illness. 


Altar No. 1 


Altar No. 2 

No. 1 



No. 2 


Light Altar Candle. Light Incense. Light Day Candle. 
Light PETITIONER'S Candle (Petitioner = Meditator), 
thinking of yourself, and say: 

"This candle is myself, burning steady 
and true." 

Light Lt. BLUE Candles 1 and 2 and say: 

"Here do I find peace and tranquility. 
A place apart, where I may safely 
meditate and grow in spirituality." 

Settle into meditation in your own particular pattern 
{e.g. as detailed in Lesson Seven: transcendental, man- 
trie yoga, or whatever you have found to be best for 
you). During your meditation envision yourself (or 
another, if working for someone else) completely well 
and healed. At the end of your meditation, extinguish 
the candles in the opposite order to the way you lit 

Here is a further candleburning ritual, this time 
specifically for regaining good health. 


Altar No. 1 

Figure Altar No. 2 


'No. 1 RED 



No. 2 RED 
£Jo. 3 RED 


Light Altar Candle. Light Incense. Light Day Candle. 

Sit for a few moments thinking of the strength, health 

and goodness of the Lady and the Lord flowing back 

into the body. 

Light PETITIONER'S Candle, picturing Petitioner, and 


"Here is ...(Name)..., in excellent health. 
The blessings of the Lady and of 
the Lord be upon her that she 
may prosper." 

Light ORANGE Candle and say: 

"This flame draws all that is good to 
...(Name)... It draws health and 
strength and all that she desires." 

Light RED Candles 1, 2 and 3 and say: 

200 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

"Here, then, is that health and strength, 
threefold. It is here to be taken into 
...(Name)...'s body, to serve her and 
build her as the Lady and the Lord 
would wish." 

Then say: 

And in the beginning was it ever thus. 
That to live one must hunt; to kill. 
That to kill must one have strength. 
That for strength there must be eating 

and movement. 
To eat and move there must be hunt- 
Be weak and you may never be strong. 
Be strong and so you shall remain. 
But if you be weak; then must you think 

For thought is the deed. 
And thinking strong you can then hunt 

and kill and eat. 
Thus, thinking strong, you are strong 

and you move. 
Thought brings not the food, but 

Doth bring the means to acquire the 

So be it! 

Strength to the strong! 
Strength to the weak! 
May the arm lift the spear. 
May the arm hurl the stone. 
May the arm thrust the javelin. 
May there be strength, always. 
So Mote It Be!" 

Sit quietly meditating on the wonderful good health 
enjoyed and to be enjoyed by the Petitioner. Sit thus 
for ten to fifteen minutes. Then extinguish the flames, 
in the reverse order to the way they were lit. Repeat 
this ritual every Friday for seven successive Fridays, 
each time moving the red candles closer to the 


All the healing methods outlined can be used, 
equally effectively, on both animals and plants. Never 
forget that we are all a part of Nature. If an animal, a 

bird, a plant, a tree, is sick then it is your duty to try to 
aid it. Let us all live in harmony with nature. We are all 
one with the Gods. 

In addition to the methods of healing dealt with in 
this lesson, I would recommend all Witches become 
acquainted with as many other possibilities as they 
can. It is not necessary to try to learn everything in 
detail, of course, but it is good to know just what sort of 
healing can be accomplished with, for example, acu- 
puncture, radiesthesia, radionics, hypnosis, etc. 


Whatever method of healing you choose, the 
most important thing to bear in mind is attitude. You 
must have a positive attitude. As I emphasized in the 
lesson on magick, you should picture the completion, 
the end product, of what you are trying to achieve. This 
is especially important in healing. If the person has a 
broken leg, see the leg healed; see her/him jumping 
and running about. If the person has a sore throat, see 
her shouting and singing and laughing. Always think 
positive and send out positive energies. 

I would especially recommend a study of the follow- 
ing books: 

Aromatherapy: The Use of Plant Essences in Healing — 

Raymond Lautic & A. Passebecq 
The Complete Book of Natural Medicines — 

David Carroll 
The Bach Flower Remedies — Nora Weeks & Victor Bullen 
The Twelve Healers — Edward Bach 

Handbook of Bach Flower Remedies — Philip M. Chancellor 
Alpha Brain Waves — Jodi Lawrence 
The Science and Fine Art Of Fasting — Herbert M. Shelton 
Power Over Pain Without Drugs — Neal H. Olshan 
Yogi Therapy — Swami Shivananda Saraswati 
The Foot Book: Healing the Body Through Reflexology — 

Devaki Berkson 
Homeopathic Medicine At Home — Maesimund Panos & 

Joseph Heimlich 
Helping Yourself With Self-Hypnosis — Frank S. Caprio & 

Joseph R. Berger 
Healing With Radionics — Elizabeth Baerlein & Lavender 

Theory and Practice of Cosmic Ray Therapy — D. N. Khushalini 

& I. J. Gupta 
The Practice of Medical Radiesthesia — Vernon D. Wethered 
Acupuncture: The Ancient Chinese Art of Healing — Felix Mann 
Helping Your Health With Pointed Pressure Therapy — 

Roy E. Bean 


1. Relate some of your experiences using auric healing. What were some noticeable results? 

2. What methods of color healing work best for you? Results? 

3. What gemstones have you used for healing? How did you use them, and what results were noticed? 

4. Record your personal list of gemstone properties as discovered through experimentation. 



A question frequently asked is "Can I write my 
own rituals?" The answer is "Yes", albeit a qualified 

There are many talented people in the Craft and 
they should be allowed — indeed, encouraged — to 
develop their talents (the two, Craft and talent, seem 
somehow to attract one another) . But before you start 
writing your own rituals, work for awhile with the 
ones I have given you in this book, as they are written. 
I'd suggest working with them for a year at least. Get to 
know them. Feel them. Live them. They have been 
written based on a great many years of experience. 
Not only Craft experience but experience and knowl- 
edge of many other aspects of the occult, anthropological 
background and, most importantly, knowledge of the 
necessary elements of ritual (see Construction of Ritual 
below) . Everything is there for a reason, so don't go 
chopping and changing just because you think "it 
sounds good"! 

Take special note of some of the elements in these 
rituals given. 

In ERECTING THE TEMPLE— this is the construction 
and consecration of your meeting place; your Temple. 
It is one of the basics, ensuring psychic cleanliness of 
the area and of the occupants. It also includes the inviting 
of the Lady and her Lord to attend and witness the 
rites to be held in their honor. 

In CLEARING THE TEMPLE— you have the neces- 
sary thanking of the Lady and Lord and the official 
termination of the proceedings. 

In CAKES AND ALE— there is the "connecting 
link" between the ritual/worship part of the meeting 
and the working/social part. It is important in that it is 
found universally and is really the culmination of the 

worship: the thanking the gods for the necessities 
of life. 

The above, along with the Self-Dedication and 
the Initiation, are the main ingredients, the basic 
skeleton, of Wicca. 


The dictionary (Webster) defines RITE as "a formal 
act of religion ... a religious ceremony" and RITUAL 
as "consisting of rites . . . the manner of performing 
divine service". 

A formal act of religion . . . we need form; we need 
a definite construction. Ritual can be religious or it can 
be magickal. In either case it follows, and has, a certain 
form. The basics are what are known as Legomena 
(meaning "things said") andDromena ("things done"). 
In other words, whether religious or magickal ritual, it 
must have WORDS and ACTIONS together; not just 
one without the other. It must also have (i) an Open- 
ing; (ii) a Purpose; (iii) a "Thanksgiving" (in the case 
of a Craft religious ritual); (iv) a Closing. 

The Opening and the Closing are already there 
for you — the Erecting the Temple and Clearing the Temple. 
Also, the Thanksgiving is there in the form of Cakes and 
Ale. Your interest, then, in constructing ritual (at this 
time), is focused on PURPOSE. 

Why are you having the ritual? What is it for? Is it 
to celebrate a time of the year, seasonally (a Sabbat) ? Is 
it an Esbat? Handfasting? Birth Rite (Wiccaning)? Get 
the purpose firmly in your mind at the outset so that 
you know where your emphasis will lie. 

Look at the following, from one tradition of the 

"The High Priestess recites the Goddess' 


204 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

The High Priest recites the Invocation to 

the Horned God. 

The coven dances, singing 'Eko, Eko, Azarak, 

. . . etc. ' They then chant the 'Witches' 


[All the above is found repeated at all of the other Sabbat 
Rites of this particular tradition] 

Finally the High Priest says: 

"Behold the Great Mother who hath brought 
forth the light of the World. Eko, Eko, Arida. Eko, 
Eko, Kernunnos.' " 

That, basically, is the sum total of this particular tradi- 
tion's Sabbat rite. Now, the question is: which Sabbat is 

The only words said at this rite that are not said at 
the other seven Sabbats are the High Priest's final: 
"Behold the Great Mother who hath brought forth the 
light of the world". 

Not to keep you in suspense, this is their Imbolc 
Sabbat rite . . . but who would know it? It has nothing, 
in the "words said", to indicate a celebration of that 
time of the year. By contrast, look at the following 
Imbolc Sabbat rite, from another tradition: 

Priestess: "Now has our Lord reached the zenith of 

his journey. 
It is meet that we rejoice for him. 
From now till Beltane is the path ahead 

less dark, 
For he can see the Lady at its end." 
Priest: "I urge ye, Wiccans all, 

To give now your hearts to our Lord 

Let us make this a Feast of Torches 
To carry him forward in light, 
To the arms of Freya." 

. . . and so it goes on, all of the ritual centering on the 
importance of that special time of the year; the fact that 
Imbolc is the halfway point through the "dark half" of 
the year; halfway between Samhain and Beltane. No 
one could take that particular ritual and perform it at, 
say, the Autumnal Equinox and expect it to fit. Yet the 
earlier quoted ritual, from the other tradition, could be 
performed at any time of the year and it would still fit 
in! It is not, therefore, a good example of a seasonal 
ritual — especially of a Sabbat — and certainly falls far 
short of what you should be able to expect. So, when 
writing rituals, keep in mind first and foremost the 

PURPOSE of the ritual. 

This purpose must also be brought out in THINGS 
DONE — the actions of the celebrants. To look further 
at the second of the traditions above, the participants 
take candles and light them from the Priest's and 
Priestess' candles. They then hold them high in the air 
and circle about the altar. Sympathetically they are 
lending strength and light to the God at the time of his 
greatest need. Again, there are no such actions in the 
Sabbat rite of the first tradition. 

PARTICIPATION is important. The Craft is a 
family religion in the sense that the coven is like a large 
family. The family should be able to participate freely 
in its activities. In Christianity the so-called participants 
are more like an audience. They sit in a large building 
and watch what goes on, only occasionally being 
allowed to join in the singing and praying. What a 
beautiful contrast is the Craft, where the "family" of 
the coven sit together, equally, about the altar and 
all participate. 

Keep this in mind in your rituals. Participation 
is important. Include lines to be said by others than 
the Priest and Priestess, even if it is only a joint "So 
Mote It Be!" If you can get actions/gestures for them, 
so much the better. Everyone should be able to feel 
that they are a part of the ceremony (rather than apart 
from it) . You might want to include a group medita- 
tion as part of the ritual. Group meditations can be 
extremely effective. You might also want to make song 
and dance an integral part of the ritual. There are 
many possibilities. 

The ESBAT ritual, as I've written it in this book, 
contains some very important elements. Perhaps the 
most important of these is the personal praying — 
asking the Gods for what you need and thanking them 
for what you have. This should always be in the 
individual's own words. However inadequate the 
Witch may feel, at expressing her/himself, the fact that 
the words come from the heart is far more important 
than correct grammar and sentence construction. 

The MOON ceremonies, as written, follow the 
traditional form of reverence to the Lady and attention 
to her identification in the past, in other areas and 
other civilizations. Note that the Goddess is invited to 
join the group and speak. She is not "drawn down", in 
the sense of being summoned or invoked. The times 
when the Lady will actually appear to the coven are 
indeed rare and it needs an exceptionally strong, 
mature, Priestess to handle it (unfortunately there 
seem to be very few such today) . I feel that if the Lady 

Lesson Fourteen: Getting Set Up 1 205 

wishes to appear to the coven (or the Lord, for that 
matter) , then she will certainly do so. But she will do so 
when she is ready and not just because she has been 
invoked/conjured/ summoned! Who are we to order 
the Lady? So, if you feel drawn to write a new Full or 
New Moon Ceremony, please keep this point in mind. 


As I have mentioned before, there is a great deal 
of Ceremonial Magick that, over the centuries, has 
found its way into some traditions of the Craft. Most 
of it has gone unrecognized by all but a few Craft 
practitioners. The use of the Wand, for example, and 
the word athame; the white-hilted knife and the Pentacle, 
etc. Ceremonial Magick, as you know, involves conjuring 
entities and demanding that they do the Magician's 
bidding. Surprisingly, just such conjuration is found 
as part of many traditions' Erecting the Temple (or, Forming 
the Circle, as some of them call it). Included in their 
rituals is what is referred to as summoning the 
"Guardians of the Watchtowers", or "Guardians of the 
Four Quarters". These "Guardians" are often associated 
with specific entities, such as Dragons or Salamanders, 
Gnomes, Sylphs and Undines. It would seem obvious 
that here the group could be treading on dangerous 
ground. In fact this was very pointedly brought home 
to one coven who once forgot (!) to banish the Sala- 
manders of the South at the end of their rites. They 
were surprised when, shortly after the meeting, fire 
suddenly broke out in the south of the covenstead! 

I do not recommend that you indulge in summon- 
ing these "Guardians". Surely to have invited ("invited", 
not "commanded") the Lord and the Lady themselves 
to be present and to watch over you is sufficient? What 
better protection could any Witch ask? So, if you hear 
of others who include such conjurations in their ritual 
preparation, you now know what is involved. Should 
you ever be present at such a Circle — perhaps as a 
guest — then I would strongly urge you to mentally 
erect a protective barrier of white light around your- 
self . . . just to be on the safe side. 


One final word; an important one. Do show the 
origin of any rituals. I would suggest that you construct 
your Book with the rituals as I have presented them 
here in this volume, for a base. Then (you might even 
want to make a separate section) you can add ALTER- 
NATE RITUALS. There you can place any you have 

written yourself or obtained from other sources. But 
make sure you say either who they are written by or 
where you obtained them. In this way it will be obvious 
to newcomers to your coven, at later dates, what has 
been added and when. 

Some points to remember when writing rituals: 
Do not change a ritual just for the sake of 

Rituals should be enjoyable; they should not 

be a chore. 
Words can work like music, for building 

Simplicity is better than complexity. 
Give origins and dates for new material. 


Finding Members 

The first step to forming a coven is, of course, to 
find suitable people. Whatever you do, DO NOT RUSH. 
A coven is a family. It is a small unit of people acting 
together in Perfect Love and Perfect Trust. That sort of 
relationship does not come easily. 

There are basically two approaches you can make, 
depending on your circumstances. One is the obviously 
preferred route through other known Pagans. The 
other is the longer route of weeding out merely poten- 
tial Pagans. Let's examine them. 

Through the many Pagan and Craft festivals 
and seminars held across the country these days (see 
listings in the many and various pagan publications, such as 
Circle Network News), you can get to meet and know 
other people from your area who are, at least to some 
extent, knowledgeable about Wicca. You can also seek 
out those who are from your area through Contact 
Listings in these various publications. You might even 
want to run an ad yourself there. In this way others can 
learn of your desire to form a coven and can contact 
you. Let it be known that you are willing to consider 
applications. I say "willing to consider" in no way to 
infer that you should be aloof, but simply because you 
need to find those with whom you are most compatible. 
You do not have to accept everyone who applies. 

A sample ad might be worded as follows: 

"Wiccan coven forming. Priest(ess) presently 
considering applications from those wishing to 
join the Craft. Please send photograph and full 
details to " 

206 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

I would suggest using a post office box number, to ensure privacy. 
Arrange a meeting, with those who respond, on neutral ground — 
perhaps at a coffee-shop, a restaurant, in a park, or similar, and meet 
them individually. Get to know them well, over several such meetings, 
before ever inviting them to your home. Find out what they know of the 
Craft; what they have read; what they think of what they have read. Try to 
do more listening than talking. 

If you have to start from scratch, as it were, you can start by checking 
out any local psychical research groups, astrology groups, meditation 
groups, etc. DO NOT go bounding in loudly stating that you are looking 
to make people Witches! Once again, do more listening than talking. If 
you are patient you will find those who — even if they don't know what 
Witchcraft actually is, or if they still harbor some of the misconceptions 
about it — are obviously Craft oriented and willing to listen and to 

You may well have to take the circuitous route of forming your own 
"psychic development" group, as a clearing-house for possible coven 
members. You could base such a group on the material presented here in 
Lessons Seven, Eight and Nine plus the supplementary reading. Through 
such a group you could then slowly weed out those who are, or become, 
sympathetic to the Craft. You will probably get a motley collection of 
people. Gavin Frost breaks them down into four categories: "The 
enthusiasts — full of all the things they are going to do for your group . . . 
The parasites — the world is against them; they have a million problems 
which can be solved only on the psychic plane . . . The know-it-alls — will 
tell you the instructions you are giving them are wrong . . . The shining 
ones — if you are lucky you will find (one or two) who are candidates for a 
real coven". These last make it all worthwhile. 

As before, meet all potential members on neutral ground first. Pick 
their brains to find out what they know and where their sympathies lie. 
Suggest books to them but, as much as possible, get them to ask questions 
rather than press information on them. Always remember that a coven 
can start with as few as two people (at the other end of the scale, a coven does 
not have to have a maximum of thirteen. It can be as many as fit comfortably 
into the Circle and work comfortably together) . 

What sort of people are today's Witches? First 
of all they are what might be termed 'thinking' 
people. People who, rather than accept some- 
thing or someone else's word, will investigate 
for themselves; read, research, look at the 
thing from all angles before reachinga conclu- 
sion. They are housewives, clerks, teachers, 
businesspeople, truck-drivers, soldiers — all 
sorts . . . 

Astrologically speaking we are one third 
of the way through the twelfth house of the 
Piscean Age. At the end of this house we enter 
the Aquarian Age. This is, then, the eve of the 
Age of Aquarius, and it is one of general 
unrest. Of dissatisfaction — particularly with 
religion — and of searching for 'inner peace'. 
There has, over the past four or five years, 
been a tremendous rebirth of interest in the 
occult, a veritable renaissance of thinking. 
Young people have realized that they do not 
have to follow tradition; that they are able and 
should be able to think for themselves. People 
are looking critically at religion; refusing to 
accept a particular religion just because it was 
that of parents and their parents before them 
. . . There is this constant searching, by young 
and old alike. It is in this searching that so 
many discover the Wicca. And the reaction is 
invariably one of joyous relief — 'But this is 
what I've been looking fori' " 

Anatomy of the Occult 

Raymond Buckland, 

Samuel Weiser, NY 1977 


Get your coven members, and potential members, to read as much 
as possible about the Craft. All Witches should have a general under- 
standing of the history of the Craft; what has gone before; what has 
brought us to where we are today. You can teach them a great deal from 
the lessons in this book, BUT . . . beware of becoming a "Guru"! In the 
ideal coven all are equal and all have something to contribute. Don't put 
yourself — or be tricked into putting yourself — on a pedestal "above" the 
other coven members. A good coven/tradition should be based on 
democracy; once the coven has been formed (i.e. once there are at least 

Lesson Fourteen: Getting Set Up / 207 

two people), let all major decisions be made through 
general discussion and open vote. 

[I must digress here, a moment, to comment on tradi- 
tions that operate degree systems. Gardnerian is a 
good example, though by no means the only one. In 
such traditions there is often (not always, certainly) a 
professed equality, but one that is only professed. The 
High Priestess, and/or Queen, is the beginning and 
end of everything. Others fall into descending order 
depending upon the degree of advancement attained. 
All those of the highest (usually "Third") degree are 
classed as "Elders" and they are supposed to be the 
decision-makers, together with the High Priestess. 
This used to work extremely well, and there was much 
merit in the system. Unfortunately this seems no longer 
to be the case. These days there seem to be few women 
capable of handling the difficult position of High 
Priestess (and particularly the position of Witch 
Queen, or "Queen of the Sabbat") . There are some, 
yes, and that does give us hope for the future. But 
there are far too many who get onto an ego trip; who 
hand out "degrees" like a mother doling out candy, 
and who try to gather in, and promote, as many 
followers as possible simply so that they can claim 
"I'm a more important High Priestess/Queen than 
you are"! It is unfortunate that such attitudes by the 
few have soured some of these traditions to the many. 
I would urge all new denominations, be they eclectic 
or whatever, to be constantly on their guard against 
such deviation from the true Craft belief that "we are 
all spokes of the wheel; no one is either first or last".] 

In addition to knowledge of the Craft's past, it's a 
good idea to keep up on the present. Suggest subscrip- 
tions to such periodicals as Circle Network News (P.O. 
Box 219, Mt. Horeb, WI 53572) and Llewellyn's New 
Times (P.O. Box 64383, St. Paul, MN 55164-0383). There 
are many other publications but they seem to go in and 
out of print so it is probably of little service to list them 
here. From these two, — which seem to remain fairly 
constant — you can learn of the availability of the others. 
You might prefer to make "coven subscriptions" — all 
share the cost and pass around the magazines. 

Try to think, ahead of time, what your criteria will 
be, for new members of your coven. For example, I 
have heard of some people who will not have anyone 
in their coven who is physically handicapped! To my 
mind this doesn't make sense, but it is obviously a 
personal consideration. Think also, then, of what your 
response will be if approached by potential coveners 

who are of a different race, age, sexual preference, 
social level, etc., etc. Some (many, I hope) will say 
"Come one; come all!" but others will find perhaps 
long-buried prejudices surfacing and having to be 
faced . . . and they do need to be faced. One point I 
might mention here: do not try to keep out police 
officers and the like, simply because they are lawmen. 
There is nothing illegal about the Craft and, actually, 
the more we can impress this on those connected with 
the law, the better. So, far from discouraging them, 
encourage them. 

It might be a good idea to have a pledge, or vow of 
secrecy, that new members must sign. It should be 
simple and basically state that the person will never 
reveal the names of the other coven members, even 
should s/he leave the coven at any time in the future. 
This is, basically, a right to privacy. There is, of course, 
no need for any dire threats of punishment for break- 
ing this oath. 

There is really no limit to the number you can 
have in your coven, as I have already mentioned. As 
many as can work comfortably together is really the 
criterion. I would suggest that the traditional nine-foot 
circle is best and, therefore, that eight or ten coveners 
is probably the best working maximum. Get the group 
to work together on projects such as the coven's altar, 
sword, book, for example. When it is necessary to vote 
on something, so far as possible aim not just for a 
majority vote, but for complete agreement by every- 
one. This is certainly essential on such decisions as to 
whether the coven should work robed or skyclad. 

Decide, as a group, on the kind of coven you want 
to be. Always remember that the Craft is first and 
foremost a religion, so you come together primarily to 
worship. You may feel that this is all you want to do. 
Fine. However, some groups will want to explore and 
use their collective "power"; they will want to do 
healings, work magick, do divination, or work on 
individual psychic development. Again, fine . . . though 
such work must always be secondary to the religious 
aspects. Even such a working coven should not feel 
that is has to do work at every Esbat. You should do 
IT; though a certain amount of experimentation is 
understandable and acceptable. 

You may want to give your coven a name. Many 
do. Examples are: The Coven of the Open Forest; 
Coven of the North Star; Coven of Our Lady of 
Rebirth; Sand-Sea Coven; Coven of the Complete 
Circle; Coven of Family Wicca. Additionally many 

208 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


Figure 14.2 

covens design their own individual emblems or insignia, which they use 
on notepaper and put on flags and banners for Craft festivals (see 
Figure 14.1). 

In some traditions — usually those with a 
degree system — there is a symbol for the in- 
dividual Witch to put beside her/his name 
anytime s/he signs something (Figure 14.2). If 
you feel the desire for such a symbol, even 
though your tradition does not subscribe to a 
degree system, I would suggest that in Figure 
14.3. This is the inverted triangle surmounted 
by the pentagram and the Keltic cross — the 
lines of consecration marked on the body at 
initiation (see Lesson Four). 

There may be a need for coven rules. If so, these should be kept as 
simple and as few in number as possible. They may cover such things as 
inviting visitors to Circles; a suggested donation from each member to 
cover the cost of wine, incense, charcoal, candles, etc., at meetings (no 
one person should be expected to carry the cost of these necessities); 
behavior in the Circle (do you allow smoking or not — I would strongly 
suggest not); etc. I am personally somewhat opposed to hard and fast 
rules. I feel, and have found, that everything that arises can be dealt with 
through group discussion and decision. However, some people feel the 
need for a more structured format, at least initially. Just remember that 
any rules are for the good of the coven. They should, therefore, be flex- 
ible. There are so-called "Laws" listed in the Gardnerian (and other) 
Book of Shadows. Any sensible person reading these can see that (a) 
they date from, and are only pertinent to, a previous time, and (b) many 
of them are actually contradictory to the tenets of the Craft, including the 
Wiccan Rede. Gerald Gardner himself had said that they were only 
included in the book for interest's sake. But some Wiccans seem to take 
them as inviolable ! Remember, there is only one true Wiccan Law: "An' it 
harm none, do what thou wilt." 


I am here discussing "church" in the sense of "a body of people; 
believers with an inner core of leaders", rather than just a building. Our 
building, or meeting-place (which can be out in the open, of course), is 
our "Temple". 

Unfortunately the word "church" has certain Christian con- 
notations, but I will use it for the moment for the sake of simplicity. The 
Old English word for "church", incidentally, is cirice— pronounced "ki- 

Many covens, of various traditions, have established themselves as 
legal churches. Examples are Circle Wicca of Wisconsin, Church of 
Wicca of North Carolina, House of Ravenwood of Georgia, Minnesota 
Church of Wicca, Arianhu Church of Wicca of Texas. There are many, 
many more. The object is to establish the Craft as a legally recognized 
religion, for despite the First Amendment, unsympathetic authorities 

Figure 14.1 

Lesson Fourteen: Getting Set Up / 209 

can give one quite a hassle! You may want to so establish your own 
group, but, be warned, it can be a long, drawn-out, very involved affair; 
oftimes a veritable battle where the IRS is concerned. State laws vary so 
much that I can give no complete details here, but your first move, 
should you decide to go this route, is to check with the Internal Revenue 
Service, asking for details on how to register as a Non-Profit Religious 
Organization. Their publication #557 — How to Apply for Recognition of 
Exemption for an Organization — is a must. 

One possible alternate that may prove less of a hassle is to associate 
yourself with such a group as the Universal Life Church, of Modesto, 
California. (601 Third Street, Modesto, CA 95351). I mention this church 
especially because they have already gone through numerous legal 
battles with the IRS, have fought all the way up to the U.S. Supreme 
Court, and have won! They have "no traditional doctrine ... as an 
organization, (they) only believe in that which is right". So says their 
literature. "Each individual has the privilege and responsibility to deter- 
mine what is right so long as it does not infringe on the rights of 
others . . . (sounds a little like "An' it harm none, do what thou wilt", doesn't 
it?) . . . We are active advocates of the First Amendment of the United 
States of America". In other words, you can establish yourself as a 
church, for legal purposes, through association with the U.L.C. but still 
practice your own particular denomination of Witchcraft with no changes, 
no modifications, no compromises or restrictions. 

If your desires should lean in this direction, don't rush it. To estab- 
lish as a church really only makes sense when you have grown to the 
point of spawning several other covens from your mother one. At that 
time, talk with some of those who have so registered themselves. See 
whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. I strongly suspect 
that, for many of you, they do not. 


As you encounter other Witches you will find common forms of 
greetings used. The two most common are "Blessed Be" and "Merry 
Meet". The first of these actually comes from the Gardnerian tradition. 
In their initiation the Priest says the following to the Initiate: 

History does not record anywhere at any time 
a religion that has any rational basis. Religion 
is a crutch for people not strong enough to 
stand up to the unknown without help. But, 
like dandruff, most people do have a religion 
and spend time and money on it and seem to 
derive considerable pleasure from fiddling 
with it. 

Lazarus Long 

Neither this court, nor any branch of this 
government, will consider the merits or fallacies 
of a religion. Nor will the court compare the 
beliefs, dogmas and practices of a newly- 
organized religion with those of an older, more 
established religion. Nor will the court praise 
or condemn a religion, however excellent or 
fanatical or preposterous it may seem. Were 
the court to do so, it would impinge upon the 
guarantees of the First Amendment. 

Federal Judge James A. Battin, 

February 1973, Ruling in favor of the 

Universal Life Church against the 

Internal Revenue Service. 

"Blessed be thy feet, that have brought thee in these ways. 
Blessed be thy knees, that shall kneel at the Sacred Altar. 
Blessed be thy womb, without which we would not be. 
Blessed be thy breasts, erected in beauty and in strength. 
Blessed be thy lips, that shall utter the Sacred Names." 

So to greet someone with the words "Blessed Be" is to imply all of 
the above. 

"Merry Meet" is an older, more common, Pagan greeting. In full it is 
"(May we) merry meet; merry part; merry meet again". Today it is usally 
just given as "Merry meet" on meeting and "Merry part" or "Merry part; 
merry meet again" on parting. All of the above ("Blessed be" and "Merry 
Meet/Part") are invariably accompanied by a hug and a kiss. 

210 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 



For those who would like to make their own 
sandals, here is a fairly simple method: 

Leave about 2 ins 
beyond the heel. 
and bend 
to shape. 

Sew with waxed thread 


A cloak is a nice accessory. It's the sort of thing 
that can be worn by skyclad Witches, before and after 
Circle, if necessary, or it can complement a regular 
robe. The simplest cloak is semi-circular, hanging to 
the ground and with a hood, or cowl. It is fastened at 
the neck and can be of any suitable material. A heavy 
cloak for winter and a light one for spring and fall is a 
good idea. The color can either match or contrast with 
your robe. 


There are a few books available, for children, that 
do treat the Craft in a positive light. I would recom- 
mend the following: 

The Witch Next Door by Norman Bidwell — 
Scholastic Book Services, NY 1965 

The Witch's Vacation by Norman Bidwell — 

Scholastic NY 1973 
The Resident Witch by Marian T. Place — 

Avon Books (Camelot) New York 1973 
The Witch Who Saved Hallowe'en by Marian T. Place — 

Avon/Camelot NY 1974 
Timothy and Two Witches by Margaret Storey — 

Dell (Yearling) NY 1974 
The Witch Family by Eleanor Estes — 

Harcourt, Brace & World (Voyager Books) 

NY 1960 

I'm sure there are other good books also. Just look 

When you encounter books (or magazine or news- 
paper articles, for that matter) that are antagonistic to 
Witchcraft, and promote the misconceptions, don't 
hesitate to write to the publishers and set the matter 
straight. Let me here include an article that appeared 
in the Seax-Wica Voys (Official Journal of Saxon Witch- 
craft) in the Imbolc 1983 issue, together with the 
editorial comment. 


or, "Positive Public Relations" 

by Richard Clarke 

Recently, several students of Chicago decided that rather 
than allow the kids to go trick-or-treating, there would be a big 
Hallowe'en party sponsored by the village. Five such parties were 
to feature "Burning a Witch" in a big bonfire. 

A reporter for the Chicago Tribune called Stan Modrzyk, Priest 
of the First Temple of the Craft of WICA, of Chicago Heights, and 
asked him how he felt about it. Stan told him he thought there 
would be all sorts of Hell to pay if they said they were going to burn 
a Jew or a Baptist, and immediately wrote to all five villages, 
several local papers (including the Tribune) and an attorney, say- 
ing that making a Witch-burning, even in effigy, was a poor lesson 
for the kids, that it smacked of religious persecution and he was 
prepared to go to court to stop such demonstrations if they did not 
call it off. Bonfires were okay, but no Witches in them. 

A town meeting was held by one village, which was attended 
by the "village fathers", several local residents, representatives of 
several local covens and the Channel 7 News (the local ABC 
affiliate) . The controversy was picked up by both TV and radio, as 
well as the local newspapers, and at least three of the five villages 
agreed early on not to have Witches in their bonfires. I don't know 
if either of the other two villages went on with their "Witch burn- 
ing" (I understand they also called them off — Ed.) but you can bet it 
won't happen next year! 

I feel members of the Pagan community have a duty to speak 
up when incidents like this occur. History tells us that Witches, or 
at least some accused of Witchcraft, were burned in the past. History 
also tells us that quite a few Jews were put in gas chambers in the 
'40s. If anyone were to make a municipal display of "gassing the 
Jew" there would be screams, boycotts, legal actions, etc., by every 
Jewish organization in the country. The Jewish Defense League 
would probably show up and stop such a demonstration with 
physical force if necessary. Can Witches do less? 

I am not advocating violence. I am saying that we should start 

Lesson Fourteen: Getting Set Up 1 211 

looking out for ourselves and fighting ignorance of the Craft 
wherever we find it. Let the world know that the various forms of 
Paganism, including Witchcraft, are legitimate forms of religion; that 
Witches and other Pagans are practitioners of a religion older than 
Christianity and that we desire and expect the same respect shown 
to other religious groups. The respect will be forthcoming . . . 

The VOYS heartily applauds Stan Madrzyk's actions and Richard's 
follow-up. The Seminary* has already been instrumental in establishing 
religious rights for a number of individual students. Let's ALLwork for the 
religion we love. We have had articles in past issues of the VOYS on mis- 
representation of the Craft on television and in movies. We are happy to 
once again give the addresses of TV networks and agencies that deal with 
broadcasters. Remember, when writing, to state your case clearly and 
calmly and WITHOUT ABUSE. 


ABC-TV, 1300 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019 
NBC-TV, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10020 
CBS-TV, 51 West 52nd Street, New York, NY 10019 
PBS-TV, 485 L'Enfant Plaza West SW, Washington DC 20024 
Action For Children's Television, 46 Austin Street, Newtonsville, MA 

Federal Communications Commission, 1919 M Street NW, Washington 

DC 20554 
National Citizen's Committee for Broadcasting, 1346 Connecticut 

Ave. NW, Washington DC 20554 
National Advertising Division, Council of Better Business Bureaus, 

845 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022 

*The Seax-Wica Seminary. This was founded and run for over five years by Ray Buckland. It 
had well over a thousand students worldwide. It did a lot of good work, especially in teaching the 
Craft to a great many people who otherwise might never have had a chance to participate. 


A question I am often asked is "How do I tell my 
girl/boyfriend that I am a Witch?" I hear stories of 
apparently wonderful relationships suddenly evapor- 
ating when the "unsuspecting" partner learns that 
her/his hitherto ideal mate-to-be is a Wiccan (or even 
just interested in the Craft). We know, of course, that 
there is nothing wrong with being a Witch, or being 
interested in any aspect of the occult. The trick, then (if 
any trick is needed), seems to be in the manner in 
which the news is broken. "Guess what, Frank . . . I'm 
a Witch!" is not the way. Poor Frank will choke on his 
popcorn then run for the hills. No, the best way is 
through education. 

Start by waiting for an opportune time (when s/ 
he is in a mellow, talkative mood), then lead the con- 
versation into the subject of the occult . . . the occult 
generally. Rather than stating your interests, ask your 
partner what knowledge s/he has. If necessary, explain 
that the occult is a very much misunderstood field; 
that late-night movies and cheap novels are largely 
responsible for the multitude of misconceptions that 
abound. Then say, "Take Witchcraft for example. 
Now — what do you believe Witchcraft to be?" 

Your partner will then give you a good idea of 
what s/he knows about the subject. It may be accurate 
or it may not. The thing is, to then take that as a 
jumping-off point to explain what Witchcraft really 
is . . . how it developed; how it was distorted; its re- 
emergence; the way it is practiced today. Don't be too 
down on Christianity — just give the facts. You will 
almost certainly be asked "How come you know so 
much about it?" No, do not say "Because I'm a Witch!" 
There is still more groundwork to be laid. Simply state 
that you find the subj ect very interesting and you have 
taken the trouble to read a great deal on it. 

The next step is to get your friend to read some of 
the better books her/himself. Those recommended 
throughout this workbook, for example. If there is a 
real "magick" between the two of you, then s/he will 
be interested enough in your interests to read what 
you suggest. And if that magick isn't there, then it 
doesn't really matter what s/he thinks, does it? 

From there you can then elaborate on just how 
interested you are and finally — again at the opportune 
moment — confide that you are, indeed, a Wiccan. 
Incidentally, it seems the trend, these days (and I think 
it's a good trend), to use the word "Wiccan" rather 
than the older "Witch". It certainly does help over- 
come the inbred misconceptions, to an extent. 

If, after discussion and reading the worthwhile 
literature, s/he clings to the misconceptions, pointedly 
ask why s/he believes that way. It is not usually dif- 
ficult to break down any arguments and show them 
for the illogic they invariably are. However, if, in the 
final analysis, s/he refuses to accept at least your right 
to your own beliefs, then you should seriously consider 
calling off the whole relationship. It is fine to disagree, 
but it is totally unacceptable to have any one person 
try to impose his or her beliefs on another or disallow 
the other the right to their own beliefs. 

As a footnote to the above, if you are approached 
at any time by someone who has learned of your 
interest or activity in the Craft, never start out trying to 
defend your position. Always put the onus on the 
other person by saying "What do you mean by 'Witch- 
craft'? What do you believe a Witch to be?" This way 
you are in a position to see where you stand and to 
correct their views rather than trying to justify your 




1. Relate how you came to form/join your Coven. What is its name? How did you establish your Church/ 

2. What reactions did you get when you told others of your Wiccan activities? How did you describe your 


In the majority of Witchcraft traditions there is no way that an 
individual can operate — membership in a coven is mandatory. Most 
traditions have a system of degrees of advancement not unlike those 
found in Freemasonry and other secret societies. With such a system it is 
necessary for a Witch to advance, within the coven, to a particular degree 
before being able to even cast a Circle. In order to initiate others it is 
necessary to attain the highest degree. As a First Degree Witch they can 
join with the rest of the coven in worship and in the working of magick 
but can do nothing alone. 

Such a system is all very well, and those involved seem quite con- 
tent with it. But it seems to me that an important point is being over- 
looked. Back in the "old days" of the Craft, there were many Witches 
who lived at a far distance from any village or even from any other people at 
all. Yet these were still Witches. They still worshiped the old gods and still 
worked their own magick. That, I feel, was as it should have been . . . and 
as it still should be. There are one or two traditions, today, that do sub- 
scribe more directly to the old ways. In the Seax-Wica, for example, there 
is not the dependence on the coven situation; there is the reality of the 
Witch alone. 

The main point here is that you should not be excluded from the 
Wicca for such a reason. Just because you don't live anywhere near a 
coven; just because you don't know of anyone else with similar interests; 
just because you are an individualist who doesn't care to join with 
others . . . these are no reasons why you should not be a Witch. So let's 
look at Solitary Wicca. 

What are the main differences between being a coven Witch and 
being a Solitary? 

1. With a Covener, the rituals are performed by a group of people; 
several (principally the Priest and/ or Priestess) playing the parts. 
As a Solitary, you do everything yourself. 

2. The Coven meets in a large (usually nine ft. diameter) circle. 
The Solitary has a small, "compact" circle. 

3. The Coven use a "full complement" of tools, depending on the 


What of the Witch alone? Does one have to 
belong to a coven? No, ofcoursenot. Thereare 
many lone Witches, who believe in the Craft 
deities, who have great herbal and/or healing 
knowledge, who are to all intents and pur- 
poses Witches. 

Anatomy of the Occult 

Raymond Buckland 
Samuel Weiser, NY 1977 

226 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

The Solitary uses only what s/he feels s/he needs. 

4. Coven meetings must, to an extent, be held when 
most convenient for the majority. 

The Solitary can hold a ritual whenever s/he feels like it. 

5. A Coven draws on all its members to build a Cone 
of Power. 

A Solitary has only her/his own power to draw on. 

6. A Coven has a wide variety of knowledge and 

A Solitary has only her/his own knowledge and specialty. 

7. A Coven is usually fairly set in its ways. 

A Solitary can change with her/his moods. 

8. A Coven ritual can become almost a "production" 
or pageant. 

A Solitary ritual can he the barest minimum of words 
and actions. 

9. A Coven must attune itself as one. 

A Solitary IS one. 

There are many other differences, of course, but 
these are enough to illustrate the point that there are 
both advantages and disadvantages to being a Solitary. 
Generally speaking, there is much more flexibility to 
being a Solitary, but there is also a more limited store 
of knowledge and magickal power on which to draw. 
Let me elaborate on the above points. 

1. As a Solitary, you do everything yourself. 

You can write your own rituals, just for you. But 
you can also adopt and adapt coven ones. As an 
example of what can be done, here are some of the 
rituals from this book (Erecting the Temple; Esbat; Cakes 
and Ale; Clearing the Temple), suitably modified. You can 
do the same sort of thing with most of the others. 
Compare these with the originals as you go. 


Wiccan rings the bell three times, facing east. She 
then takes the Altar Candle and lights the East Candle 
from it, saying: 

"Here do I bring light and air in at the East, to 
illuminate my temple and bring it the breath of 

She moves around to the south to light that candle. 

"Here do I bring light and fire in at the South, 
to illuminate my temple and bring it warmth." 

To the west: 

"Here do I bring light and water in at the West, 
to illuminate my temple and wash it clean." 

To the north: 

"Here do I bring light and earth in at the north, to 
illuminate my temple and build it in strength." 

She moves on round to the east and then back to the 
altar. Replacing Altar Candle, she takes up her athame 
and goes again to the east. With point of athame down, 
she traces the Circle, directing her power into it. 
Returning to the altar, she rings the bell three times 
then places the point of her athame into the Salt, 

"As Salt is Life, let it purify me in all ways I may 
use it. Let it cleanse my body and spirit as I 
dedicate myself, in this rite, to the glory of the 
God and the Goddess." 

She drops three portions of Salt into the Water, saying: 

"Let the Sacred Salt drive out any impurities in 
the Water, that I may use it throughout these 

She takes up the Salted Water and, starting and finish- 
ing at the east, walks around sprinkling the Circle. She 
then goes around again with the thurible, censing 
the Circle. 

Back at the altar, she drops a pinch of salt into the 
oil and stirs it with her finger. She then anoints herself 
with it, saying: 

"I consecrate myself in the names of the God 
and of the Goddess, bidding them welcome to 
this my Temple." 

The Witch now moves to the east and, with her athame, 
draws an invoking pentagram. 

"All hail to the element of Air; Watchtower of 
the East. May it stand in strength, ever watch- 
ing over this Circle." 

Lesson Fifteen: Solitary Witches / 217 

She kisses the blade of the athame then moves to the 
south, where she draws an invoking pentagram. 

"All hail to the element of Fire; Watchtower of 
the South. May it stand in strength, ever 
watching over my Circle." 

She kisses the blade and moves to the west and draws 
an invoking pentagram. 

"All hail to the element of Water; Watchtower 
of the West. May it stand in strength, ever 
watching over my Circle." 

She kisses the blade and moves to the north, where 
she draws an invoking pentagram. 

All hail to the element of Earth; Watchtower of 
the North. May it stand in strength, ever 
watching over my Circle." 

Kissing the blade, she returns to the altar, where she 
raises her athame high. 

"All hail the four Quarters and all hail the 


I bid the Lord and Lady welcome and invite 

that they join with me, witnessing these rites I 

hold in their honor. All hail!" 

She takes the goblet and pours a little wine onto the 
ground (or into the libation dish), then drinks, saying 
the names of the gods. 

"Now is the Temple erected. So Mote It Be!" 


Witch: "Once more do I come to show my joy of life 
and re-affirm my feelings for the gods. 
The Lord and the Lady have been good to me. 
It is meet that I give thanks for all that I have. 
They know that I have needs and they listen to 
me when I call upon them. So do I thank the 
God and the Goddess for those favors they 
have bestowed upon me." 

Then, in her own way, she gives her thanks and/or 
requests help. She then rings the bell three times 

and says: 

"An' it harm none, do what thou wilt. Thus 
runs the Wiccan Rede. Whatever I desire; 
whatever I would ask of the gods; whatever I 
would do; I must be assured that it will harm 
no one — not even myself. And as I give, so 
shall it return threefold. I give of myself — my 
life; my love — and it will be thrice rewarded. 
But should I send forth harm, then that too will 
return thrice over." 

Here the Witch may sing a favorite song or chant, or 
play an instrument. 

Witch: "Beauty and Strength are in the Lord and the 
Lady both. 
Patience and Love; Wisdom and Knowledge." 

[If the Esbat is taking place at either the Full or the New 
Moon, then the appropriate segment is inserted at this point. 
Otherwise go directly into the CAKES AND ALE ceremony.] 


Witch: "Now is it time for me to give thanks to the 
gods for that which sustains me. May I ever be 
aware of all that I owe to the gods." 

She takes the goblet in her left hand and her athame in 
her right and slowly lowers the point of the knife into 
the wine, saying: 

"In like fashion may male join with female, for 
the happiness of both. Let the fruits of union 
promote life. Let all be fruitful and let wealth 
be spread throughout all lands." 

She lays down the athame and drinks from the goblet. 
Replacing it on the altar, she then touches the cake 
with the point of the athame, saying: 

"This food is the blessing of the gods to my 
body. I partake of it freely. Let me remember 
always to see to it that aught that I have I share 
with those who have nothing." 

She eats the cake, pausing to say: 

"As I enjoy these gifts of the gods, let me 

21 8 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

remember that without the gods I would have 
nothing. So Mote It Be!" 


Witch: "As I came into my Temple in love and friend- 
ship, let me leave it the same way. Let me 
spread the love outward to all; sharing it with 
those I meet." 

She raises her athame high, in salute, and says: 

"Lord and Lady, my thanks to you for sharing 
this time with me. My thanks for watching over 
me; guarding and guiding me in all things. 
Love is the Law and Love is the Bond. Merry 
did I come here and Merry do I part, to merry 
come again. The Temple is now cleared. So 
Mote It Be!" 

She kisses the blade of her athame. 

2. The Solitary has a small, "compact" Circle. 

There is no need for the large, coven-size Circle 
when you are working alone. One just large enough 
for you and the altar is all you need . . . probably five 
feet in diameter would be sufficient. When Erecting the 
Temple, you would still walk all around this Circle to 
"draw" it with your athame, and to sprinkle and cense 
it, but for addressing the four Quarters you need only 
turn and face the directions, from your place behind 
the altar. When working magick, it is easier to build up 
power in a smaller Circle and it is generally a "cosier" 

3. The Solitary uses only what s/he feels s/he needs. 

You probably won't need as many tools as a 
coven uses. You may decide to use no more than your 
athame and a censer. It is up to you; you have only 
yourself to please. Don't forget that you don't have to 
follow all the rituals in this book exactly, or even those 
as outlined in (1), above [see (8), below, for more 
on this] . 

Examine as many traditions as you are able. See 
what tools they use and why (it seems that some groups 
use some items without really knowing why they do!), 
then decide on which ones you need. You will find 
traditions that use broomsticks, ankhs, wands, tridents, 

etc. You may even decide to add something that no 
one else uses — the Pecti-Wita, for example (a Solitary 
tradition, as it happens), use a ritual Staff, which is not 
found elsewhere. Don't add something just for the 
sake of having it, or just to be different. Use something 
because you need to use it; because you feel more 
comfortable with that particular tool than with another 
or than without it at all. 

4. The Solitary can hold a ritual whenever s/he feels 
like it. 

A coven meets for the Sabbats and Esbats. The 
dates for the Esbats are fixed at the most convenient 
times for the majority of members. As a Solitary, you 
can have an Esbat whenever you feel like it. You can 
have Esbats three or four days in a row, or go from 
New Moon to Full Moon without one at all. It's up to 
you and how you feel. If there is a sudden emergency — 
perhaps a healing that needs to be done — you can get 
into it right away. You don't have to desperately try to 
contact others before you can get to work. 

5. A Solitary has only her/his own power to draw 

When working magick, a coven generates a lot of 
power. Working together, the total power of the whole 
far exceeds the sum of the parts. The Solitary can do no 
more than use the power s/he has. This is a fact and 
should be accepted. It is one of the few drawbacks to 
being a Solitary. But this does not mean that nothing 
can be done! Far from it. Many Solitaries do a great 
deal of excellent work, drawing only on their own 
resources. A good parallel might be seen in boat- 
racing, or sculling, where you have teams of eight 
oarsmen, four, two or single rowers. All propel their 
craft equally well. The only difference is the greater 
speeds attained by the boats with the increased num- 
bers of oarsmen. 

6. A Solitary has only her/his own knowledge and 

In a coven there is an accumulation of talents. 
One Witch might specialize in healing, another in 
astrology, one in herbalism, another in tarot reading. 
One might be an excellent tool-maker, another a great 
calligraphist; one a winemaker and/or seamstress and 
another a psychic and psychometrist. 

Lesson Fifteen: Solitary Witches 1 219 

As stated, the Solitary has only her/his own knowledge available. 
This, then, is another disadvantage but, again, one that must be accepted. 
There is certainly no reason why, as a Solitary, you should not be in 
touch with others ( Wiccans and non- Wiccans) who are astrologers, tarot 
readers, herbalists, etc. and to call upon them for help and advice when 
needed. It is just that you don't have them readily to hand there in the 
Circle with you, available at all times. 

7. A Solitary can change with her/his moods. 

A Gardnerian coven rigidly follows the Gardnerian rites. A Welsh- 
Keltic coven rigidly follows the Welsh-Keltic rites. A Dianic coven rigidly 
follows the Dianic rites. This all goes without saying. Even an eclectic 
coven will generally settle into rites, from whatever sources, with which 
it feels comfortable and will stay with them. But the Solitary is free (freer 
even than most eclectics, if only by virtue of having only her/himself to 
please) to do whatever s/he likes ... to experiment, to change, to adopt 
and adapt. S/he can do elaborate, ceremonial rites one day and simple, 
plain, ingenuous rites the next. S/he can do Gardnerian oriented rituals 
one time, Welsh-Keltic the next and Dianic the next. There is tremendous 
freedom for the Solitary, which I urge you to enjoy to the utmost. Experi- 
ment. Try different types and styles of rituals. Find those that are exactly 
right for you. 


I am the Warrior Queen'. 

The Defender of my people. 
With strong arms do I bend the bow 

And wield the Moon-Axe. 
I am She who tamed the heavenly Mare 

And rides the Winds of Time. 

I am Guardian of the Sacred Flame; 

The fire of all beginnings. 
I am the Sea-Mare, the firstborn of the Sea 

And command the waters of the Earth. 

1 am Sister to the Stars 

And Mother to the Moon. 
Within my womb lies the destiny of my 
Tor I am the Creatrix. 
I am daughter to the Lady with ten thousand 
I am Epona, the white Mare. 

— Tara Buckland 

8. A Solitary ritual can be the barest minimum of words and actions. 

This follows on from (7), above. You can enjoy a true economy of 
ritual, if you so desire. Let me give you an example: 


The Witch lights the four Circle Candles from the Altar Candle and, 
with the athame, "draws" the Circle, directing power into it. She then 
sits, or kneels, before the altar and proceeds with a meditation on the 

(This should be familiarized — not necessarily word for word — so 
that it can be followed through without effort) 

"You are sitting in the middle of a field. There is lush green grass all about you, 
with a generous scattering of bright yellow buttercups. Some distance behind 
you, and continuing way off to your left, a wooden rail fence, with other fields 
beyond it, stretches off to another distant fence, beyond which are more fields 
leading to the foothills of the mountains which you can see in the far distance. 

A very light breeze ruffles the top of the grass and you can feel the wind's 
gentleness as it brushes your face. Crickets chirrup in the grass and, from the 
trees beyond the hedgerow, you can hear the occasional song of a bird. You feel 
contented; you feel at peace. 

A swallow swoops down and soars low across the field not twenty feet in 
front of you. He wings up and away over the trees towards the distant mountains. A 
grasshopper lands on your knee, then almost immediately is gone again. 

You get to your feet and stroll leisurely through the grass, parallel to the 
hedgerow. Your feet are bare and the grass lightly tickles them as you move 


Behold! I am He who is at the beginning and 

the end of time. 
I am in the heat of the sun and the coolness of 

the breeze. 
The spark of life is within Me 
As is the darkness of death; 
For I am the cause of existence 
And the Gatekeeper at the end of time. 

Lord-dweller in the sea, 

You hear the thunder of my hooves upon 

the shore 
And see the fleck of foam as I pass by. 
My strength is such that I might lift the 

world to touch the stars. 
Yet gentle, ever, am 1, as the lover. 

1 am He whom all must face at the appointed 

Yet am I not to be feared, for I am Brother, 

Lover, Son. 
Death is but the beginning of life 
And I am He who turns the key. 

— Raymond Buckland 

220 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

along. You walk over to your right till you are close beside 
the hedge, then advance along it. Reaching out your hand as 
you walk, you gently brush the leaves; just catching them 
with your fingertips as you move along. There is a slight rise 
in the ground ahead of you and off to the left. You leave the 
hedgerow and move lightly up the hillock to stand where 
you can gaze about you at all the beauty that surrounds 

Seemingly coming all the way from the distant mountains, 
the breeze you felt earlier is now more steady and you feel it 
on your face and arms. It gently ruffles the tops of the grass 
and causes buttercups to nod their golden heads. You stand 
on the hillock with your legs spread wide and slowly raise 
up your arms towards the sky. As you raise them, you 
breathe in deeply. You hold the breath for a moment, then 
gradually release it, bringing your arms back down to 
shoulder level. As you release the breath you sing out the 
sound "Ah!" . . . "A-a-a-a-a-a-a-a-h!" 

You hear the sound echo away, rolling across the fields 
towards the mountains. Very soon the wind returns your 
call. A brisker breeze springs up and comes rushing across 
the field towards you. You stand exhilarated, your hands 
now at your sides. Then, once again, you raise your hands in 
great arcs as you breathe in deeply. Again you pause, then 
partially lower them to the louder sound of "A-a-a-a-a-a-a- 

A second time the wind returns, this time blowing 
strongly; bending the grass and stirring the hedgerow off to 
your side. It blows back your hair and feels warm against 
your cheeks. For the third time you raise your arms to the 
sky and cry out to the air. "A-a-a-a-a-a-a-a-h!" And for the 
third time the air replies by sending the strong, rushing 
wind across the fields, bending the grass before it and swirl- 
ing up and around your body; tugging your hair back from 
your face and fluttering the robes that you wear. 

As the wind dies you allow your arms to fall to your 
sides and stand, with head bowed, in the warmth of the sun. 
Breathing regularly but deeply, you feel the strength of the 
sun as it shines down upon you from out of the cloudless 
blue sky. Slowly you lift your face, with eyes closed, and 
bask in the radiance that encompasses you. You breathe in 
deeply, sensing the cleansing fire of the sun advancing 
through your body, cleansing and purifying. As you breathe, 
you feel the vitality building within you, fed by those time- 
less flames. 

You bring your hands up, together, to your chest, 
cupping them as though holding the very orb of the sun. 
You continue raising them, up to your face then on up high 
above your head. With palms open and upward, you spread 
your arms and reach up, absorbing the sun's rays into your 
body, this time through your hands and down through your 
arms. Feel the energies rippling down through your body, 
down through your legs, all the way to your toes. Feel the 
fire within you. Feel the fire. 

Now you lower your arms and, turning back towards 
the hedgerow, you leave the hillock and continue on along 
the side of the field. As you walk you become aware of a new 
sound — the sound of a running stream. A tinkling of the 
waters rushing over and around pebbles and small stones 

reaches your ears and draws you forward. You reach the 
end of the hedgerow and see a small wood set back behind 
it. From out between the trees runs the stream, bubbling 
and bustling on its way to it knows not where. It curves out 
and around, to rush off and disappear from view on the far 
side of the hedgerow you followed. 

You drop down to your knees and reach forward a 
hand to feel the water. It is cold, yet not so cold as to turn you 
away. The rushing water murmurs protest at the new obstacle 
and bubbles around and between your fingers, eager to be 
on its way. You smile and slip the other hand in beside the 
first. You wriggle your fingers and rejoice in the invigora- 
ting coolness of the water. You splash your face and feel the 
cold droplets trickle down your neck. It is refreshing and 
energizing. You cup your hands and raise a human grail of 
divine essence from the stream. You bend and plunge your 
face into it, to celebrate a catharsis of the flesh and of the 
spirit. The water refreshes, cleanses and purifies. It is a gift; a 
freely given pleasure. You sigh a long sigh of contentment. 

Rising to your feet again, you move on along the edge 
of the trees until you reach the corner of a large, ploughed 
field that opens out to the left. The soil is newly turned and 
the scent of it is heavy in the air. You walk out towards the 
center of the field, breathing deeply and feeling the good 
clean dirt of the earth between your toes as you walk. 

When you finally reach the middle of the ploughed 
field, you stoop down and sweep up two handsful of the rich, 
dark brown earth. It feels good; it communicates a kinship 
of nature. You feel a "grounding and centering" of your 
body, through your feet, into the earth. It is a sense of coming 
home, or reaching that which you have long sought. 

You lie down on the earth, between the furrows, eyes 
closed and face towards the sky. You feel the gentle breeze 
blowing over you and luxuriate in the warmth of the sun. 
Away in the distance you can just make out the tinkling of 
the stream as you absorb the energies of the earth. Your 
spirit soars and rejoices. And, in so doing, you have touched 
of all the elements." 

You can see that the "things said" and "things 
done" are all in the mind. You may well feel comfort- 
able doing all your rites in this way, though I do urge 
you to at least cast your Circle physically. 

As a preliminary to the meditation, above, you 
might want to re-read the section on meditation in 
Lesson Seven. Also, I would suggest incorporating the 
breathing exercises given there, including the imagery 
of the white light. 

For such a guided meditation, you might like to 
record it on tape, ahead of time, and then play it back to 
yourself in the Circle. 

9. The Solitary IS one. 

This can be both an advantage (chiefly so, I feel) 

Solitary Witches / 221 

and a disadvantage. An example of the latter: if a Witch 
happens to have a very short temper and has been 
badly used by someone, s/he might possibly be 
driven by thoughts of revenge. S/he might be tempted 
to overlook the Wiccan Rede, rationalizing her/his 
thoughts and feelings in some way. However, unless 
s/he can get all of the other coven members, including 
the Priest/ess, to feel the same way that s/he does, s/he 
can do nothing s/he might later regret. Far more likely 
is that the coven would calm her/him and bring the 
problem into perspective. The Solitary, on the other 
hand, does not have this "safety catch". S/he must, 
therefore, be constantly on guard and always carefully 
and closely examine the situation before working any 
magick, giving special thought to the Wiccan Rede. 

But, on the other side of the coin, the Solitary 
does not have to make any compromises in any- 
thing s/he does. The Solitary is one with her/himself 
and is automatically attuned, with no disharmony 
or distraction. 

So the Solitary Witch is indeed a reality. Don't let 
anyone tell you that, because you don't belong to a 
coven and because you were not initiated by someone 
(who was initiated by someone who was, in turn, 
initiated by someone . . . and so on, ad nauseum), you 
are not a true Witch. Tell them to read their history 
(and ask them who initiated the very first Witch?!). 
You are a Witch and you are so in the fine tradition of 
Witchcraft. May the Gods be with you. 


You have now reached the end of this road. I hope you have found 
the j ourney worthwhile. I have tried to teach you everything you need to 
know to be a good Wiccan and to practice either as a member of a coven 
or as a Solitary. If you have worked through this workbook diligently, 
then you are actually better trained now than many Witches who have 
practiced for years. Many come into covens that have no formal training 
and that seem to simply struggle along from one meeting to the next, 
with no one there having any great knowledge. Of course this is not to 
say that, even if you have absorbed everything in this book, you now 
know all there is to know about the Craft . . . you don't. And nor do 1. 1 
have been in the Craft for almost a quarter of a century, and have been 
studying for far longer than that, yet I am still learning. To that end I sug- 
gest that you keep reading all the books that you can. I have added a few 
more in a recommended reading section at the end of this volume. I 
would also urge you to re-read your lessons once in a while (I'd suggest 
once a year) . 

Remember, there are many roads that lead to the center. Each must 
choose her or his own. So be tolerant to others. Don't try to force your 
ways on them, nor let them force their ways on you. Thank you for 
being a good student. Always remember the Wiccan Rede: "AN' IT 
HARM NONE, Do What Thou Wilt." 

The Lord and the Lady be with you in everything you undertake. 


Prior to publication of this book, I invited spokes- 
persons of any and all Wiccan traditions to let me have 
basic information about their particular denomination. I 
hoped that I could then present that information here, 
thus providing a means by which seekers could find 
the right path for themselves (or at least narrow down 
the choice). Unfortunately (dare I say, "typically"?) 
few responded and some of those who did gave scant 
details of their beliefs and practices. To those who were 
kind enough to share, I give heartfelt thanks. It is dif- 
ficult for beginners in the Craft — and even for many 
long-time practitioners— to find a particular form of 
practice with which they can feel really comfortable. 
Usually one is so delighted just to find the Craft at all, 
that one joyously embraces that initial contact even 
though, on later reflection, it does not contain all that 
one had hoped and expected. 

Here, then, are listed a number of different paths 
of Wicca, with a distillation of information on their 
beliefs and practices. For further information, don't 
hesitate to contact the group. An enclosed, stamped- 
addressed envelope would be appreciated, I'm sure. 


A tradition founded by Alex Sanders, in England. 
The rituals are basically Gardnerian but have been 
modified with many Judeo-Christian and Ceremonial 
Magick elements. Covens work skyclad. The eight 
Sabbats are observed and both God and Goddess 
are honored. 

Sanders himself is unique in the Craft world in 
that he claims the title of a "King" of his Witches 
(details may be found in June Johns' book King Of 
the Witches). 

An attempt was made, a few years back, to create a 
denomination known as "Algard" — a blending of 

Alexandrian and Gardnerian. Since Alexandrian is 
already blended with Gardnerian, there didn't seem 
much point to it and I don't believe it caught on to any 
great extent. Alexandrian Wicca is now found in many 
countries around the world. 


"The American Order of the Brotherhood of the 
Wicca" covens stem from Jessica Bell ("Lady Sheba"), 
a self-styled Witch Queen. The tradition's rites are 
virtually the same as the Gardnerian, though covens 
work robed. They follow the same practice of Gardner- 
ians in preferring couples; preferably husband and 
wife. "Ceremonial magick is the primary work of the 
American Celtic tradition and it is conceived as being 
the most powerful and ancient means of psychological 
and occult therapy by which normal, healthy people can 
undertake a program of initiation and development." 


The Craft is alive and well "down under" (as it is 
in virtually every country around the globe), with 
Gardnerian, Alexandrian, Seax-Wica and other groups 
there. There is a branch of The Church of the Old 
Religion in Western Australia. Unfortunately, promised 
details of this denomination did not arrive in time for 
this edition of the Workbook. Hopefully in future 
editions I can add pertinent information. For now, 
interested persons can contact Catherine-Clair, P.O. 
Box 80, Lane Cove, NSW 2066, Australia. 


Their stated purpose is "to seek that which is of 
the most worth in the world ... to exalt the dignity of 
every person, the human side of our daily activities 


226 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

and the maximum service to humanity ... to aid 
humanities' (sic) search in the Great Spirit's Universe 
for identity, for development and for happiness ... to 
re-link humanity with itself and Nature." 

It is, as its name suggests, a Keltic/Welsh tradition 
and was originally organized by Bill Wheeler, in 
Washington D.C. in 1967, as "The Gentle People." It 
teaches the balance of nature, folklore, mythology and 
the mysteries and was incorporated as a non-profit 
(religious) organization, in the state of Georgia, in 

The Church has an "Outer Circle" of students, 
who may learn through correspondence, together 
with its inner core. It is found in many areas of the 
United States. For further information, contact Y Tylwyth 
Teg, P.O. Box 674884, Marietta, GA 30067. 


"The Church of the Crescent Moon is a cohesive, 
small group of highly dedicated individuals . . . Each 
Priestess and Priest maintains services to the Goddess 
or God she or he serves, and the Goddesses and Gods 
in general. Therefore, the Church offers many paths to 
the ultimate 'oneness' with the absolute." The purposes 
of the Church of the Crescent Moon include perpetu- 
ating "the uncorrupted religion of ancient Ireland" 
and providing "information and instruction about the 
Goddesses and Gods in general, Irish culture and 
many occult subjects." 

Although the Church, which was originally organ- 
ized in 1976, states that "we do not call ourselves 
Wiccans ..." I have included them in this present 
work. Many of their rituals are open to guests and 
prospective members. Further information may be 
obtained from The Director, Church of the Crescent 
Moon, P.O. Box 652, Camarillo, CA 93011-0652. 


Circle was begun in 1974 by Selena Fox and Jim 
Alan. Its headquarters are at Circle Sanctuary, a 200 acre 
Nature preserve and organic herb farm in the rolling 
hills of southwestern Wisconsin. Circle coordinates 
Circle Network, "an international exchange and contact 
service for Wiccans, Neo-Pagans, Pantheists, Goddess 
Folk, Shamans, Druids, Eco-Feminists, Native American 
Medicine People, Seers, Ceremonial Magicians, Mystics 
and others on related paths." They publish an annual 
source, which I recommend to the seeker, the Circle 
Guide to Pagan Resources. I also recommend their 
quarterly newspaper, Circle Network News. 

Circle sponsors a variety of seminars, concerts 
and workshops at their home base and around the 
country. At least once a year they also sponsor a special 
program for Wiccan and other Pagan ministers, and at 
Summer Solstice hold the National Pagan Spirit 

Circle is incorporated as a non-profit spiritual 
center and is recognized as a legal Wiccan Church by 
state and federal governments. Circle differs from 
many traditions of Wicca in that it is more aligned with 
Shamanism and, it seems to me, Amerindian ways 
than with the Wicca of Western Europe found in the 
majority of Craft traditions. This is not to denigrate it 
in any way, for it is an excellent, dedicated and well 
organized center. Further information may be obtained 
from Circle, P.O. Box 219, Mt. Horeb, WI 53572. 


This is a newer denomination and therefore not 
found as widely spread as some of the others listed. It 
was formed by a Priest and Priestess with collective 
experiences in Dianic, hereditary Spanish, Egyptian 
and Gardnerian Wicca plus Qabbalism. There is good 
balance between the male and female aspects. The 
group "sees the Goddess and God figures as living 
representatives of even more fundamental, living forces 
which manifest on a variety of levels." Their stated 
purpose is "to make ourselves more fit as vehicles for 
these forces, by invoking them to, in turn, balance and 
develop our own natures and grow closer to the 

The worship is skyclad and without the use of 
drugs. Esbats are held at each moon and there is 
emphasis on the Book of Shadows being personally 
handwritten. Further information is available from 
Elivri and Giselda, P.O. Box 13804, University Station, 
Gainesville, FL 32604 


"The Deboran branch is eclectic. We make little 
ritual use of nudity. We work with balanced polarities 
(Goddess-God; positive-negative). What we are aiming 
for is a reconstruction of the Craft as it would be if the 
Burning Times had never happened — as if Wiccedom 
had continued without interference to this day. We 
use research, logical deduction and divination in this 

Sabbats are open to guests but Esbats are closed. 
Coven leaders are called Robin and Marion, with their 
seconds-in-command called the Maiden and the Green 

Appendix A: Wiccan Denominations 1 227 

Man. They do not have First, Second and Third 
Degrees as such, but "Apprentices, 'sealed and sworn' 
Witches and Elders." 

"We view the Craft as a priesthood with a ministry 
and our principle job, as Witches, is to help others find 
pathways to religious experience and to their own 
power." The Deboran tradition has been in existence 
for at least seven years, as of this writing, and was 
founded by Claudia Haldane. Further information 
may be obtained from Erinna Northwind, Eregion 
Grove, P.O. Box 114, Naphant, MA 01908. 


A tradition started by Ann Forfreedom that is 
both religious and practices magick. It includes both 
female and male practitioners ('It is not lesbian oriented 
and not separatist" states Ann), solo practitioners, 
mixed covens and all female covens. 

"Dianic Feminist Wicce encourages female leader- 
ship, insists that a Priestess must be present for a 
Circle ritual to be held and involves its practitioners in 
feminist and humanist issues." Groups work either 
skyclad or robed. Further information may be obtained 
from Goddess Rising, 2441 Cordova street, Oakland, 
CA 94602 


This is one of the many Welsh-based traditions. It 
was originally founded by Gavin and Yvonne Frost in 
the early 1970s. As "The Church and School of Wicca" 
the material is presented to students by correspon- 
dence, though the course is virtually the same as the 
material presented in their book The Witches' Bible. 
Originally (in the book) there was no mention of the 
Goddess at all and there were various sexual aspects 
which dismayed many who were otherwise drawn to 
the tradition. The latter situation has recently been 
modified and there is now mention of the Goddess. It 
is a widely spread tradition, found throughout this 
country and abroad. For further information contact 
The School Of Wicca, P.O. Box 1502, New Bern, NC 


This was the first denomination of the Craft to 
make itself known publicly (in the 1950s, in England). 
Because of that, many people mistakenly think that it 
is the only "true" Wicca. It is named for its founder, 
Gerald Gardner, who actually launched the tradition a 
few years after the end of the second World War. For 

many years Gardner was accused of inventing the 
whole concept of Wicca and of getting Aleister Crowley 
to write its rituals. Today he has been pretty well 
cleared of both these charges. The Gardnerian Book 
of Shadows can now be seen as a compilation from 
various sources, much of it actually contributed by 
Doreen Valiente. For a detailed examination of the 
birth of Gardnerian, see Janet and Stewart Farrar's 
excellent books Eight Sabbats for Witches and The 
Witches' Way. 

The Gardnerian tradition places emphasis on the 
Goddess over the God, with the female generally 
lauded over the male. It has a degree system of advance- 
ment and does not allow for self-initiation. Covens 
work skyclad and aim to have "perfect couples" — 
equal numbers of male and female, paired. Covens 
are, theoretically at least, autonomous. Gardnerian 
Wica is found in most countries around the world. 

Today there are many traditions which base their 
rites on the Gardnerian ones. There are also a large 
number of groups who call themselves "Gardnerian" 
even though their Books of Shadows bear little 
resemblance to Gardner's original. For more informa- 
tion on this tradition contact Joyce Rasmussen, 383 
Harrison Street, Council Bluffs, IA 51501. (I can 
personally vouch for the fact that this lady's Book is 
the same as Gardner's own) . 


The Georgians, founded by George E. Patterson 
in 1970, were chartered by the Universal Life Church 
in 1972, as The Church of Wicca of Bakersfield. In 
1980 they were chartered as The Georgian Church. 

"The Georgians are eclectic, much based on 
Gardnerian- Alexandrian plus some English tradition- 
alist and some original . . . God-Goddess oriented but 
lean more towards the Goddess." They generally work 
skyclad but individual groups or individuals may do 
as they wish. They are both religious and magickal and 
celebrate the eight Sabbats. Members are encouraged 
to write rituals and to learn from all available sources. 
More information may be had from The Georgian 
Church, 1908 Verde Street, Bakersfield, CA 93304. 


A "traditional" Wiccan group established in 1979 
and having strong ties with The Coven of Rhiannon in 
Manchester, England. 

"Our main focus is the worship of the great God- 
dess and her Consort, the Horned God . . . Our coven 

228 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

does not limit worship to one particular cultural-ethnic 
'tradition'. Rather, a thorough training in basic Gardner- 
ian Wica is taught and members are urged, after 
mastering these basics, to find that particular myth 
cycle or path consistent with their beliefs." 

Further information is obtainable from Deidre, 
Maidenhill, P.O. Box 29166, Philadelphia, PA 19127. 


A non-initiatory tradition that works robed. "We 
try to emulate as authentic and traditional re-creation 
as possible of old Norse garb . . . Our God-names are 
all Old Norse, not Teutonic. We do cast a Circle; we do 
not 'call Quarters' . . . Our tradition is Norse . . . the 
group, however, is not hereditary in that members 
need not be of any particular family or ethnic group." 

The Northern Way was founded in 1980 and 
incorporated in 1982, in Chicago. Its religion is some- 
times called Asatru. They observe the four Solar Fire 
Festivals as well as those indigenous to the Norse 
religion. Further details may be obtained from Northern 
Way, Inc., Nova Coven, 45 S. LaVergne Ave, Northlake, 
II 60164, (312) 562-0802. 


An eclectic group founded by two Gardnerians. 
They work robed at Esbats and Sabbats and skyclad at 
initiations. The Gardnerian deity names are used, 
though "working pairs may use others if they wish." 
Nova has a degree system, which is very finely tuned, 
and an in-depth training, some classes being open to 
newcomers. Grand Sabbats are also open to interes- 
ted persons, at the coven's discretion. 

Nova classifies itself as "a Mixed Traditional, 
Teaching/Training Coven." Further information may 
be obtained from Nimue and Duncan, 6030 W. 
Roosevelt Road, Oak Park, IL 60304. 


A Scottish Solitary tradition passed on by Aidan 
Breac, who personally teaches students in his home at 
Castle Carnonacae, in Scotland. The tradition is attuned 
to the solar and lunar changes, with a balance between 
the God and the Goddess. Meditation and divination 
play a large part in the tradition and it also teaches 
several variations on solitary working of magick. In- 
formation is not generally available and Mr. Breac 
(who, as of this writing, is about ninety years old) is 
not seeking further students.* 


This tradition was founded by myself in 1973. It 
has a Saxon basis but is, in fact, a new denomination of 
the Craft. It does not pretend to be either a continua- 
tion or a re-creation of the original Saxon religion (see 
notes in Lesson 2 regarding the choice of deity names). Main 
features of the tradition are the fact that it has open 
rituals {all of them are published and available), it has 
a democratic organization that precludes ego trips 
and power plays by coven leaders, there can be Coven 
or Solitary practice and there is the reality of Self- 
Initiation in lieu of Coven Initiation, if desired. Covens 
are led by Priest and/or Priestess and decide for them- 
selves whether to work skyclad or robed. The Seax- 
Wica is found throughout the United States and in 
many countries around the world. My book The Tree: 
Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft (Weiser, NY 1978) 
gives the basics of the tradition. 

In Margo Adler's book, Drawing Down the Moon, 
she makes a couple of incorrect statements that I feel 
need to be addressed. She claims that the Seax-Wica 
was originally started as a j oke and further states that it 
is an eclectic collection of bits and pieces from various 
sources. She is wrong on both counts (it is unfortunate 
when an author does not bother to verify statements 
before publishing them). 

Since I left the Gardnerian tradition after more 
than a decade of great activity in it, in order to found 
and promote the Saxon tradition, and since the Seax- 
Wica has been my life for well over another decade, it 
should be obvious to anyone of any intelligence that it 
was not a joke! Far from it; it was very carefully con- 
structed as an answer to the corruption (a harsh word 
but, I feel, the appropriate one) that seemed prevalent 
in some sectors of the Craft, and in much of Gardnerian 
specifically, at that time (I have no reason to believe 
that this is still the case). Far from drawing on other 
sources, with the exception of using Saxon deity names 
all of the tradition as I presented it was new and of my 
own authorship. I was particularly careful to still honor 
my original Gardnerian oath and not to include any of 
that tradition's secrets. 

Happily, many people felt the same way that I did 
at the time of the Seax-Wica's inception and many 
have welcomed it since. Today the Saxon tradition 
flourishes and grows at a steady rate. Details may be 
found in my book, The Tree, mentioned above. 

*I am in touch with Aidan Breac and hope, sometime in the future, to be allowed to present the Pecti-Wita teachings to a larger audience. 



Answer in your own words, without referring back to 
the text. Do not go on to the next lesson until you are 
entirely happy with the previous one. Answers to the 
questions are to be found in Appendix C. 

1. Which two deities were most important to early 
Wo/Man's existence? 

2. What is "sympathetic" magick? Give an example 
of it. 

3. Where did Pope Gregory build the early churches 
and why? 

4. Who or what was "Jack o' the Green"? 

5. What was "The Witches' Hammer" and who 
was responsible for it? 

6. Who was the anthropologist/Egyptologist who, 
in the 1 930s, advanced the theory that Witchcraft 
was an organized religion? 

7. When was the last law against Witchcraft repealed 
in England? 

8. Who was the first Witch to speak up for the Craft 
(a) in England, (b) in America? 

9. What is a Witch's only animosity towards Christ- 

10. Do you have to belong to a coven to be able to 
work a spell? 


Chapters One through Six of Witchcraft From the 
Inside by Raymond Buckland. 

Recommended supplementary reading: 

The God of the Witches — Dr. Margaret A. Murray 

Witches: Investigating an Ancient Religion — 

T.C. Lethbridge 

The Devil In Massachusetts — Marion Starkey 


1. Study the two Goddess myths given in the lesson 
and examine their symbolism. In the Saxon myth 
of Freya, what does the necklace Brosingamene 

2. What are the three essentials of magick? 

3. Have the Christians ever believed in reincar- 

4. According to Craft beliefs, if you do an injury to 
someone (a) will you be able to wait till after 
death before being punished? (b) does that mean 
the same injury will be done to you in your 
next life? 

5 . Imagine that you share an apartment with a room- 
mate who is not in the Craft. You have your own 
bedroom but must share kitchen and living-room. 
Is it possible to have your own temple? If so, 
where would be the best place? 

6. From which direction do you enter the ritual 

7. North, South, East, West . . . Blue, Green, Red, 
Yellow. Which color goes with which direction? 

8. Which of the following could be used for an 

(a) Folding metal card-table 

(b) Wooden packing crate 

(c) Two concrete blocks and a piece of plywood 

(d) Tree stump 


230 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

9. What is the "Wiccan Rede"? 

10. Can you use a glass ashtray for a censer? 

PLEASE READ: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 of The Lost 
Gods of England by Brian Branston. 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Witchcraft Today — Gerald B. Gardner 


1 . Does the Witch's knife have to be of any special 

2. You own an ancient knife which you believe was 
once used to kill a man. Could you use this as 
an athame? 

3. Can you use an unaltered, store-bought knife for 
your athame? 

4. What are the two principle methods of marking 

5. Is the Sword necessary, or can something else 
be substituted? 

6. What is a burin? 

7. Jessica Wells was born March 15, 1962. She likes 
the name "Rowena" and would like to use it for 
her Craft name. Is this a good choice? If not, what 
would you suggest she do? 

8. Choose your Craft name. Check it numerologically. 
Practice writing it in various forms of magickal 

9. How would you write the name "GALADRIEL" 
in Saxon runes? What would be the Magickal 
Monogram for this name? 


Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10 of Witchcraft From the Inside by 
Raymond Buckland. Chapters 1 thru 5 of The 
Meaning of Witchcraft by Gerald B. Gardner. 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Numerology — Vincent Lopez 


1. What is the term used for the central theme of 

2. Describe, briefly, the general pattern of initiation. 

3. What is the meaning of the blindfolding and 

4. What is the Wiccan Rede and what does it mean? 

5. Is it usual for a woman to initiate another woman? 

6. Write a short essay on what the Craft means to 
you and why you want to be a part of it. 


Witchcraft Today by Gerald B. Gardner 

Rites and Symbols of Initiation (Birth and Rebirth) by 

Mircea Eliade 

Recommended supplementary reading: 

The Rites of Passage — Arnold Van Gennep 


1. If you have a coven with eleven people in it and 
four more come along who want to join, can 
they? What are the alternatives possible? 

2. What color is the cover of the Book of Shadows? 
Can you type the rituals and put them in your 

3. How often should a coven meet? 

4. The date of your next Esbat meeting is also the 
date of the full moon. Which of the following 
rituals should you do and in what order? 

Cakes and Ale 
Erecting the Temple 
Full Moon Rite 
Clearing the Temple 
New Moon Rite 
Esbat Rite 

5. What are the names of the four Greater Sabbats? 

Appendix B: Examination Questions 1 231 

6. Is dancing permitted within the Circle? 

7. What is the meaning of the Cakes and Ale rite? 
What is the symbolism of lowering the athame 
into the goblet? 


Chapters 6 through 12 of The Meaning of Witch- 
craft by Gerald Gardner. 

Recommended supplementary reading: 

Aradia, Gospel of the Witches — Charles G. Leland 
The Witches Speak — Patricia and Arnold Crowther 


1. A coven member wishes to work some love 
magick at the next Circle, which happens to be 
Imbolc. Can she do so? If not, why not? When can 
she do it? 

2. At which Sabbats are the God and the Goddess 

3. At the height of the summer, which deity is su- 
preme, to the exclusion of the other? 

4. If the Sabbat date coincides with a full moon, 
whereabouts, in the ceremonies, would you per- 
form the Full Moon Rite? 

5. Which Sabbat marks the shift of emphasis from 
Goddess to God? Which marks the shift back 
from God to Goddess? 

6. Is Yule one of the four Greater Sabbats? 


Eight Sabbats for Witches by Janet and Stewart 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Seasonal Occult Rituals — William Gray 


1. Briefly, what is meditation? 

2. Regardless of how, or where, you sit, what is the 
most important thing regarding your posture? 

3. What is the best time of day to meditate? 

4. Where do you focus your attention? 

5. Describe, briefly, three dreams you have had in 
the past month. Give your interpretation of those 

6. What is a Priapic Wand? 

7. Start a dream diary. Record all your dreams. 
There is no need to write down an interpretation 
for each and every one, but at least think about 
their meanings as you record them. 


The Dream Game by Ann Faraday 
The Silent Path by Michael Eastcott 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Dreams — Carl G. Jung 

The Llewellyn Guide to Astral Projection — Melita 
Dennings & Osborne Phillips 


1. Is the Wicca handfasting rite a lifetime joining of 
the man and woman? 

2. At what age is a child initiated into the Craft? 

3. What are the two main categories of channeling? 

4. Give at least five of the major points you must 
address in order to clear your mind for chan- 

5. You have mislaid your car keys. You don't know 
whether they are in your bedroom, living room 
or kitchen, or at the office. How do you locate 
them? Give two methods. 

6. You see a large break in your father's aura, in the 
area near his heart. What would you tell him 
and why? 


How to Read the Aura; How to Develop Psychometry; 
How to Develop Clairvoyance all by W.E. Butler 
Practical Color Magick by Raymond Buckland 

232 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Recommended supplementary reading: 

The Principles and Practice of Radiesthesia — Abbe 


Amazing Secrets of the Psychic World — Raymond 

Buckland and Hereward Carrington 


1. After trying at least three different spreads for 
the tarot, and doing at least six readings with each 
spread, write down which of the spreads you 
prefer and why. 

2. Imagine that you are in the middle of doing a 
tarot reading for a friend, using the Rider- Waite 
deck. The Major Arcana card, "The Tower" 
appears in the position of The Immediate Future. 
What interpretation would you place on it? (It is 
realized that much would depend on the other cards 
around it. However, just give your interpretation for 
this one card) 

3. In this same hypothetical reading, the Final Out- 
come for your friend is the Five of Pentacles. 
What is your interpretation of that card in that 

4. If you do not own a crystal ball but want to try 
scrying, what could you use in its place? 

5. In cheiromancy, what is the difference between 
the left hand and the right, for purposes of inter- 

6. When reading tealeaves you see a bell and a 
horseshoe low down in the cup, but by the handle. 
What do they mean? 

7. (a) What can you say about John F. Kennedy 
(going just by the name) according to numerol- 
ogy, (b) By numerology, were Napolean and 
Josephine compatible? 

8. An astrological chart shows a Pisces ascendant. 
What could you say about the person? 


The Book of Changes by J. Blofeld 
I-Ching by R. Wilhelm 

The Seventh Sense by Kenneth Roberts 

Numerology by Vincent Lopez 

The New A to Z Horoscope Maker and Delineator by 

Llewellyn George 
Palmistry, the Whole View by Judith Hipskind 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Crystal Gazing — T. Besterman 
Medical Palmistry — Marten Steinbach 
A Pocket Guide to the Supernatural — Raymond 


1. What are the requirements of a good healer? 

2. Why should you always refer to plants by their 
Latin name? 

3. What is: (a) an infusion (b) clarification? 

4. Name three different methods of preparing herbs 
for medicinal use. 

5. What would you use Slippery Elm for? (Ulmus 

6. What do the following terms mean: (a) Carminative 
(b) Expectorant (c) Rubifacient (d) Sudorific? 

7. If the adult dose of a particular medicine is two 
(2) drachms, what dose would you give a seven 
year old child? 

8. What are the abbreviations for the following: (a) 
equal parts (b) a spoonful (c) shake the vessel (d) 
after meals? 


Stalking the Healthful Herbs by Euell Gibbons 

The Herb Book by John Lust 

The Tree (Section on Herbal Lore) by Raymond 


Recommended supplementary reading: 

Common and Uncommon Uses of Herbs for Healthful 

Living — Richard Lucas 

The Herbalist — J.E. Meyer 

Potter's New Encyclopedia of Botanical Herbs 

Appendix B: Examination Questions 1 233 

Complete Herbal- 
Complete Herbal- 
Herbal Manual— 

—Nicholas Culpeper 


H. Ward 


1 . What is magick? How do you prepare for it (before 
actually stepping into the Circle) ? When do you 
use it? 

2. How and where would you create a Cone of 

3. Write a chant to 

(a) Bring about a just court decision 

(b) increase the yield of a farmer's fields 

(c) recover stolen goods. 

also give the key word for releasing the power in 
each case. 

4. A young woman has been deserted by her hus- 
band (he ran off with her "best friend") . She is left 
with three children and a pile of bills. Explain, in 
detail, what magick you would do for her, includ- 
ing the method, the whole story you plan (from 
present to final desired situation), the chant, the 
key word. 

5. Write a short paragraph on why chants and rhymes 
are important. 

6. You are a Solitary Witch. A dear friend comes to 
you asking for help. What would you advise 
(remember who is the best person to work 


Practical Candleburning Rituals by Raymond 


Practical Color Magick by Raymond Buckland 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Sexual Occultism — Jonn Mumford 
Magical Herbalism — Scott Cunningham 
Earth Power — Scott Cunningham 


1. What is a talisman? How does a talisman differ 

from an amulet? 

2. What two main actions are required to charge a 
talisman with power? 

3. How do you personalize a talisman? What would 
you put on a talisman to personalize it for a man 
named Frank Higgins (Craft Name: Eldoriac), born 
June 27, 1942? 

4. Mary Pagani (Craft Name: Empira) wants a better 
paying position where she works. There is a posi- 
tion opening up soon and she would like to get it. 
Explain how you would determine what to put 
on a talisman for her to wear to ensure getting 
this promotion. When and how would you make 
it? Mary's birthdate is February 14, 1954. 

5. Henry Wilson is in love with Amy Kirshaw. She 
is not in love with him. Explain how you would 
determine what to put on a talisman for Henry, 
and when and how you would make it. Henry's 
birthdate is October 1 2, 1 947, and Amy's is July 3, 

6. Practice writing in all of the magickal alphabets 
illustrated. Why should you not try to learn any 
of them by heart? 


The Runes and Other Magical Alphabets by Michael 


How To Make and Use Talismans by Israel Regardie 

Recommended supplementary reading: 

The Book of Charms and Talismans — Sepharial 
Egyptian Language — Sir Wallis Budge 


1. A young boy slipped from a pile of rocks he was 
climbing, fell and broke his left leg. It has been set 
but is taking a long time to mend. What would 
you do to help the mending process, utilizing 

(a) auric healing 

(b) gem therapy 

(c) graphochromopathy? 

2. In the case described in question 1, devise a way 

234 I Auckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

of aiding the boy, magickally, using a method of 
your own, which may be based on those given in 
the Lesson (e.g. a variation of sympathetic magick). 

3. What is Prana ? In pranic healing, why is it neces- 
sary to shake the hands vigorously at the end of a 
pass? Give two methods of doing pranic healing 
when the patient is not physically present. 

4. A woman has a hysterectomy. Describe how you 
would aid her recovery, using a Poppet. 

5. Write a short essay on healing, reviewing what 
you have learned in lessons 10, 11, 12 and 13. 


Color Healing by Mary Anderson 
Healing for Everyone by E. Loomis & J. Paulson 
Is This Your Day? by George S. Thommen 
The Art of True Healing by Israel Regardie 
Precious Stones; Their Occult Power and Hidden 
Significance by W.B. Crow 

Recommended supplementary reading: 
Magic and Healing — C.J.S. Thompson 
Color Therapy — Linda Clark 
Handbook of Bach Flower Remedies — Philip M. 

Handbook of Unusual and Unorthodox Healing 
Methods — J.V. Cerney 

See, also, the list at the end of the lesson. 


1 . Is it permissable for you to write you own rituals? 
What are the two basics to bear in mind when 
writing them, and what should be the focus of 
the ritual? 

2. What names will you give to the God and the 
Goddess in your rituals? 

3. Why is participation important in religion? 

4. Where is the best place to find potential coven 

5. Why would any tradition of the Craft want to 
establish themselves as a "church"? What would 
be the first step to so establishing yourself? 

6. One Saturday morning you happen to see a pro- 
gram for children, on television, which depicts a 
Witch as an evil worshipper of the Christian 
Devil. What should you do? 

7. Your mother-in-law happens to find your Book 
of Shadows and your athame. She immediately 
assumes you are a servant of Satan! What would 
you tell her? 


Seasonal Occult Rituals by William Gray 

Recommended supplementary reading; 
The Spiral Dance — Starhawk 



1. The God of the Hunt and the Goddess of Fertility. 

2. The belief that similar things have similar effects 
(like attracts like). An example would be the early 
hunting magick of primitive Wo/Man where a 
clay model of the animal to be hunted was first 
attacked and "killed" in the belief that the real 
hunt would follow the same pattern. 

3. Pope Gregory the Great built his churches on the 
old pagan sites, hoping to "cash in" on the fact 
that the people were accustomed to go to those 
places in order to worship. Any pagan temples 
on the sites were either rededicated to the Christian 
god or were torn down and replaced by Christian 

4. "Jack o' the Green" was the name given to carvings 
which represented the old God of Hunting and 
of Nature. They were also known as "Robin of the 
Woods" or by the more general term of "foliate 

5. "The Witches' Hammer" was the book Malleus 
Maleficarum, which detailed how to discover and 
interrogate Witches. It was the main reference 
book of the persecutors during the "Burning 
Times" and was authored by two German 
monks, Heinrich Institoris Kramer and Jakob 

6. Dr. Margaret Alice Murray. 

7. 1951. 

8. (a) Gerald Brousseau Gardner 
(b) Raymond Buckland 

9. A Witch's only animosity towards Christianity, 
or towards any other religion or philosophy of 
life, is to the extent that its institutions have 
claimed to be "the only way" and have sought to 
deny freedom to others and to suppress other 
ways of religious practice and belief. 

10. No, you do not have to belong to a coven to work 
magick There are many Witches who work alone 
(Solitaries). There are also many people who are 
not Witches who work magick (Magicians). 


1. The necklace Brosingamene represents the bright- 
ness of the sun. Its loss, therefore, brings on fall 
and winter (Freya's descent into Dreun) . Its return 
heralds spring and summer. 

2. (i) Feeling — the most important ingredient. You 
must really want the thing you seek with every 
fiber of your being, (ii) Timing — tying in with the 
phases of the Moon, (iii) Cleanliness. 

3. Yes, they have. It was part of the original Christian 
teachings until condemned by the Second Council 
of Constantinople in 553 c.e. 

4. (a) No. You experience retribution in this life, (b) 
Not necessarily. You experience all things through- 
out your many lifetimes. You may, therefore, 
have received the same type of injury in any one 


236 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

of your previous lives or you may in any one of 
your future ones. 

5. Yes, it is possible. Your temple can be in any area 
and does not have to be set up permanently. In 
this situation, the best place would probably be 
in your bedroom. 

6. From the East (the direction of sunrise). 

7. North— Green; East— Yellow; South— Red; 
West— Blue. 

8. They all could be, but the best would be without 
metal. In order of preference I would put them 
(d) (c) (b) (a). 

9. An' it harm none, do what thou wilt. 

10. Yes, you can. It's not asthetically pleasing, how- 
ever, and you could probably find something 
better, but it would do. To be sure it doesn't crack 
from the heat, you would be well advised to fill it 
with sand first. 


1. No. It can be whatever length best suits its 

2. Yes, you could. The knife itself was merely the 
instrument used in the action. Any negativity 
would have gone to the murderer her/himself. 
So long as the knife is properly cleansed and 
consecrated, it can certainly be used for an 

3. No. Any knife should be worked on by its owner 
in some way. If you can't make it from scratch 
then perhaps you can make a new handle for it. If 
you can't even do that, then at the very least do 
some work on it — carve your name and/or Magickal 
Monogram on it. Personalize it in some way. 
Then, of course, you must consecrate it. 

4. Engraving and etching. 

5. I would strongly recommend having a sword for 
coven use, but it is not mandatory. The athame 

can always be used in lieu of the sword. 

6. A burin is an engraving tool and is used for marking 
on metal. 

7. Jessica's Birth Number is 9 (3 . 15 . 1962 — 
3+1 + 5+1 + 9+6+2 = 27 = 9); Rowena is a 4 
Name Number (R=9, = 6, W=5, E=5, N=5, 
A=l; 9+6+5+5+5+1 = 31 = 4). Therefore, 
Rowena would not be a good choice insofar as it 
does not match her Birth Number. However, she 
could make it fit by adding another 5 letter. I 
would suggest adding another 'E', thus: ROWEENA 
= 9+6+5+5+5+5+1 = 36 = 9. 

8. Don't forget to include the '19' of the year (e.g. 
2946) when working out your Birth Number. 


Magickal Monogram: |ej 


1. The whole initiatory process is referred to as a 
"Rite of Passage" but the Central Theme (which 
is what I asked for) is a PALINGENESIS; a rebirth. 

2. Initiation generally follows the pattern of SEPARA- 

3. It represents the darkness and the restriction of 
the womb prior to birth. 

4. I asked this before, in Lesson Two's examination 
questions, but I do want to impress it upon you. 
The Wiccan Rede is "An' it harm none, do what 
thou wilt". It means that you can do anything you 
like so long as you don't hurt anyone. And I would 
remind you that "anyone" includes yourself. 

5. No, it is not usual. Normally (traditionally) a man 
will initiate a woman and a woman initiate a man. 
However, it would not be wrong for a man to 
initiate another man or a woman another woman. 

Appendix C: Answers to Examination Questions / 237 

In fact this is quite often done in the case of a 
mother initiating her daughter or a father his 

6. Think carefully about this question and write the 
essay as though I were going to read it. Then put 
it away safely somwhere. Take it out to read it 
again in about a month's time. See if you still 
agree with what you said or if you would alter it 
in any way. 


1 . Yes, they can. There is no maximum number for 
a coven (thirteen has become something of a 
"traditional" number, though there is actually little 
evidence for it historically). However, a total of 
fifteen people could be a little unwieldy. Two 
possible alternatives would be (i) for the fifteen 
to split into two covens, with some new and some 
old (i.e. more experienced) in each group, or (ii) 
for the four newcomers to simply start their own 
coven from scratch. 

2. Green. No, the rituals should always be written 
by hand. In fact, on the title page of most of the 
old Books of Shadows there is the notation "By 
the Witch ...(Name)..., in her hand of write" {i.e. in 
her own handwriting). 

3. At least once a month. 

4. Erecting the Temple; Esbat Rite; Full Moon Rite; 
Cakes and Ale; Clearing the Temple (if it is the 
date of the Full Moon then the New Moon Rite 
would not be done, of course). 

5. Samhain; Imbolc; Beltane; Lughnasadh. 

6. It is not only permitted but is encouraged. It is 
especially useful in the working of magick. 

7. It is a thanking of the gods for the necessities of 
life. The lowering of the athame into the wine 
goblet symbolizes the joining of male and female 
(the insertion of the penis into the vagina) . 


1. Since Imbolc is a sabbat, no, she cannot. Except 

for emergency healings, no work is done at sab- 
bats, which are for celebration. She would have 
to either wait for the next esbat, or do a special 
Circle, for working the magick, sometime before 
or after the sabbat evening. 

2. The God and the Goddess are honored at every 
sabbat. Depending on the time of year, one is 
given preference over the other (basically the 
Goddess during the light half of the year and the 
God during the dark half), but it should be 
remembered that they are both there at all times. 
Neither of them "dies" and is gone. 

3. The emphasis is on the Goddess — but bear in 
mind my answer to question 2, so she is not 
supreme "to the exclusion of the other." 

4. Erecting the Temple; Full Moon Rite; Sabbat 
Rite; Cakes and Ale; Celebrations; Clearing the 

5. (a) Samhain (b) Beltane. 

6. No, it is one of the Lesser Sabbats — the Winter 
Solstice; December 21st. 


1. It is a listening. Listening to the Higher Self 
(Inner Self; Creative Force; Higher Conscious- 
ness; the Gods Themselves — however you wish 
to relate to it) . It differs from prayer in that prayer 
is an asking whereas meditation, as I have said, is 
a listening (perhaps even listening to the answer 
to a prayer) . 

2. To keep the spine straight. 

3. There really is no "best time", but you should be 
consistent and meditate at the same time each day, if 

4. On the Third Eye. 

5. Examine your dreams carefully when interpret- 
ing them. Break down each dream into its various 
component parts. Pay particular attention to 
colors, numbers, animals, significant objects, etc. 

238 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Don't be too quick to take your dreams literally 
and always keep in mind that the main character (s) 
usually represent yourself. 

6. A wand shaped like a phallus (penis) and used in 
various fertility rites. It is named after the Roman 
god Priapus. 


1. No. They pledge themselves to each other for as 
long as their love shall last. When there is no longer 
love between them, they are free to go their 
separate ways. 

2. When the particular child is ready. There is no set 
age; it depends entirely on the individual child. 

3. Physical and Mental. 

4. Controlling the mind; Removing emotion; Self- 
examination; Possessiveness; Love; Meditation. 

5. (a) Calm yourself and rid yourself of all emotion. 
Then simply follow your inner urges; be guided 
from within, (b) Use the pendulum, either work- 
ing on a "Yes/No" basis or with sketch maps of 
the various rooms the keys might have been 
left in. 

6. Beware the power of suggestion. Do not tell him 
what you see. Enquire about his health. If he claims 
to be feeling fine, then drop the subject. It might 
be a good idea to get him to have a full medical 
ckeck-up, but this should be suggested in a most 
subtle way with no hint of worry. 


1. Don't rush your working of the tarot. The more 
you use it, the better you will find you are able to 
interpret the cards. 

2. Your interpretation — your feeling — is what counts. 
Speaking very generally, this card could show a 
problem in relationships, particularly close relation- 
ships (family and close friends). It could be a 
break-up in the home, at work, or with a particular 

group of people. You must decide. Bear in mind 
the position of the card and relate that to when 
this is likely to happen. 

3. Again the interpretation must be all yours. It 
could be a pessimistic outlook or an optimistic 
one, depending on what strikes you in the sym- 
bolism of the card. Keep in mind the position — 
the "Final Outcome" — which would indicate that 
your interpretation should be very specific (This 
same card, appearing in a different position, could 
have a meaning which was, to an extent, flexible. 
But in this particular position it must be definite). 

4. There are several possibilities: a glass of water; a 
magnifying lens; a watch glass; a mirror . . . really 
any reflective surface could be used. Initially, 
however, you'll find it easiest with a clear surface 
against a black background. 

5. The left hand indicates what the person was born 
with and the course the life would have taken if 
things had proceeded unchanged. The right hand 
shows what has been made of the life to date. 
(With a left-handed person, these are reversed). 

6. The symbols mean good news, good luck and the 
start of some new enterprise (possibly, though 
not necessarily, a wedding) . Being near the handle, 
they closely affect the subject. Being low down in 
the cup, they are in the future; possibly quite a 
way off. 

7. (a) JOHN F KENNEDY =1685 6 255547 

= 59 = 14 = 5 

There is a preponderance of 5s (in fact, five of 
them!), which is also the Name Number itself. 
Number 5 people make friends easily and get 
along well with persons of almost any number. 
They are quick in thought and in decisions. 

(b) NAPOLEAN = 51763565= 38 = 11 = 2 

JOSEPHINE = 161578955 = 47 = 11 = 2 

Obviously they were most compatible. 

8. The first house represents your interaction with 

Appendix C: Answers to Examination Questions / 239 

the world and your appearance — how others see you. 
With Pisces rising, therefore, the person will appear to 
others more as a Pisces than what their Sun sign may be 
(the Sun represents more of the inner self). This person 
appears sensitive, noble, kind and gentle, and is 
probably of short to middle stature, of pale complex- 
ion, with high cheekbones, light hair and eyes. 


1 A good healer should be a psychologist, a student 
of anatomy and physiology, a dietician and a 
person of good general knowledge about healing 
and about people in general. 

2. The Latin name is unchanging. Local names are 
just that — names by which plants are known 
locally. They can therefore differ with geographic 

3. (a) Applied to obtain the extracts of a herb by 
means of hot, but not boiling, water (in some cases 
even cold water can be used). 

(b) Done to clarify a substance after processing, 
by melting and skimming or filtering through a 
suitable substance. 

4. Comminution; Extraction by decoction, infusion 
or maceration; percolation; filtration; clarifica- 
tion; digestion; expression. 

5. As a skin cleanser and tonic. A special invalid 
food can be made from the bark, which can be 
digested by the weakest digestive organs and 
cannot be vomited. In soap it is an excellent skin 
soother. It can be applied, externally, as a poultice, 
to irritated and inflamed skin and wounds. It has 
been used to make rectal and vaginal sup- 
positories, enemas and a vaginal douche. It is a 
demulcent, diuretic and emollient. 

6. (a) Expels wind from the bowels. 

(b) Facilitates expectoration (coughing). 

(c) Increases circulation and produces red skin. 

(d) Produces profuse perspiration. 

7. A seven-year old child would be given one third 
of the adult dose. Since the adult dose, in this 
case, is two drachms, then the child's would be 

one-third of two, which is two thirds of a drachm 
(or 2 scruples, or 40 grains). 

8. (a) P. Ae. (b) Coch. j. (c) Agit. vas (d) P.c. 


1. (a) "The art or science of causing change to occur 
in conformity with will," or making something 
happen that you want to happen. 

(b) By being in good physical condition. Cleanse 
yourself both outwardly and inwardly, as pre- 
scribed in the lesson. 

(c) When there is a real need for it (and at an 
esbat, not at a sabbat unless it is an emergency). 

2. By building the power through chanting dancing, 
sex, or however. You do so in the consecrated 
Circle. Don't forget to make sure you are "secure" 
(i.e. unlikely to be interrupted by anyone or 

3. Make sure that your chants are rhythmic — that 
they have a regular beat to them — and that they 
rhyme. Examples: 

(a) "Lord and Lady, hear me pray; 
Judge and jury, rule my way. " 

(b) "All the baskets filled with grain. 
At season's end a plenteous gain. " 

(c) "Thieves who stole things in the night, 
return to me by morning light." 

The key words I have shown in italics. 

4. She may well be better off without the husband, 
so don't bother with trying to bring him back 
(that would be working against his free will, any- 
way). Concern yourself with the wife's immediate 
situation . . . she has a need for SECURITY. You 
must decide for yourself just which method of 
working you will use. Think carefully about the 
whole story; how you wish to resolve it. Think it 
through from the present to the final outcome, as 
you wish it. Compose a suitable chant, remem- 
bering to have a steady beat and a good rhyme. 
Know which is (are) your key word(s) — the key 
word will probably be "Security" or similar. 

5. Refer back to the lesson to see if what you have 
remembered is right. 

240 I Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

6. The point here is that the best person to work 
magick is the person most directly involved; in 
this case, the friend. So get your friend to work 
for her/himself. Even if s/he has never done any 
such work before, you can instruct on how to do 
something simple yet effective, such as candle- 
burning. If, for whatever reason, the friend just 
cannot do the work alone, then you should do it 
(whichever method' you prefer) but with the 
friend assisting you. 


1. A talisman is a human-made object endowed 
with magickal properties. It can be for a variety of 
objectives: to bring luck, fertility, to protect, to 
draw money, etc. It differs from an amulet in that 
the latter is a natural object that has been con- 

2. Inscription and consecration. The inscription to 
personalize the object and to give its purpose. 
The consecration to formally charge it. 

3. While concentrating on the person, you would 
inscribe it with the name and personal details 
such as birth number, sun sign, moon sign, 
ascendant, ruling planet, etc. I would recommend 
using one of the magickal alphabets for the 
personalization. Frank Higgins' sun sign is Cancer, 
his ruling planet is the Moon. Since we don't 
have his time and place of birth we can't put his 
ascendant or moon sign. His Birth Number is 4, 
so that can be included. His Craft name, in 
runes, is: M I" H P F* 1 ^ K 

and his Magickal Monogram is: 

All of this information can be put on the talisman 
(you don't have to use runes, you can use any one 
of the many different magickal alphabets), arranged 
in any order you like, to personalize it for Frank 

4. First of all decide what you are going to be work- 
ing for. It's not just money. She doesn't just want 
one single payment of money. She wants a better 



faying position (which is, in effect, an increase in 
income and a different/better position). Your 
key word could be "Promotion" or "Advance- 
ment" or something like that. It could even be 
"Desires". Taking "Desires" as an example, you 
would work on a Thursday and make the talis- 
man of tin (if possible) or parchment. Mary is an 
Aquarius, with Uranus as the ruling planet. As 
with the previous question, we don't know her 
rising or moon signs. Her birth number is eight. 

On the reverse you would put the sigil for 

You would personalize one side of the talisman 
for Henry, with a sun sign of Libra and ruling 
planet Venus. You can ignore all the information for 
Amy Kirshaw for, as I have tried to emphasize, 
you may not interfere with another's free will. 
This talisman, then, can only be done to bring the 
love of "another" to Henry. 

The Talisman would be made on copper and 
made on a Friday. On the reverse you would put 
the sigil for love: q 

Part of the power that goes into the talisman 
comes from your concentration on the writing as 
you do it. To be somewhat unfamiliar with the 
alphabet you use therefore ensures that you have 
to concentrate on its construction. 


(a) Start with visualizing a white light all around 
the boy, as a cleansing and purifying agent, then 
gradually change that to a healing green light. Let 
the green concentrate on the area of his left leg. 
Finish off with a little blue light, to ensure no 
inflammation and prevent rheumatism from later 
setting in. 

(b) Work with a green stone (precious or semi- 
precious: e.g. emerald, jade, beryl, turquoise). 
Lay the stone on the area of the break, for at least 
an hour each day, and then see that he wears it as 
a pendant, or in a ring, the rest of the day. 

(c) Use a photograph of the boy that includes his 
left leg. Project green light onto the photograph, 

Appendix C: Answers to Examination Questions 1 241 

either by a colored lamp or by placing the photo- 
graph in a frame with a green colored filter in 
front of it. 

2. There are many variations you can do on the 
methods described in the lesson. One would be 
to project the colored light, but onto a poppet 
rather than onto a photograph. You could com- 
bine this with visualizing the green aura around 
the poppet's leg. In this way you could combine 
the sympathetic practice of making the poppet 
(and the stuffing it with healing herbs) and the 
color projection and auric healing, all to the same 
end. Think of other ways yourself. 

3. (a) The vital force which underlies all physical 
action of the body. 

(b) To remove the negativity that you have drawn 
off from the body. 

(c) One way would be to work on a poppet. A 
second way would be to work with a photograph. 

4. Construct the poppet to represent the woman, 
with all her physical characteristics. Make sure it 
includes the cut of the hysterectomy. You could 
make it of green cloth, to help the healing process. 
Personalize it with her name and astrological 
signs. Stuff the poppet with chamomile for its 
soothing qualities and for its use for female 
complaints. Similarly you could use pennyroyal, 
calendula, catmint, tansy, rue, etc. Following a 
ritual "naming" of the poppet, for the woman, 
you would then ritually sew up the area of the 
hysterectomy incision, and visualize it healing 
and the scar disappearing. You could finish off by 
leaving the poppet with green colored light pro- 
jected onto the area. 


1 . Not only is it permissable but I would encourage 
it. Bear in mind that your rituals must contain 
words and action — "things said" (legomena) and 
"things done" (dromena). The focus of the ritual 
should be its purpose, be that celebration, thanks- 
giving, seasonal, or whatever. 

2. This is entirely up to you. Choose those names 
with which you can most easily identify and feel 

completely comfortable. 

3. You may well have your own feelings on this. 
The Craft is a family religion and to be able to 
participate freely makes one very much aware of 
being a part of that family. It draws the participants 
together, sharing the religious experience. 

4. The best place is within the current pagan scene. 
There you will find others who are aware (or 
have at least some knowledge) of what Witch- 
craft really is and also find many who are actively 
looking to join a coven. Contact can be made with 
such people through the columns of the various 
pagan and Craft publications and at the many 
festivals held across the country. 

5. (a) To proclaim the fact that Wicca is a religion 
and that it should be treated to the same respect 
as any other longer-established/accepted religion. 
It also enables the participants to legally perform 
such ceremonies as those for marriage, birth and 
death, and can lead to greater ecumenical inter- 
action between ourselves and other faiths. 

(b) Obtain a copy of the IRS booklet How To Apply 
for Recognition of Exemption For An Organization 
(Publication #557). 

6. Write to the station putting out the program, the 
network headquarters, Action For Children's 
Television, Federal Communications Commission, 
National Citizen's Committee For Broadcasting, 
National Advertising Division of the Council of 
Better Business Bureaus and the individual ad- 
vertisers sponsoring the program. Complain 
about the way Witchcraft was presented on the 
show and give an outline of the true Craft. Refer 
to respectable books on Witchcraft. Do not be 
abusive. Complain calmly and clearly. 

7. You wouldn't tell her anything . . . not right away! 
You would ask her what she thought Witchcraft 
to be (and also, if necessary, what she thought 
Satanism to be) and proceed from there as 
described in the lesson. 


In the old days there was much festivity at the 
Sabbat meetings. There were songs and dancing, games 
and frivolity. So it should be today. Victor Anderson 
has recently published an original collection of Pagan 
songs (Thorns of the Blood Rose, Anderson, California, 
1970) written by himself . Some Covens have gathered 
older songs and dances, or made up their own for their 

own use. 

Here are a few songs, chants and dances to get 
you started. Begin collecting your own. Don't be afraid 
to take any good rune you happen to come across and 
enjoy, and put your own words to it. Be creative . . . 
and have fun. 


Words and Music by Ray Buckland 



* d «T» — 


~Ar — " 



We all stand in the Circle at last, Wit-ness-ing two who wishto Hand-fast. 

Both do show their love;know their true heart, hop-ing that they ne-ver will part. 



Bright full Moon is shining above; 
Shining down, spreading their true love. 
All are skyclad and ev'ryone glad. 
Happiness abounds; no one sad. 

Flow'rs rest on the altar so gay, 
Flowers around the Cir-cle lay. 
All the coven is singing with joy, 
Happy for this girl and this boy. 

"We desire that we be made one 
In the eyes of the Gods and ev'ry one." 
Runic inscriptions on silver band 
Each then places on the other's hand. 

"Your life I'll guard before my own, 
Disrespect ne'er will I condone. 
This athame I'll plunge in my heart 
Should I hurt you; cause us to part." 

Then they kiss each other with joy; 
No more are they just girl and boy. 
They're united as one, you see. 
TTord and Lady we say: "Bless'd Be!' 


244 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


Music — Traditional 

Words — Ray Buckland 

r* Ft 



G G D G 

"Come to the Cir-cle, dance with me; Dance in the Cir-cle where we'll be 

-Ji*-^L-*» p p J__ 1 . __. 

^^__U- _ „_ *_ _ - =3B ^ ^_z-b=aJ: — _^_ 

.Sr I ... ...... (. rr . ,. 

»> C G D 7 G 

In the moon-light turn-ing round, Danc-ing on the fairy mound." 


£££S ggg- ijj^[ 

G G G C D 

One two three four;0ne two three four. All of the Wit-ches dance and sing. 


To the left: 

- — i© 





To the right; Turn, leap a - round the ring. 
if — ^_^|_„-^.__~L.._^ — „£r ^ . ,._ .. — ^_ ^| J — ^J — ^.. —pi. 


G " "G 


Move round the Cir-cle start-ing slow. On round the Cir-cle, see them go! 

C G D 7 ' G 

Thir-teen Wit-ches hav-ing fun. Fast-er! 'Til the dance is done. 

They all go running, leaping high 
Over the bonfire, to the sky. 
Happy laughter; give and take. 
They'll be there till daybreak. 
Never slowing; puffing, blowing; 
Deosil circle, round and round. 
Moving slow; moving fast; 
Spin, jump and hit the ground. 
Hark to the sounds of Witchcraft joy! 
Watch as the girl spins with her boy. 
Happy, happy pagans they, 
Dancing in the Wiccan way. 

3. After the dancing there will be 
Plenty of happy memories. 
There is ritual; there are rites; 
Ceremony all night. 
"We love the God! We love Goddess!" 
All of the Witches cry out loud. 
"We are one! We share love!" 
Wiccans — they all are proud. 
Pray'rs to the Lady and her Lord. 
Thanks to them both with blessings stor'd. 
Priest and Priestess; Witches all; 
Proudly they can stand tall. 

Appendix D: Music and Chants / 245 


Words and Music by Ray Buckland 






Come! Join us now, this mer-ry band, as we go a danc - ing. 

^ i* cr r \r rj» 



We're Wit-ches all, en - joy- ing life; a- round the Circle pranc-ing. 

Don't waste your time sit-ting out-side the Cir-cle's Sa - cred ring. 


fn TTT in^ 


Come! Join us now, full co-ven strong. Let's dance and then let's sing. 


T J^Ti^^ ^ 

Join in the dance, round and round; we'll make your step seem light. 

W£^=3=±3 = ^i±±h 

Let your-self go, round and round; dance all through the night. 

Love to the Lord and Lady too; 

Love to all these Witches. 
We may be poor, or so it seems, 

But we have these riches: 
We have so much brotherly love, 

T'gether with each other. 
We have the best together now; 

Wife, husband or lover. 
We nothing lack in our lives, 

So long as we keep to 
The Wiccan Rede: "Harm no one; 

What ye will, then do." 

Come! Join us now, this merry band, 

As we go a-dancing. 
We're Witches all, enjoying life, 

Around the Circle prancing. 
Don't waste your time sitting outside 

The Circle's sacred ring. 
Come! join us now, full coven strong; 

Let's dance and sing. 
Join in the dance, round and round; 

We'll make your steps seem light. 
Let yourself go, round and round; 

Dance all through the night. 



fffll j r 

Appendix D: Music and Chants / 247 

Words and Music by Ray Buckland 



"■Hum * 

The Moon broke out to shine in full Be - tween the scur-ry-ing 



. Chorus 

clouds, And the storm did rum-ble close on by With flash and thun-der loud. It 

.(ft j J J J & =p l?\ J- j- p pi^^to 

was a night of ma-gick And an - cient su-per-na-t'ral pow'r. The 

j j rrr 



-p— f=- 

kind of night when spi-rits roam a - bout at mid-night's hour. 

2. Below, on timeless rolling down, 
An ancient Circle strong; 

Composed of time-worn standing stones — 
Its origin long gone. Chorus . 

3. Then suddenly a strange event 
Occurred for who might see. 

A phantom line of men in white 

Appeared across the lea. Chorus . 

4. From whence they came no one can say; 
They suddenly were there. 

With chanting low and steady tread 

They moved in censered air. Chorus . 


They cast no shadows as they passed 

Into the Circle's bound. 

No faces peered from out their cowls; 

No footprints on the ground. Chorus , 

A flash of golden sickled blades 
Not held by human hand. 
In ritual conclave, magick rites 
Long practiced by the band. 


Then, as a thousand time before 
Upon this hallow'd site, 
The phantoms slowly fade away; 
Returning to the night. 

Chorus . 

Chorus , 

248 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 

Music — Traditional 



Words by Ray Buckland 

fc' fflr .rj-'iJv ^ ir^Tf f ; {) 

We sing and dance and hold our rites, we live and love to-ge-ther. We 

If (■• j;. Mj ^ J " 1 r t±4 

K F 

* # 

go sky-clad or wear our robes if it is chill-ing wea-ther. A 



: ^ 1 r JT ^pip j j j - 

bout the al - tar we do dance; we praise the gods we love And e-ver do we 

^jfc . . Chorus 

* * v r • x \s* j> J 


give our thanks to the Sun and Moon a-bove. We 


are the Craft;love the Craft; 


We are Wit-ches all. Join us in our Cir-clefor we are Wit-ches all, 





Walk in-to our Cir-cle and feel the love a - bound, And 

frtj-ftr^ r J " r r 

meet the Lord and La - dy who do guide us in our round. 

"An' it harm none, do what thou wilt"; 
It is the Wiccan Rede. 
We fear no foe for love we show, 
In thought and also deed. 

Our words of thanks, our songs of praise, 
We offer them in pray'r. 
We sing their praise, we ask their help; 
We know that they are there. 


Appendix D: Music and Chants 1 249 

Music by W. T. Wrighton 


Words by Ray Buckland 

• F* tf ~RP ~ F> Ft Rf 

E b B* E* E b w Ef B^ 

Sing me a Wic-can song of La-dy; and of Lord Of 

can-dies, cen-ser, wa-ter, salt; A - tha-me and of sword. For 

Pi J t J iGrV' r Wtltr-rn 

on - ly in a Wic-can song Can Gods be true a - dored. 

Sing me a Wiccan song 

Of Circles in moonlight. 

Of dancing feet and chanting rhymes 

And power raised so bright. 

For only in a Wiccan song 

Can we all worship right. 

Sing me a Wiccan song 
Of winter, summer, fall, spring, 
Of seasons passing joyfully, 
Their praises we do sing. 
For only in a Wiccan song 
Can we with Nature ring. 

Sing me a Wiccan song 

Of Lady and of Lord. 

Of candles, censer, water, salt, 

Athame and of sword. 

For only in a Wiccan song 

Can Gods be true adored. 

Chants and rounds can be fun. Here is something that can be 
sung as either — as a round (as indicated) or simply sung in 
unison as a chant. It is sung to the old tune "We Wish You A 
Merry Christmas." 

1. All praise to the Lord and Lady; 
Yes, praise to the Lord and Lady. 
Oh, praise to the Lord and Lady, 
For we love them so. 

In honor we all hold 

Our Sabbat Rites; 
To worship the Gods 

All our days and our nights. 

All praise to the Lord and Lady; 
Yes, praise to the Lord and Lady. 
Oh, praise to the Lord and Lady, 
For they love us so. 

250 / Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft 


Music by Arnold 

Words by Ray Buckland 

§1 j 1 «r o j s I J Q i J 

round the Cir-cle all night long, The 

1. j I J n J J liSiS 


They greet the Bel-tane sea - son new, They 

f f I & & J^T^ F j^-j^ 

Lord and La - dy, Lord and La - dy, They 

ft J /3 fT&T T — J-^ 

Wit - ches dance and join in song. 

ft r O f* 

wel - come Lord and 




dy too. 


-E_-l-&C-&/J g 

wel - come Lord and 


dy too. 

Appendix D: Music and Chants / 251 


(1) We are the children of the night. 
Gentle are we — yet feel our might. 

(2) Singing, dancing, chanting low. 
Power building ... let it go! 

(3) Round and round this Esbat site; 
Power build to work our rite. 

(4) Brother and sister, together we sing. 
Directing the forces that our wills bring. 

(5) We are the spokes of the mighty wheel; 
This power we raise that all might feel. 

(6) Deosil circle round about; 

Building the power, let it go with a shout! 

by Tara Buckland 

Earth site 
Witches' rite 
Merry meet 
In joy tonight! 

Sacred ground, 
Newly bound. 
Witness to 
The power found! 

Some simple chants — make up your own tunes for them. 


East; air! South; fire! 
West; Water! North; earth! 
Dance round; jump higher; 
Born; live; Death; Rebirth! 


Swing the censer, light the light; 
Circle round in starlit night. 
Chant the words and ring the bell; 
Work the magick, weave the spell. 


My lot in life's no matter, 
Howe'er my die is cast. 
My family's the Circle; 
I'm with my own at last. 


Circle marked upon the ground; 
Skyclad figures moving round. 
Incense rising to the sky; 
Power cone now building high. 
Dancing, chanting, gentle sound; 
Witches' magick doth abound. 


At the end of each lesson's examination questions, I 
listed books for further reading. They are books I 
especially recommend. To them I would add a few 
more that you may well find of interest. 

ABRAHAM, Karl — Dreams and Myths 

ANGUS, S. — The Religious Quests of the Graeco-Roman 

BOWRA, CM. — Primitive Song 
BRACELIN, J.L. — Gerald Gardner: Witch 
BREASTED, J.H. — Development of Religion and Thought 

in Ancient Egypt 
BUDGE, Sir E.A.W. — Amulets and Talismans 
ELIADE, Mircea — Birth and Rebirth; The Sacred and the 

Profane; Myths, Dreams and Mysteries 

FITCH, Ed — Magical Rites from the Crystal Well 
FRAZER, Sir James — The Golden Bough 
FREUD, Sigmund — Totem and Taboo 
GARDNER, Gerald B. — A Goddess Arrives 
GLASS, Justine — Witchcraft, the Sixth Sense and Us 
HARRISON, Jane E. — Ancient Art and Ritual 
HOOKE, S.H. — Myth and Ritual 
LELAND, Charles G. — Aradia, Gospel of the Witches 

of Italy 
LETHBRIDGE, T.C. — Gogmagog — The Buried Gods 
SCIRE (G.B. Gardner) — High Magic's Aid 
VALIENTE, Doreen — Where Witchcraft Lives; ABCs of 

Witchcraft; Witchcraft Past and Present 

Stay in Touch. . . 

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ask for it! 

Raymond Buckland 

This is a video by recognized Witchcraft authority Raymond Buckland, whose 
purpose is to straighten out the popular misconceptions about the Wiccan reli- 
gion. For the approximately 70,000 to 75,000 people in the United States who 
consider themselves Wiccans or Pagans, this is the only completely factual 
"how-to" depiction of the rites and practices of their religion in the world. 



This video details the origins and history of Witchcraft, and discusses the resur- 
gence of Wicca in our own day. Wiccan priests and priestesses dramatize the 
ancient rites and rituals. For the merely curious, there is no better way to expe- 
rience the inner beauty and strength of the Craft of the Wise than from seeing a teacher in action. For stu- 
dents, this is better than a book, and it makes an excellent tool for coven leaders and teachers. 
0-87542-089-3, 60 minutes, American VHS $29.95 


A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner 

Scott Cunningham 

Wicca is a book of life, and how to live magically, spiritually, and wholly 
attuned with Nature. It is a book of sense and common sense, not only about 
Magick, but about religion and one of the most critical issues of today: how to 
achieve the much needed and wholesome relationship with our Earth. Cun- 
ningham presents Wicca as it is today: a gentle, Earth-oriented religion dedi- 
cated to the Goddess and God. This book fulfills a need for a practical guide to 
solitary Wicca — a need which no previous book has fulfilled. 

Here is a positive, practical introduction to the religion of Wicca, designed so 
that any interested person can learn to practice the religion alone, anywhere in 
the world. It presents Wicca honestly and clearly, without the pseudo-history 
that permeates other books. It shows that Wicca is a vital, satisfying part of twentieth century life. 

This book presents the theory and practice of Wicca from an individual's perspective. The section on the 
Standing Stones Book of Shadows contains solitary rituals for the Esbats and Sabbats. This book, based 
on the author's nearly two decades of Wiccan practice, presents an eclectic picture of various aspects of 
this religion. Exercises designed to develop magical proficiency; a self-dedication ritual; herb, crystal and 
rune magic; and recipes for Sabbat feasts are included in this excellent book. 
0-87542-118-0, 240 pp., 6x9, illus., softcover $9.95 

To order, call 1-800-THE MOON 

Prices subject to change without notice 



A Further Guide for the Solitary Practitioner 

Scott Cunningham 

Living Wicca is the long-awaited sequel to Scott Cunningham's wildly success- 
ful Wicca: a Guide for the Solitary Practitioner. This book is for those who have 
made the conscious decision to bring their Wiccan spirituality into their every- 
day lives. It provides solitary practitioners with the tools and added insights 
that will enable them to blaze their own spiritual paths — to become their own 
high priests and priestesses. 

Living Wicca takes a philosophical look at the questions, practices, and differ- 

ences within Witchcraft. It covers the various tools of learning available to the practitioner, the impor- 
tance of secrecy in one's practice, guidelines to performing ritual when ill, magical names, initiation, and 
the Mysteries. It discusses the benefits of daily prayer and meditation, making offerings to the gods, how 
to develop a prayerful attitude, and how to perform Wiccan rites when away from home or in emer- 
gency situations. 

Unlike any other book on the subject, Living Wicca is a step-by-step guide to creating your own Wiccan 
tradition and personal vision of the gods, designing your personal ritual and symbols, developing your 
own book of shadows, and truly living your Craft. 
0-87542-184-9, 208 pp., 6x9, illus., softcover $12.95 

Callia Underhill 

Witches and Pagans have always been credited with having special powers, 
with being able to "see the unseen." A Witch's Book of Divination explains the 
operations of these powers and gives practical exercises to help the modern 
Pagan understand and contact his or her hidden clairvoyant capabilities. Div- 
ination is the art of opening yourself up to the wisdom of the Gods and their 
realms, as is evident by its root connection with the word "divine." Now Wic- 
can and Pagan readers can take full advantage of divinatory systems geared 
specifically for them, based on traditional methods but translated and inter- 
preted according to the rich symbolism and mythology of the Craft. 



This book presents nine new divinatory methods, constructed by the author for use by her own students. 
These are intended expressly for those on the Pagan path, and can be adapted for use by solitary practi- 
tioners or entire groups. 
1-56718-054-X, 240 pp., 6x9, illus., softcover $14.95 

To order, call 1-800-THE MOON 

Prices subject to change without notice 

New Generation Witchcraft 
Silver Raven Wolf 

Throughout the world there is a new generation of Witches — people practicing 
or wishing to practice the craft on their own, without an in-the-flesh magickal 
support group. To Ride a Silver Broomstick speaks to those people, presenting 
them with bom the science and religion of Witchcraft, allowing them to become 
active participants while growing at their own pace. It is ideal for anyone: male 
or female, young or old, those familiar with Witchcraft, and those totally new 
to the subject and unsure of how to get started. 

To Rsi» a 

^ Silver \ 


New Generation 

. >t ';.\i,ui" 

Full of the author's warmth, humor, and personal anecdotes, To Ride a Silver Broomstick leads you step-by- 
step through the various lessons with exercises and journal writing assignments. This is the complete 
Witchcraft 101, teaching you to celebrate the Sabbats, deal with coming out of the broom closet, choose a 
magickal name, visualize the Goddess and God, meditate, design a sacred space, acquire magickal tools, 
design and perform rituals, network, spell cast, perform color and candle magick, divination, healing, 
telepathy, psychometry, astral projection, and much, much more. 
0-87542-791-X, 320 pp., 7 x 10, illus., softcover $14.95 


A Witch's Guide to Casting and Conjuring 

Silver RavenWolf 

The sequel to the enormously popular To Ride a Silver Broomstick: New Gener- 
ation Witchcraft. This upbeat and down-to-earth guide to intermediate-level 
witchery was written for all Witches — solitaries, eclectics, and traditionalists. 
In her warm, straight-from-the-hip, eminently knowledgeable manner, Silver 
provides explanations, techniques, exercises, anecdotes, and guidance on tra- 
ditional and modern aspects of the Craft, both as a science and as a religion. 

Find out why you should practice daily devotions and how to create a sacred 
space. Learn six ways to cast a magick circle. Explore the complete art of spell-casting. Examine the hows 
and whys of Craft laws, oaths, degrees, lineage, traditions, and more. Explore the ten paths of power, and 
harness this wisdom for your own spell-craft. This book offers you dozens of techniques — some never 
before published — to help you uncover the benefits of natural magick and ritual and make them work for 
you — without spending a dime! 

Silver is a "working Witch" who has successfully used each and every technique and spell in this book. 
By the time you have done the exercises in each chapter, you will be well-trained in the first level of ini- 
tiate studies. Test your knowledge with the Wicca 101 test provided at the back of the book and become a 
certified Witch! Learn to live life to its fullest through this positive, spiritual path. 
1-56718-424-3, 7 x 10, 288 pp., illus., softcover $16.95 

To order, call 1-800-THE MOON 

Prices subject to change without notice 


Reclaiming the Pagan Tradition 

Pauline Campanelli, illus. by Dan Campanelli 

Ancient Ways is filled with magick and ritual that you can perform every day to 
capture the spirit of the seasons. It focuses on the celebration of the Sabbats of 
the Old Religion by giving you practical things to do while anticipating the 
sabbat rites, and helping you harness the magical energy for weeks afterward. 
The wealth of seasonal rituals and charms are drawn from ancient sources but 
are easily performed with materials readily available. 

Learn how to look into your previous lives at Yule ... at Beltane, discover the 
places where you are most likely to see faeries . . . make special jewelry to wear for your Lammas Cele- 
brations ... for the special animals in your life, paint a charm of protection at Midsummer. 

Most Pagans and Wiccans feel that the Sabbat rituals are all too brief and wish for the magick to linger 
on. Ancient Ways can help you reclaim your own traditions and heighten the feeling of magick. 
0-87542-090-7, 256 pp., 7 x 10, illus., softcover $14.95 


The Pagan Wheel of Life «. f 1 Wufe 

Pauline Campanelli WtUs m ' ■ lss * l 8 t - 

illustrated by Dan Campanelli \.j ',.'. 4 _,.* 

If you have ever held a newborn child in your arms and wanted to rejoice &*^- - -** _ * *^ \\ 

with the deities over the birth but didn't know what to do, or if you've felt P*j§^w— -^ JS***| 

frustrated at the funeral of a loved one by a minister's empty words, then this j^y IsT** 7*^-* 

book is for you. V* "■ 

.■k *■*-- 

Rite* of Passage is a complete and cohesive system of rites that draws upon ^*?^tf.ft-^y ^JftX 
ancient Pagan traditions of many cultures to celebrate the inevitable life tran- __,_," '* * 

sitions of those on the Pagan path. As well as describing traditions and offer- 
ing ideas for the passager and participants, this book will tell you about charms, amulets, gifts, and altar 
decorations you can make in preparation for a rite. Hundreds of traditions and rites are provided, 
including birth and Paganing; coming of age and initiation; handfasting and parting; mid-life and priest 
or priestesshood; cronehood/elderhood; death; and many more. 

This book was written for beginner or advanced practitioners, solitaries or covens, with rituals general 
enough to be adapted into any tradition. Your life's cycles are connected to the seasons of the year and 
the cycle of the sabbats — now you can celebrate them with new knowledge, confidence, and joy! 
0-87542-119-9, 7 x 10, 288 pp., illus., softcover $14.95 

To order, call 1-800-THE MOON 

Prices subject to change without notice 

Raymond Buckland 

Buckland's Complete Gypsy Fortuneteller gives you everything you need to per- 
form, divination in the Gypsy tradition. Included is the book Secrets of Gypsy 
Fortunetelling, in which the secrets of divination with palms, tea leaves, 
cards, dice, and other methods are revealed. 

You can use the insights gained from the book to perform powerful divination 
with The Buckland Gypsy Fortunetelling Deck. This 74-card deck has a dis- 
tinctive Romani (Gypsy) Major Arcana, and a Minor Arcana composed of a 
regular poker deck. A handy 16" x 24" four-color layout sheet is included, 
making the deck instantly and easily usable. Each side illustrates a different 
layout: the Seven Star layout and the Romani Star layout. With this you can discover future events, hopes, 
fears, strengths, and much more. 

All of these attractive and useful items are packaged neatly into a convenient box. A one-of-a-kind kit 
that makes a surprising and intriguing gift, Buckland's Complete Fortuneteller reflects the nuances of Gypsy 
culture while bringing a potential for improvement in anybody's life. 
0-87542-055-9, book, 74-card deck, layout sheet $24.95 

Kj¥yF :fr -"HI 

Spells &c Rituals for Every Purpose 
Raymond Buckland, Ph.D. 

Magick is a way in which to apply the full range of your hidden psychic pow- 
ers to the problems we all face in daily life. We know that normally we use only 
5 per cent of our total powers. Magick taps powers from deep inside our psy- 
che where we are in contact with the Universe's limitless resources. 

Magick need not be complex — it can be as simple as using a few candles to 

focus your mind, a simple ritual to give direction to your desire, a few words 

to give expression to your wish. This book shows you how easy it can be. Here 

is Magick for fun, Magick as a Craft, Magick for Success. Love, Luck, Money, 

Marriage, Healing; Magick to stop slander, to learn truth, to heal an unhappy marriage, to overcome a 

bad habit, to break up a love affair, etc. 

Magick — with nothing fancier than ordinary candles, and the 28 rituals in this book (given in both Chris- 
tian and Old Religion versions) — can transform your life. 
0-87542-048-6, 208 pp., 5/4 x 8, illus., sof tco ver $7.95 

To order, call 1-800-THE MOON 

Prices subject to change without notice 


Llewellyn's MOON SIGN BOOK: Approximately 500 pages of valuable information on gardening, 
fishing, weather, stock market forecasts, personal horoscopes, good planting dates, and general instruc- 
tions for finding the best date to do just about anything! Articles by prominent forecasters and writers in 
the fields of gardening, astrology, politics, economics, and cycles. This special almanac, different from 
any other, has been published annually since 1906. It's fun, informative and has been a great help to mil- 
lions in their daily planning. New larger 5K x 8 format. State year $6.95 

Llewellyn's SUN SIGN BOOK: Your personal horoscope for the entire year! All 12 signs are included in 
one handy book. Also included are forecasts, special feature articles, and an action guide for each sign. 
Monthly horoscopes are written by Gloria Star, author of Optimum Child, for your personal sun sign and 
there are articles on a variety of subjects written by well-known astrologers from around the country. 
Much more than just a horoscope guide! Entertaining and fun the year around. New larger 5M x 8 format. 
State year $6.95 

Llewellyn's DAILY PLANETARY GUIDE: Includes all of the major daily aspects plus their exact times 
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monthly ephemeris, sunrise and sunset tables, special articles on the planets, signs, aspects, a business 
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State year $9.95 

Llewellyn's ASTROLOGICAL POCKET PLANNER: Daily Ephemeris & Aspectarian: Designed to 
slide easily into a purse or briefcase, this all-new annual is jam-packed with those dates and planetary 
information astrologers need when forecasting future events. Comes with a regular calendar section, a 
smaller section for projecting dates into the year ahead, a 3-year ephemeris, a listing of planetary aspects, 
a planetary associations chart, a time-zone chart, and retrograde table. State year $7.95 

MYTHS OF THE GODS & GODDESSES CALENDAR: Explore the mythic wilderness each month 
with 12 original and breathtaking paintings of figures from the archives of our collective unconscious. 
Meet Gods & Goddesses from a host of world cultures and find elements of your own life in their uni- 
versal stories. Accompanying text explains the significance of the myth. All ancient and modern holidays 
are included. State year $12.00 

Llewellyn's ASTROLOGICAL CALENDAR: Large wall calendar of 48 pages. Beautiful full-color cover 
and full-color paintings inside. Includes special feature articles by famous astrologers, and complete intro- 
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motion, an ephemeris, personal forecasts, lucky dates, planting and fishing dates, and more. 10 x 13 size. 
Set in Eastern time, with fold-down conversion table for other time zones worldwide. State year $12.00 

Llewellyn's MAGICAL ALMANAC: This beautifully illustrated almanac explores traditional earth reli- 
gions and folklore while focusing on magical myths. Each month is summarized in a two-page format 
with information that includes the phases of the moon, festivals and rites for the month, as well as 
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field. State year $6.95 

To order, call 1-800-THE MOON 

Prices subject to change without notice 


A protege of the late Dr. 
Gerald Gardner, in the early 
1960s Bay Buckland intro- 
duced Gardnerian Wicca to 
the United States. He spent 
many years, publicly defend- 
I ingthe Old Religion and prob- 
ably did more than anyone 
else at that ti me to straighten 
popular misconceptions. In 
1973, after more than ten 
years as a Gardnerian, he 
introduced his own denomin- 
ation of the Craft— Seax- 
Wics (Saxon Witchcraft) — 
which has since grown to 
worldwide practice. Ray 
Buckland is a British-born 
author of numerous best selling books on Practical Magick, such as 
Practical Color Magick and Practical Candlebuming Rituals He is 
regarded as one of the leading authorities on Witchcraft, voodoo and 
the supernatural. Today Ray Buckland has retired from public work to 
concentrate on his screenwriting career and to more fully explore his 
Gypsy heritage. 

With the discovery that neo-Witchcraft- or Wkca- - is not 
devil-worship, thousands of religious seekers around the world 
have finally come to realize that this earth religion may well be 
the answer to their needs. Yet it has been almost impossible to 
gather together all the ingredients that go to make up this 
religious practice; particularly in addressing specific personal 

Now along comes Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft; one 
volume that brings it all together. In it Ray Buckland teaches the 
history, practice, composition, formulae, the mechanics of 
magick, herbology, divination .'. .in short, each and every 
aspect of the practice of Wicca. And he doesn'tjust present one 
tradition. He takes a nonsectarian approach, and he also shows 
how you can structure the religion to suit your particular 
needs. He instructs on the composition of rituals, the establish- 
ing of a coven (group), the putting together of a system to suit 
you personally. He also addresses Solitaries— those who would 
rather work alone — and encourages and instructs them in the 
practice of the Old Religion. 

This is a workbook. It is presented in the form of lessons, 
each culminating in participatory exercises that are fun and 
informative; ideal for self-study or for a group. It is the perfect 
book for the serious student, the newly-forming coven, the 
Solitary Witch or simply the curious. Such a book is long 

"I read Buikland's Complete Book of Witchcraft with 
much pleasure; so many books on this subject are casual 
or Irivializc the whole subject. . . 

. ; . This book contains enough information and know- 
how for all approaches; the historical, the philosophical 
and the pragmatic. . . (It) reaches the subject from all 
sides, including how (and why) to get into it, from the 
beginning to the advanced student . . . it's probably going 
to (and should) displace most of the previous books I've 
seen on the subject . . . quite entertaining, as much for 
the armchair enthusiast as for the practicing occultist." 

— Marion Zimmcr Bradley 
The Mists of Avalon 

"In Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft Ray Buck- 
land gives an integrated view of essential Witchcraft, 
synthesized by his very extensive knowledge and illumi- 
nated by the genial breadth of his own wisdom. Thus we 
have here not only an ample course on 'how to be a 
Witch' but also incidentally a sane and joyful exposition 
of 'life and how to live it'. For Witchcraft, with its sense of 
unblemished selfhood and its perception of the united 
fabric of all existence, has vital truths to share with many 
who hold to more sophisticated systems." 

— Mclita Denning and Osborne Phillips 

The Llewellyn Practical Guide Series 

Magical States of Consciousness 

The Magical Philosophy Series 

'Tew books have been so long needed, and anticipated, 
as this one: the first totally comprehensive, eclectic, and 
sensible guide to the Art and the Practice of Modern Wicca?: 

I say Wicca' rather than Witchcraft', because it includes 
not only the Craft of the Wise but gives the reader firm 
foundations for understanding and living the religious 
and spiritual dimensions that are the essence of this born 
again Old Religion for the Modern World." 

— Carl Llewellyn Weschcke 

"A master-work by one of the great Elders of the 
Craft. Raymond Buckland has presented a rich treasure- 
trove of Wiccan lore. It is a legacy that will provide magic, 
beauty, and wisdom to future generations of those who 
seek the ancient paths of the Old Religion." 

—Ed Fitch 
Magical Rites from the Crystal Well 

5 1 49 5> 

780875 M 420509 

$14.95 US 
$22.50 CAN 
Llewellyn Publications 
St. Paul, MN 55164-0383